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that we sing certain hymns unto her, used to be sung and that they who have long ago forsaken the truth unto our Lady.
of God, which is the touchstone, must now hold by It happened that, upon some bloodshed in the the whetstone ; and that their ancient pillar of lying church of Paul's, according to the canon law, yet wonders being decayed, they must now hold by with us in force, the said church was interdicted, and lying slanders, and make their libels successors to so the gates shut up for some few days; whereupon their legend. they published, that, because the same church is a place where people use to meet to walk and confer,
The first copy of my discourse touching the safety the queen's Majesty, after the manner of the ancient
of the Queen's person.* tyrants, had forbidden all assemblies and meetings These be the principal remedies I could think of, of people together, and for that reason, upon extreme for extirpating the principal cause of those conspijealousy, did cause Paul's gates to be shut up. racies, by the breaking the nest of those fugitive
The gate of London called Ludgate, being in de traitors, and the filling them full of terror, despair, cay, was pulled down, and built anew; and on the jealousy, and revolt. And it is true, I thought of one side was set up the image of king Lud and his some other remedies, which, because in mine own two sons; who, according to the name, was thought conceit I did not so well allow, I therefore do forbear to be the first founder of that gate; and on the other to express. And so likewise I have thought, and side, the image of her Majesty, in whose time it was thought again, of the means to stop and divert as re-edified; whereupon they published that her Ma well the attempts of violence, as poison, in the perjesty, after all the images of the saints were long formance and execution. But not knowing how my beaten down, had now at last set up her own image travail may be accepted, being the unwarranted wishes upon the principal gate of London, to be adored, and of a private man, I leave : humbly praying her Mathat all men were forced to do reverence to it as jesty's pardon, if in the zeal of my simplicity I have they passed by, and a watch there placed for that roved at things above my aim. purpose. Mr. Jewel, the bishop of Salisbury, who according
The first fragments of a discourse, touching intellito his life died most godly and patiently, at the point
gence, and the safety of the Queen's person. + of death used the versicle of the hymn “Te Deum," The first remedy, in my poor opinion, is that “O Lord, in thee have I trusted, let me never be con against which, as I conceive, least exception can be founded ;” whereupon, suppressing the rest, they taken, as a thing, without controversy, honourable published, that the principal champion of the here- and politic; and that is reputation of good intellitics in his very last words cried he was con gence. I say not only good intelligence, but the founded.
reputation and fame thereof. For I see, that where In the act of recognition of primo, whereby the booths are set for watching thievish places, there is right of the crown is acknowledged by parliament no more robbing: and though no doubt the watchto be in her Majesty, the like whereof was used in men many times are asleep, or away; yet that is queen Mary's time, the words of limitation are, " in more than the thief knoweth ; so as the empty booth the queen's majesty, and the natural heirs of her is strength and safeguard enough. So likewise, if body, and her lawful successors." Upon which there be sown an opinion abroad, that her Majesty word, natural, they do maliciously, and indeed vil- hath much secret intelligence, and that all is full of lanously gloss, that it was the intention of the par-spies and false brethren; the fugitives will grow liament, in a cloud to convey the crown to any issue into such a mutual jealousy and suspicion one of of her Majesty's that were illegitimate ; whereas the another, as they will not have the confidence to conword heir doth with us so necessarily and pregnantly spire together, not knowing whom to trust; and import lawfulness, as it had been indecorum, and thinking all practice bootless, as that which is asuncivil speaking of the issues of a prince, to have sured to be discovered. And to this purpose, to expressed it.
speak reverently, as becometh me, as I do not doubt They set forth in the year a book with tables but those honourable counsellors, to whom it doth and pictures of the persecutions against catholics, appertain, do carefully and sufficiently provide and wherein they have not only stories of fifty years old take order that her Majesty receive good intellito supply their pages, but also taken all the perse- gence; so yet, under correction, methinks it is not cutions of the primitive church, under the heathen, done with that glory and note to the world, which and translated them to the practice of England; as was in Mr. Secretary Walsingham's 1 time : and in that of worrying priests under the skins of bears, this case, as was said, “ opinio veritate major." by dogs, and the like.
The second remedy I deliver with less assurance, I conclude then, that I know not what to make as that which is more removed from the compass of of this excess in avouching untruths, save this, that mine understanding: and that is, to treat and negothey may truly chant in their quires ; “ Linguam tiate with the king of Spain, or archduke Ernest,ş nostram magnificabimus, labia nostra nobis sunt :” who resides in the place where these conspiracies are * From the original in the Lambeth Library.
sworn of the privy-counsel; but not actually appointed secre† From the original in the Lambeth Library.
tary of state till July 5, 1596. Birch. Who died April 6, 1590. After his death the business of Ś Ernest, archduke of Austria, son of the emperor Maxisecretary of state appears to be chiefly done by Mr. Robert milian II. and governor of the Low Countries, upon which Cecil, who was knighted by Queen Elizabeth at Theobald's, government he entered in June, 1591; but held it only a short about the beginning of June, 1591, and in August following time, dying February H following. It was probably in pur
most forged, upon the point of the law of nations, subjects, if it be not thought meet to impeach any upon which kind of points princes' enemies may of his ministers, refuged in his dominions, have with honour negotiate, viz. that, contrary to the conspired and practised assassination against her same law of nations, and the sacred dignity of kings, Majesty's person. and the honour of arms, certain of her Majesty's
A TRUE REPORT
THE DETEST ABLE TREASON,
DOCTOR RODERIGO LOPEZ,
A PHYSICIAN ATTENDING UPON THE PERSON OF THE QUEEN'S MAJESTY,
WHOM HE, FOR A SUM OF MONEY, PROMISED TO BE PAID HIM BY THE KING OF SPAIN, DID UNDERTAKE TO HAVE DESTROYED BY
POISON; WITH CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES BOTH OF THE PLOTTING AND DETECTING OF THE SAID TRBA SON.
(PENNED DURING THE QUEEN'S LIFE..]
The king of Spain having found by the enter- | And lastly, rather, as it is to be thought, by the prise of 88, the difficulty of an invasion of England; | instigation of our traitorous fugitives in foreign parts, and having also since that time embraced the mat and the corrupter sort of his counsellors and ministers of France, being a design of a more easy nature, ters, than of his own nature and inclination, either and better prepared to his hand, hath of necessity of himself, or his said counsellors and ministers using for a time laid aside the prosecution of his attempts his name, have descended to a course against all against this realm, by open forces, as knowing his honour, all society and humanity, odious to God means unable to wield both actions at once, as well and man, detested by the heathens themselves, that of England as that of France ; and therefore, which is, to take away the life of her Majesty, casting at the fairest, hath, in a manner, bent his (which God have in his precious custody !) by viowhole strength upon France, making in the mean lence or poison. A matter which might be proved time only a defensive war upon the Low Countries. to be not only against all christianity and religion, But finding again, that the supports and aids which but against nature, the law of nations, the honour her Majesty hath continued to the French king, are of arms, the civil law, the rules of morality and a principal impediment and retardation to his prevail. policy; finally, to be the most condemned, barbaring there according to his ends, he hath, now of ous, and ferine act that can be imagined ; yea, suplate, by all means, projected to trouble the waters posing the quarrels and hostility between the princes here, and to cut us out some work at home; that to be never so declared and so mortal, yet were it by practice, without diverting and employing any not that it would be a very reproach unto the age, great forces, he might nevertheless divert our suc that the matter should be once disputed or called cours from France.
in question, it could never be defended. And thereAccording to which purpose, he first proved to fore I leave it to the censure which Titus Livius move some innovation in Scotland, not so much in giveth in the like case upon Perseus, the last king hope to alienate the king from the amity of her of the Macedons, afterwards overthrown, taken with Majesty, as practising to make a party there against his children, and led in triumph by the Romans ; the king himself, whereby he should be compelled “ Quem non justum bellum gerere regio animo, sed to use her Majesty's forces for his assistance. Then per omnia clandestina grassari scelera, latrociniorum he solicited a subject within this realm, being a ac vencficiorum, cernebant." person of great nobility, to rise in arms and levy But to proceed: certain it is, that even about this war against her Majesty; which practice was by present time there have been suborned and sent into the same nobleman loyally and prudently revealed. this realm divers persons, some English, some suance of the advice of Mr. Francis Bacon in this paper, that 1592, and by the English fugitives there; and to desire him queen Elizabeth sent to the archduke in 1591, tu complain of to signify those facts to the king of Spain, in order that he the designs which had been formed against her life by the might vindicate his own character, by punishing his ministers, Count de Fuentes, and Don Diego de Ibarra, and other and delivering up to her such fugitives as were parties in such Spanish ministers concerned in governing the Low Countries designs.-Camdeni Annales Eliz. Reginæ, p. 625. Edit. after the death of Alexander duke of Parma in December, | Lugduni Bat. 1025. Birch.
Irish, corrupted by money and promises, and resolved | evasion and mask that Lopez had prepared for this and conjured by priests in confession, to have exe treason, if it had not been searched and sifted to the cuted that most wretched and horrible fact; of bottom, it was, that he did intend but to cozen the which number certain have been taken, and some king of Spain, without ill meaning ; somewhat in have suffered, and some are spared because they the nature of that stratagem which Parry, a most have with great sorrow confessed these attempts, cunning and artificial traitor, had provided for and detested their suborners. And if I should con himself. jecture what the reason is why this cursed enter Nevertheless this matter, by the great goodness prise was at this time so hotly and with such dili- of God falling into good hands, of those honourable gence pursued, I take it to be chiefly because the and sufficient persons which dealt therein, was by matters of France were ripe, and the king of Spain their great and worthy industry so handled and folmade himself ready to unmask himself, and to reap lowed, as this Proteus of a disguised and transthat in France, which he had been long in sowing, formed treason did at last appear in his own likein regard that, there being like to be a divulsion in ne
ness and colours, which were as foul and monstrous the league by the reconciliation of some of the heads as have been known in the world. For some of her to the king, the more passionate sort, being desti- | Majesty's council long since entered into considertuted by their associates, were like to cast them ation, that the retinue of king Antonio, I mean some selves wholly into the king of Spain's arms, and to of them, were not unlike to hatch these kinds of dismember some important piece of that crown; treasons, in regard they were needy strangers, though now upon this fresh accident of receiving entered into despair of their master's fortune, and the king into Paris, it is to be thought that both like enough to aspire to make their peace at home, the worst affected of the league will submit them by some such wicked services as these; and thereselves upon any tolerable conditions to their natural fore grew to have an extraordinary vigilant eye king, thus advanced in strength and reputation; and upon them: which prudent and discreet presumpthe king of Spain will take a second advice ere he tion, or conjecture, joined with some advertisements embark himself too far in any new attempt against of espials abroad, and some other industry, was the France. But taking the affairs as they then stood first cause, next under the great benediction of God, before this accident unexpected, especially of the which giveth unto princes zealous counsellors, and council of Spain, during this his supposed harvest giveth to counsellors policy, and discerning thoughts in France, his council had reason to wish that there of the revealing and discovering of these treasons, were no disturbance from hence, where they make which were contrived in order and form, as hereafter account that if her Majesty were removed, upon is set down. whose person God continue his extraordinary watch This Lopez, of nation a Portuguese, and suspected and providence! here would be nothing but confu- to be in sect secretly a Jew, though here he sion, which they do not doubt but with some no conformed himself to the rites of the christian religreat treasure, and forces from without, may be gion, for a long time professed physic in this land, nourished till they can more fully intend the ruin of by occasion whereof, being withal a
man very this state, according to their ancient malice. observant and officious, and of a pleasing and appli
But howsoever that be, amongst the number of able behaviour ; in that regard, rather than for any these execrable undertakers, there was none so much great learning in his faculty, he grew known and built and relied upon by the great ones of the other favoured in court, and was some years since sworn side, as was this physician Lopez; nor, indeed, none physician of her Majesty's household ; and by her so dangerous : whether you consider the aptness of Majesty's bounty, of whom he had received divers the instrument, or the subtlety and secrecy of those gifts of good commodity, was grown to good estate that practised with him, or the shift and evasion of wealth. which he had provided for a colour of his doings, if This man had insinuated himself greatly, in they should happen to come into question. For regard he was of the same nation with the king first, whereas others were to find and encounter Antonio, whose causes he pretended to solicit at the infinite difficulties, in the very obtaining of an op court: especially while he supposed there was any portunity to execute this horrible act; and, besides, appearance of his fortune; of whom also he had cannot but see present and most assured death obtained, as one that referred all his doings to gain, before their eyes, and therefore must be, as it were, an assignation of 50,000 crowns to be levied in Pordamnable votaries if they undertake it: this man, in tugal. But being a person wholly of a corrupt and regard of his faculty, and of his private access to her mercenary nature, and finding his hopes cold from Majesty, had both means to perpetrate, and means to that part: he cast his eyes upon a more able payconceal, whereby he might reap the fruit of his wicked master, and secretly made offer long since of his treason without evident peril. And for his com service to the king of Spain : and accordingly gave plices that practised with him, being Portuguese, and sundry intelligences of that which passed here, and of the retinue of king Antonio, the king of Spain's imported most for the king of Spain to know, having mortal enemy, they were men thereby freed and dis no small means, in regard of his continual attendcharged from suspicion, and might send letters and ance at court, nearness, and access, to learn many receive letters out of Spain without jealousy; as particulars of great weight: which intelligences he those which were thought to entertain intelligences maintained with Bernardine Mendoza, Antonio Vega, there for the good of their master. And for the Roderigo Marquez, and divers others.
In the conveyance of which his intelligences and vertise and assure this matter to the king of Spain in the making known of his disposition to do the and his ministers, namely, to the count de Fuentes, king of Spain service, he had, amongst others, one assistant to the general of the king of Spain's forces Manuel Andrada a Portuguese, revolted from Don in the Low Countries, as also to capitulate and conAntonio to the king of Spain; one that was dis- tract with him about the certainty of his reward. covered to have practised the death of the said Don Andrada having received those instructions, and Antonio, and to have betrayed him to Bernardine being furnished with money, by Lopez's procurement, Mendoza. This man, coming hither, was, for the from Don Antonio, about whose service his employsame his practice, appearing by letters intercepted, ment was believed to be, went over to Calais, where apprehended and committed to prison. Before he remained to be near unto England and Flanders, which time also, there had been by good diligence having a boy that ordinarily passed to and fro beintercepted other letters, whereby the said Andrada tween him and Lopez: by whom he did also, the advertised Mendoza, that he had won Dr. Lopez to better to colour his employment, write to Lopez inthe king's service : but Lopez having understanding telligence, as it was agreed he should between him thereof, and finding means to have secret conference and Lopez; who bad him send such news as he with Andrada before his examination, persuaded should take up in the streets. From Calais he with him to take the matter upon himself, as if he writeth to count de Fuentes of Lopez's promise had invented that advertisement touching Lopez, and demands. Upon the receipt of which letters, only to procure himself credit with Mendoza ; and after some time taken to advertise this proposition to make him conceive well of his industry and ser into Spain, and to receive direction thereupon, the vice. And to move him hereunto, Lopez set before count de Fuentes associated with Stephano Ibarra, Andrada, that if he did excuse him, he should have secretary of the council of the wars in the Low credit to work his delivery: whereas, if he did im- Countries, calleth to him one Manuel Louis Tinoco, peach him, he was not like to find any other means a Portuguese, who had also followed king Antonio, of favour. By which subtle persuasion Andrada, and of whose good devotion he had had experience, when he came to be examined, answered according in that he had conveyed unto him two several to the direction and lessoning which Lopez had given packets, wherewith he was trusted by the king Anhim. And having thus acquitted himself of this tonio for France. Of this Louis they first received suspicion, became suitor for Andrada's delivery, a corporal oath, with solemn ceremony, taking his craftily suggesting, that he was to do some notable hands between their hands, that he should keep service to Don Antonio; in which his suit he ac secret that which should be imparted to him, and cordingly prevailed. When Lopez had thus got never reveal the same, though he should be appreAndrada out of prison, he was suffered to go out of hended and questioned here. This done, they acthe realm into Spain; in pretence, as was said, to quaint him with the letters of Andrada, with whom do some service to Don Antonio; but in truth, to they charge him to confer at Calais in his way, and continue Lopez's negotiation and intelligences with to pass to Lopez into England, addressing him farthe king of Spain; which he handled so well, as at ther to Stephano Ferrera de Gama, and signifying his return hither, for the comforting of the said unto the said Lopez withal, as from the king, that Lopez, he brought to him from the king, besides he gave no great credence to Andrada, as a person thanks and words of encouragement, and an Abrazo, too slight to be used in a cause of so great weight: which is the complement of favour, a very good and therefore marvelled much that he heard nothing jewel garnished with sundry stones of good value. from Ferrera of this matter, from whom he had in This jewel, when Lopez had excepted, he cunningly former time been advertised in generality of Lopez's cast with himself, that if he should offer it to her good affection to do him service. This Ferrera had Majesty first, he was assured she would not take it : been sometimes a man of great livelihood and wealth next, that thereby he should lay her asleep, and in Portugal, which he did forego in adhering to make her secure of him for greater matter, accord- Don Antonio, and appeareth to be a man of capacity ing to the saying, “Fraus sibi fidem in parvis and practice ; but hath some years since been sepræstruit ut in magnis opprimat;" which accord-cretly won to the service of the king of Spain, not ingly he did, with protestations of his fidelity : and travelling nevertheless to and fro, but residing as her Majesty, as a princess of magnanimity, not apt his lieger in England. to fear or suspicion, returned it to him with gra Manuel Louis despatched with these instructions, cious words.
and with all affectionate commendations from the After Lopez had thus abused her Majesty, and count to Lopez, and with letters to Ferrera, took had these trials of the fidelity of Andrada, they fell his journey first to Calais, where he conferred with in conference, the matter being first moved by An Andrada ; of whom receiving more ample informdrada, as he that came freshly out of Spain, touching ation, together with a short ticket of credence to the empoisoning of the queen : which Lopez, who Lopez, that he was a person whom he might trust saw that matter of intelligence, without some such without scruple, came over into England, and first particular service, would draw no great reward from repaired to Ferrera, and acquainted him with the the king of Spain; such as a man that was not state of the business, who had before that time given needy, but wealthy as he was, could find any taste some light unto Lopez, that he was not a stranger in, assented unto. And to that purpose procured unto the practice between him and Andrada, whereagain this Andrada to be sent over, as well to ad- I with, indeed, Andrada had in a sort acquainted him.
And now upon this new despatch and knowledge wise, of her own natural disposition bent to integiven to Lopez of the choice of Ferrera to continue grity and sincerity, uttered dislike and disallowance. that which Andrada had begun; he, to conform Next, he thought he had wrought a great mystery himself the better to the satisfaction of the king of in demanding the precise sum of 50,000 crowns, Spain, and his ministers abroad, was content more agreeing just with the sum of assignation or donation fully to communicate with Ferrera, with whom, from from Don Antonio; idly, and in that grossly imaginthat time forward, he meant singly and apertly to ing, that, if afterwards he should accept the same deal; and therefore cunningly forbore to speak with sum, he might excuse it, as made good by the king Manuel Louis himself; but concluded that Ferrera of Spain, in regard he desisted to follow and favour should be his only trunk, and all his dealings should Don Antonio; whereupon the king of Spain was in pass through his hands, thinking thereby to have honour tied not to see him a loser. Thirdly, in his gone invisible.
conferences with Ferrera, when he was apposed upon Whereupon he cast with himself, that it was not the particular manner how he would poison her safe to use the mediation of Manuel Louis, who had Majesty, he purposely named unto him a syrup, been made privy to the matter, as some base carrier knowing that her Majesty never useth syrup; and of letters; which letters also should be written in a therefore thinking that would prove a high point for cipher, not of alphabet, but of words ; such as might, his justification, if things should come in any question. if they were opened, import no vehement suspicion. But all this while desirous after his prey, which And therefore Manuel Louis was sent back with a he had in hope devoured, he did instantly importune short answer, and Lopez purveyed himself of a base Ferrera for the answering of his last despatch, findfellow, a Portuguese called Gomez d'Avila, dwelling ing the delay strange, and reiterating the protestahard by Lopez's house, to convey his letters. After tions of his readiness to do the service, if he were this messenger provided, it was agreed between assured of his money. Lopez and Ferrera, that letters should be sent to the Now before the return of Gomez d'Avila into count de Fuentes, and secretary Juarra, written and England, this Stephen Ferrera was discovered to signed by Ferrera, for Lopez cautelously did forbear have intelligence with the enemy; but so, as the to write himself, but directed, and indeed dictated particular of his traffic and overtures appeared not, word by word by Lopez himself. The contents only it seemed there was great account made of that thereof were, that Lopez was ready to execute that he managed; and thereupon he was committed to service to the king, which before had been treated, prison. Soon after arrived Gomez d'Avila, and but required for his recompence the sum of 50,000 brought letters only from Manuel Louis, by the name crowns, and assurance for the same.
of Francisco de Thores; because, as it seemeth, the These letters were written obscurely, as was great persons on the other side had a contrary distouched, in terms of merchandise; to which obscurity position to Lopez, and liked not to write by so base when Ferrera excepted, Lopez answered they knew a messenger, but continued their course to trust and his meaning by that which had passed before. Fer- employ Manuel Louis himself, who in likelihood rera wrote also to Manuel Louis, but charged this was retained till they might receive a full conclusion Gomez to deliver the same letters unto him in the from Spain; which was not till about two months presence of Juarra; as also the letter to Juarra in after. This Gomez was apprehended at his landing, the presence of Manuel Louis. And these letters and about him were found the letters aforesaid, were delivered to Gomez d'Avila to be carried to written in jargon, or verbal cipher, but yet somewhat Brussels, and a passport procured, and his charges suspicious, in these words : “ This bearer will tell defrayed by Lopez. And Ferrera, the more to ap- you the price in which your pearls are esteemed, prove his industry, writ letters two several times, and in what resolution we rest about a little musk the one conveyed by Emanuel Pallacios, with the and amber, which I am determined to buy." Which privity of Lopez, to Christophero Moro, a principal words the said Manuel Louis afterwards voluntarily counsellor of the king of Spain, in Spain ; signifying confessed to be deciphered in this sort ; That by the that Lopez was won to the king of Spain, and that allowance of the pearls he meant, that the count de he was ready to receive his commandment; and re Fuentes, and the secretary, did gladly accept the ceived a letter from the same Christophero Moro, offer of Lopez to poison the queen, signified by Ferin answer to one of these, which he showed unto rera's letter : and for the provision of amber and Lopez. In the mean time Lopez, though a man, musk, it was meant, that the count looked shortly for in semblance, of a heavy wit, yet indeed subtle of a resolution from the king of Spain concerning a himself, as one trained in practice, and besides as matter of importance, which was for burning of the wily as fear and covetousness could make him, queen's ships; and another point tending to the thought to provide for himself, as was partly touch- satisfaction of their vindictive humour. ed before, as many starting-holes and evasions as he But while the sense of this former letter rested could devise, if any of these matters should come ambiguous, and that no direct particular was conto light. And first he took his time to cast forth fessed by Ferrera, nor sufficient light given to some general words afar off to her Majesty, as ask- ground any rigorous examination of him, cometh ing her the question, Whether a deceiver might not over Manuel Louis with the resolution from Spain; be deceived ? Whereof her Majesty, not imagining who first understanding of Ferrera’s restraint, and these words tended to such end, as to warrant him therefore doubting how far things were discovered, colourably in this wretched conspiracy, but other to shadow the matter, like a cunning companion,