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to ask your forgiveness ere I died, both for the my prayers for them. And I beseech God of his wrong done you, and for my particular ill intent mercy, to save and preserve the queen, who hath towards you: I beseech you forgive me.

given comfort to my soul, in that I hear she hath Sir Walter Raleigh answered, That he most will forgiven me all, but the sentence of the law, which ingly forgave him, and besought God to forgive him, I most worthily deserved, and do most willingly emand to give him his divine comfort: protesting be-brace; and hope that God will have mercy and fore the Lord, That whatsoever Sir Christopher compassion on me, who have offended him as many Blunt meant towards him, for his part he never ways as ever sinful wretch did. I have led a life had any ill intent towards him : and farther said to so far from his precepts, as no sinner more. God Sir Christopher Blunt, “ I pray you without offence forgive it me, and forgive me my wicked thoughts, let me put you in mind that you have been esteemed, my licentious life, and this right arm of mine, which, not only a principal provoker and persuader of the I fear me, hath drawn blood in this last action. earl of Essex in all his undutiful courses, but espe- And I beseech you all bear witness, that I die a cially an adviser in that which hath been confessed catholic, yet so, as I hope to be saved only by the of his purpose to transport a great part of her Ma- death and passion of Christ, and by his merits, not jesty's army out of Ireland into England, to land at ascribing any thing to mine own works. And I trust Milford, and thence to turn it against her sacred you are all good people, and your prayers may profit person.

You shall do well to tell the truth, and to Farewell, my worthy lord Gray, and my lord satisfy the world.” To which he answered thus : Compton, and to you all ; God send you both to

Sir, if you will give me patience, I will deliver a live long in honour. I will desire to say a few truth, speaking now my last, in the presence of God, prayers, and embrace my death most willingly. in whose mercy I trust. (And then he directed With that he turned from the rail towards the himself to my lord Gray and my lord Compton, and executioner; and the minister offering to speak with the rest that sat on horseback near the scaffold.] him, he came again to the rail, and besought that

When I was brought from Reban to Dublin, and his conscience might not be troubled, for he was lodged in the castle, his lordship and the earl of resolved; which he desired for God's sake. Where. Southampton came to visit me : and to be short, he upon commandment was given, that the minister began thus plainly with me: That he intended to should not interrupt him any farther. After which transport a choice part of the army of Ireland into he prepared himself to the block, and so died very England, and land them in Wales, at Milford or manfully and resolutely. thereabouts; and so securing his descent thereby, would gather such other forces as might enable him

An Abstract out of the Earl of Essex's Confession to march to London. To which I protest before the

under his own hand. Lord God, I made this or the like answer: That I wonld that night consider of it; which I did.

Upon Saturday the twenty-first of February, after And the next day the earls came again : I told the late earl of Essex had desired us to come to him, them, That such an enterprise, as it was most dan as well to deliver his knowledge of those treasons, gerous, so would it cost much blood, as I could not which he had formerly denied at the bar, like of it; besides many hazards, which at this time recommend his humble and earnest request, that her I cannot remember unto you, neither will the time Majesty would be pleased, out of her grace and permit it. But I rather advised him to go over him- favour, to suffer him to die privately in the Tower; self with a good train, and make sure of the court, he did marvellous earnestly desire, that we would and then make his own conditions.

suffer him to speak unto Cuffe his secretary: against And although it be true, that, as we all protested whom he vehemently complained unto us, to have in our examinations and arraignments, we never been a principal instigator to these violent courses resolved of doing hurt to her Majesty's person, for which he had undertaken. Wherein he protested in none of our consultations was there set down any that he chiefly desired that he might make it appear such purpose; yet, I know, and must confess, if we that he was not the only persuader of those great had failed of our ends, we should, rather than have offences which they had committed ; but that Blunt, been disappointed, even have drawn blood from her- Cuffe, Temple, besides those other persons who self. From henceforward he dealt no more with were at the private conspiracy at Drury-house, to me herein, until he was discharged of his keeper at which, though these three were not called, yet they Essex-house. And then, he again asked mine ad were privy, had most malicious and bloody purposes vice, and disputed the matter with me ; but resolved to subvert the state and government; which could not. I went then into the country, and before he not have been prevented, if his project had gone sent for me, which was some ten days before his forward. rebellion, I never heard more of the matter. And This request being granted him, and Cuffe brought then he wrote unto me to come up, upon pretence before him, he there directly and vehemently of making some assurances of land, and the like. charged him ; and among other speeches used these I will leave the rest unto my confessions, giving to words : “ Henry Cuffe, call to God for mercy, and that honourable lord admiral, and worthy Mr. Se to the queen, and deserve it by declaring truth. cretary, to whom I beseech you, Sir Walter Raleigh, For I, that must now prepare for another world, commend me; I can requite their favourable and have resolved to deal clearly with God and the world: charitable 'dealing with me, with nought else but I and must needs say this to you ; You have been one

as also to


of the chiefest instigators of me to all these my dis-, die in so private a manner, lest the acclamation of loyal courses into which I have fallen.”

the people might have been a temptation unto him. Testified by THO. EGERTON, C. S.

To which he added, that all popularity and trust in man was vain : the experience whereof himself had felt.

He acknowledged with thankfulness to God, that The Earl of Essex his Confession to three Minis

he was thus justly spewed out of the realm. ters, whose names are underwritten, the 25th of also privately, aggravated the detestation of his of

He publicly in his prayer and protestation, as February, 1600.

fence; and especially in the hearing of them that The late earl of Essex thanked God most heartily, were present at the execution, he exaggerated it that he had given him a deeper insight into his with four epithets, desiring God to forgive him his offence, being sorry he had so stood upon his justi- great, his bloody, his crying, and his infectious sin: fication at his arraignment, for he was since that which word infectious he privately had explained become another man.

to us, that it was a leprosy that had infected far and He thanked God that his course was so prevented; for if his project had taken effect, God knows, said

THOMAS MONFORD, he, what harm it had wrought in the realm.

WILLIAM BARLOW, He humbly thanked her Majesty, that he should

ABDY ASHTON, his chaplain.


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It may please your good lordship, I cannot be because I know your lordship is excellently grounded ignorant, and ought to be sensible of the wrong in the true rules and habits of duties and moralities, which I sustain in common speech, as if I had been which must be they which shall decide this matter; false or unthankful to that noble, but unfortunate wherein, my lord, my defence needeth to be but earl, the earl of Essex: and for satisfying the vul- simple and brief; namely, that whatsoever I did gar sort, I do not so much regard it; though I love concerning that action and proceeding, was done in a good name, but yet as an handmaid and attend my duty and service to the queen and the state ; in ant of honesty and virtue. For I am of his opinion which I would not show myself false-hearted nor that said pleasantly, " That it was a shame to him faint-hearted, for any man's sake living. For every that was a suitor to the mistress to make love to honest man that hath his heart well planted, will the waiting-woman;" and therefore to woo or court forsake his king rather than forsake God, and forcommon fame, otherwise than it followeth on honest sake his friend rather than forsake his king; and courses, I, for my part, find not myself fit or dis- yet will forsake any earthly commodity, yea, and posed. But, on the other side, there is no worldly his own life in some cases, rather than forsake thing that concerneth myself, which I hold more his friend. I hope the world hath not forgotten dear than the good opinion of certain persons; these degrees, else the heathen saying, “ Amicus among which there is none I would more willingly usque ad aras," shall judge them. give satisfaction unto than to your lordship. First, And if any man shall say, I did officiously intrude because you loved my lord of Essex, and therefore myself into that business, because I had no ordinary will not be partial towards me, which is part of that place; the like may be said of all the business in I desire: next, because it hath ever pleased you to effect that passed the hands of the learned counsel, show yourself to me an honourable friend, and so either of states or revenues, these many years, no baseness in me to seek to satisfy you: and lastly, I wherein I was continually used. For, as your lord



ship may remember, the queen knew her strength | not long after I entered into this course, my brother so well, as she looked her word should be a war Mr. Anthony Bacon came from beyond the seas, rant; and, after the manner of the choicest princes being a gentleman whose ability the world taketh before her, did not always tie her trust to place, knowledge of for matters of state, especially foreign, but did sometime divide private favour from office. I did likewise knit his service to be at my lord's And I for my part, though I was not so unseen in disposing. And on the other side, I must and will the world, but I knew the condition was subject to ever acknowledge my lord's love, trust, and favour envy and peril; yet because I knew again she was towards me; and last of all his liberality, having constant in her favours, and made an end where infeoffed me of land which I sold for eighteen she began; and especially because she upheld me hundred pounds to Mr. Reynold Nicholas, which with extraordinary access, and other demonstrations I think, was more worth; and that at such a time, of confidence and grace, I resolved to endure it in and with so kind and noble circumstances, as the expectation of better. But my scope and desire is, manner was as much as the matter; which, though that your lordship would be pleased to have the it be but an idle digression, yet because I am honourable patience to know the truth, in some not willing to be short in commemoration of his particularity, of all that passed in this cause, where benefits, I will presume to trouble your lordship in I had any part, that you may perceive how with relating to you the manner of it. After the honest a heart I ever bare to my sovereign, and queen had denied me the solicitor's place, for to my country, and to that nobleman, who had so the which his lordship had been a long and well deserved of me, and so well accepted of my earnest suitor on my behalf, it pleased him to come deservings, whose fortune I cannot remember to me from Richmond to Twicknam Park, and brake without much grief. But for any action of mine with me, and said: “ Mr. Bacon, the queen hath towards him, there is nothing that passed me in denied me the place for you, and hath placed anmy life-time, that cometh to my remembrance with other ; I know you are the least part of your own more clearness, and less check of conscience : for it matter, but you fare ill because you have chosen will appear to your lordship, that I was not only me for your mean and dependence; you have spent not opposite to my lord of Essex, but that I did oc your time and thoughts in my matters; I die," these cupy the utmost of my wits, and adventure my for were his very words, if I do not somewhat towards tune with the queen, to have redintegrated his, and your fortune, you shall not deny to accept a piece so continued faithfully and industriously, till his last of land which I will bestow upon you.” My anfatal impatience, for so I will call it, after which day swer, I remember, was, that for my fortune it was there was not time to work for him : though the no great matter; but that his lordship's offer made same, my affection, when it could not work on the me call in mind what was wont to be said, when I subject proper, went to the next, with no ill effect was in France, of the duke of Guise, that he was the towards some others, who, I think, do rather not greatest usurer in France, because he had turned know it, than not acknowledge it. And this I will all his estate into obligations : meaning that he assure your lordship, I will leave nothing untold, had left himself nothing, but only had bound numthat is truth, for any enemy that I have, to add; and bers of persons to him. “ Now, my lord, said I, I on the other side, I must reserve much which makes would not have you imitate his course, nor turn your for me, in many respects of duty, which I esteem estate thus by great gifts into obligations, for you above my credit: and what I have here set down to will find many bad debtors.” He bade me take no your lordship, I protest, as I hope to have any part care for that, and pressed it: whereupon I said, in God's favour, is true.

My lord, I see I must be your homager, and hold It is well known, how I did many years since dedi land of your gift; but do you know the manner of cate my travels and studies to the use, and as I may doing homage in law ? Always it is with a saving term it, service of my lord of Essex, which, I pro of his faith to the king and his other lords ; and test before God, I did not, making election of him as therefore, my lord, said I, I can be no more yours the likeliest mean of mine own advancement, but out than I was, and it must be with the ancient savings: of the humour of a man, that ever from the time I and if I grow to be a rich man, you will give me had any use of reason, whether it were reading upon leave to give it back again to some of your unregood books, or upon the example of a good father, warded followers." or by nature, I loved my country more than was But to return : sure I am, though I can arrogate answerable to my fortune; and I held at that time nothing to myself but that I was a faithful rememmy lord to be the fittest instrument to do good to brancer to his lordship, that while I had most credit the state, and therefore I applied myself to him in with him his fortune went on best : and yet in two a manner which I think happeneth rarely among main points we always directly and contradictorily men: for I did not only labour carefully and indus differed, which I will mention to your lordship, betriously in that he set me about, whether it were cause it giveth light to all that followed. The one matter of advice or otherwise, but, neglecting the was, I ever set this down, that the only course to be queen's service, mine own fortune, and in a sort my held with the queen, was by obsequiousness and vocation, I did nothing but advise and ruminate with observance : and I remember I would usually enmyself, to the best of my understanding, propositions gage confidently, that if he would take that course and memorials of any thing that might concern his constantly, and with choice of good particulars to lordship’s honour, fortune, or service. And when, I express it, the queen would be brought in time to

Ahasuerus's question, to ask, “What should be done a half before his lordship's going into Ireland, as in to the man that the king would honour ?" Meaning former time: yet, nevertheless, touching his going that her goodness was without limit, where there into Ireland, it pleased him expressly, and in a set was a true concurrence : which I knew in her na manner, to desire mine opinion and counsel. At ture to be true. My lord, on the other side, had a which time I did not only dissuade, but protest settled opinion, that the queen could be brought to against his going ; telling him with as much vehenothing but by a kind of necessity and authority ; mency and asseveration as I could, that absence in and I well remember, when by violent courses at that kind would exulcerate the queen's mind, whereby any time he had got his will, he would ask me, it would not be possible for him to carry himself so " Now, Sir, whose principles be true ?" And I as to give her sufficient contentment; nor for her to would again say to him; “ My lord, these courses carry herself so as to give him sufficient countebe like to hot waters, they will help at a pang; but nance : which would be ill for her, ill for him, and if you use them you shall spoil the stomach, and ill for the state. And because I would omit no aryou shall be fain still to make them stronger and gument, I remember I stood also upon the difficulty stronger, and yet in the end they will lessen their of the action ; setting before him out of histories, operation ;" with much other variety, wherewith Ithat the Irish was such an enemy as the ancient used to touch that string. Another point was, that Gauls, or Britons, or Germans were ; and that we I always vehemently dissuaded him from seeking saw how the Romans, who had such discipline to greatness by a military dependence, or by a popular govern their soldiers, and such donatives to encoudependence, as that which would breed in the queen rage them, and the whole world in a manner to levy jealousy, in himself presumption, and in the state them: yet when they came to deal with enemies, perturbation : and I did usually compare them to which placed their felicity only in liberty, and the Icarus's two wings, which were joined on with wax, sharpness of their sword, and had the natural eleand would make him venture to soar too high, and mental advantages of woods, and bogs, and hardness then fail him at the height. And I would farther of bodies, they ever found they had their hands full say unto him; “ My lord, stand upon iwo feet, and of them; and therefore concluded, that going over fly not upon two wings: the two feet are the two with such expectation as he did, and through the kinds of justice, commutative, and distributive: use churlishness of the enterprise not like to answer it, your greatness for advancing of merit and virtue, would mightily diminish his reputation: and many and relieving wrongs and burthens; you shall need other reasons I used, so as I am sure I never in any no other art or finesse :" but he would tell me, that thing in my life-time dealt with him in like earnestopinion came not from my mind, but from my robe. ness by speech, by writing, and by all the means I But it is very true, that I, that never meant to could devise. For I did as plainly see his overinthral myself to my lord of Essex, nor any other throw chained, as it were by destiny, to that journey, man, more than stood with the public good, did, as it is possible for any man to ground a judgment though I could little prevail, divert him by all upon future contingents. But my lord, howsoever means possible from courses of the wars and popu- his ear was open, yet his heart and resolution was larity: for I saw plainly the queen must either live shut against that advice, whereby his ruin might or die; if she lived, then the times would be as in have been prevented. After my lord's going, I saw the declination of an old prince; if she died, the then how true a prophet I was, in regard of the times would be as in the beginning of a new; and evident alteration which naturally succeeded in the that if his lordship did rise too fast in these courses, queen's mind; and thereupon I was still in watch the times might be dangerous for him, and he for to find the best occasion that in the weakness of my them. Nay, I remember, I was thus plain with power I could either take or minister, to pull him him upon his voyage to the islands, when I saw out of the fire, if it had been possible: and not long every spring put forth such actions of charge and after, methought I saw some overture thereof, which provocation, that I said to him, " My lord, when I I apprehended readily ; a particularity which I came first unto you, I took you for a physician that think to be known to very few, and the which I do desired to cure the diseases of the state ; but now I the rather relate unto your lordship, because I hear doubt you will be like those physicians which can it should be talked, that while my lord was in Irebe content to keep their patients low, because they land I revealed some matters against him, or I canwould always be in request.” Which plainness he not tell what; which if it were not a mere slander, nevertheless took very well, as he had an excellent as the rest is, but had any, though never so little, ear, and was patientissimus veri, and assured me the colour, was surely upon this occasion. case of the realm required it: and I think this one day at Nonesuch, a little, as I remember, before speech of mine, and the like renewed afterwards, Cuffe's coming over, where I attended her, showed pricked him to write that Apology which is in a passionate distaste of my lord's proceedings in many men's hands.

Ireland, as if they were unfortunate, without judgBut this difference in two points so main and ma ment, contemptuous, and not without some private terial, bred in process of time a discontinuance of end of his own, and all that might be ; and was privateness, as it is the manner of men seldom to pleased, as she spake of it to many that she trusted communicate where they think their courses not least, so to fall into the like speech with me. approved, between his lordship and myself ; so as Whereupon I, who was still awake, and true to my I was not called nor advised with for some year and grounds which I thought surest for my lord's good,

The queen

said to this effect : “ Madam, I know not the queri.” But I must give this testimony to my lord particulars of estate, and I know this, that princes' Cecil, that one time in his house at the Savoy he actions must have no abrupt periods or conclu- dealt with me directly, and said to me, “ Cousin, sions ; but otherwise I would think, that if you I hear it, but I believe it not, that you should do had my lord of Essex here with a white staff in some ill office to my lord of Essex; for my part his hand, as my lord of Leicester had, and con I am merely passive, and not active in this actinued him still about you for society to yourself, tion : and I follow the queen, and that heavily, and and for an honour and ornament to your attendance I lead her not; my lord of Essex is one that in and court in the eyes of your people, and in the nature I could consent with as well as with any one eyes of foreign ambassadors, then were he in his living; the queen indeed is my sovereign, and I am right element ; for to discontent him as you do, her creature, I may not lose her, and the same and yet to put arms and power into his hands, may course I would wish you to take.” Whereupon ! be a kind of temptation to make him prove cum satisfied him how far I was from any such mind. bersome and unruly. And therefore if you would | And as sometimes it cometh to pass, that men's imponere bonam clausulam, and send for him and inclinations are opened more in a toy, than in a satisfy him with honour here near you, if your serious matter: a little before that time, being about affairs, which, as I have said, I am not acquainted the middle of Michaelmas term, her Majesty had a with, will permit it, I think were the best way." purpose to dine at my lodge at Twicknam Park, at Which course your lordship knoweth, if it had which time I had, though I profess not to be a been taken, then all had been well, and no con- poet, prepared a sonnet directly tending and alluding tempt in my lord's coming over, nor continuance of to draw on her Majesty's reconcilement to my lord; these jealousies, which that employment of Ireland which, I remember, also I showed to a great person, bred, and my lord here in his former greatness. and one of my lord's nearest friends, who commended Well, the next news that I heard was, that my lord | it. This, though it be as I said but a toy, yet it was come over, and that he was committed to his showed plainly in what spirit I proceeded; and that chamber for leaving Ireland without the queen's I was ready not only to do my lord good offices, but licence; this was at Nonesuch, where, as my duty to publish and declare myself for him : and never was, I came to his lordship, and talked with him was I so ambitious of any thing in my life-time, as privately about a quarter of an hour, and he asked I was to have carried some token or favour from her mine opinion of the course that was taken with him: Majesty to my lord; using all the art I had, both to I told him, “My lord, “Nubecula est, cito transibit;' procure her Majesty to send, and myself to be the it is but a mist. But shall I tell your lordship, it is messenger. For as to the former, I feared not to as mists are: if it go upwards, it may perhaps cause allege to her, that this proceeding toward my lord a shower: if downwards, it will clear up. And was a thing towards the people very unplausible ; therefore, good my lord, carry it so as you take and therefore wished her Majesty, however she did, away by all means all umbrages and distastes from yet to discharge herself of it, and lay it upon others; the queen;

nd especially if I were worthy to advise and therefore that she would intermix her proceedyou, as I have been by yourself thought, and now ing with some immediate graces from herself, that your question imports the continuance of that the world might take knowledge of her princely opinion, observe three points: first, make not this nature and goodness, lest it should alienate the cessation or peace, which is concluded with Tyrone, hearts of her people from her: which I did stand as a service wherein you glory, but as a shuffling upon; knowing well that if she once relented to up of a prosecution which was not very fortunate. send or visit, those demonstrations would prove Next, represent not to the queen any necessity of matter of substance for my lord's good. And to estate, whereby, as by a coercion or wrench, she draw that employment upon myself, I advised her should think herself enforced to send you back into Majesty, that whensoever God should move her to Ireland, but leave it to her. Thirdly, seek access turn the light of her favours towards my lord, to importune, opportune, seriously, sportingly, every make signification to him thereof; that her Majesty, way." I remember my lord was willing to hear if she did it not in person, would at the least use me, but spake very few words, and shaked his head some such mean as might not entitle themselves to sometimes, as if he thought I was in the wrong; any part of the thanks, as persons that were thought but, sure I am, he did just contrary in every one of mighty with her to work her, or to bring her about ; these three points. After this, during the while but to use some such as could not be thought but a since my lord was committed to my lord keeper's, mere conduit of her own goodness. But I could I came divers times to the queen, as I had used to never prevail with her, though I am persuaded she do, about causes of her revenue and law business, as saw plainly whereat I levelled; and she plainly had is well known; by reason of which accesses, accord me in jealousy, that I was not hers entirely, but still ing to the ordinary charities of court, it was given had inward and deep respects towards my lord, out, that I was one of them that incensed the queen more than stood at that time with her will and against my lord of Essex. These speeches I cannot pleasure. About the same time I remember an tell, nor I will not think, that they grew any way answer of mine in a matter which had some affinity from her Majesty's own speeches, whose memory I with my lord's cause, which though it grew from will ever honour; if they did, she is with God, and me, went after about in others' names. "Miserum est ab illis lædi, de quibus non possis Majesty being mightily incensed with that book

For her

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