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taineth that excellent correspondence which is be- | and sever that which nature hath joined, and so tween God's revealed will and his secret will: which make unlawful matches and divorces of things, Picthough it be so obscure, as for the most part it is toribus atque poëtis, etc.
It is taken in two senses, not legible to the natural man; no, nor many times in respect of words, or matter ; in the first sense, it to those that behold it from the tabernacle; yet at is but a character of style, and belongeth to arts of some times it pleaseth God, for our better establish- speech, and is not pertinent for the present: in the ment, and the confuting of those which are as with latter, it is, as hath been said, one of the principal out God in the world, to write it in such text and portions of learning, and is nothing else but feigned capital letters, that, as the prophet saith, “he that history, which may be styled as well in prose as in runneth by may read it;" that is, mere sensual persons, which hasten by God's judgments, and never The use of this feigned history hath been to give bend or fix their cogitations upon them, are never some shadow of satisfaction to the mind of man in theless in their passage and race urged to discern it. those points wherein the nature of things doth deny Such are the notable events and examples of God's it, the world being in proportion inferior to the soul; judgments, chastisements, deliverances, and bless- by reason whereof there is, agreeable to the spirit ings: and this is a work which hath passed through of man, a more ample greatness, a more exact goodthe labours of many, and therefore I cannot present ness, and a more absolute variety, than can be found as omitted.
in the nature of things. Therefore, because the acts There are also other parts of learning which are or events of true history have not that magnitude Appendices to history; for all the exterior proceed which satisfieth the mind of man, poesy feigneth ings of man consist of words and deeds; whereof acts and events greater and more heroical; because history doth properly receive and retain in memory true history propoundeth the successes and issues of the deeds; and if words, yet but as inducements actions not so agreeable to the merits of virtue and and passages to deeds : so are there other books vice, therefore poesy feigns them more just in retriand writings, which are appropriate to the custody bution, and more according to revealed providence : and receipt of words only, which likewise are of because true history representeth actions and events three sorts ; Orations, Letters, and Brief Speeches more ordinary, and less interchanged; therefore or Sayings.
poesy endueth them with more rareness, and more Orations are pleadings, speeches of counsel, lauda. unexpected and alternative variations : so as it aptives, invectives, apologies, reprehensions ; orations peareth that poesy serveth and conferreth to magof formality or ceremony, and the like.
nanimity, morality, and to delectation. And thereLetters are according to all the variety of occa- fore it was ever thought to have some participation sions, advertisements, advices, directions, proposi- of divineness, because it doth raise and erect the tions, petitions commendatory, expostulatory, satis mind, by submitting the shows of things to the factory ; of compliment, of pleasure, of discourse, desires of the mind; whereas reason doth buckle and all other passages of action. And such as are and bow the mind unto the nature of things. written from wise men, are, of all the words of man, And we see, that by these insinuations and conin my judgment the best; for they are more na- gruities with man's nature and pleasure, joined also tural than orations and public speeches, and more with the agreement and consort it hath with music, advised than conferences or present speeches. So it hath had access and estimation in rude times and again letters of affairs from such as manage them or barbarous regions, where other learning stood exare privy to them, are of all others the best instruc- cluded. tions for history, and to a diligent reader the best The division of poesy, which is aptest in the prohistories in themselves.
priety thereof, besides those divisions which are For Apophthegms, it is a great loss of that book common unto it with history, as feigned chronicles, of Cæsar's; for as his history, and those few letters feigned lives, and the appendices of history, as of his which we have, and those apophthegms feigned epistles, feigned orations, and the rest, is which were of his own, excel all men's else, so I into Poesy Narrative, Representative, and Allusive. suppose would his collection of apophthegms have The Narrative is a mere imitation of history, with done ; for as for those which are collected by others, the excesses before remembered, choosing for subeither I have no taste in such matters, or else their ject commonly wars and love ; rarely state ; and choice hath not been happy. But upon these three sometimes pleasure or mirth. kinds of writings I do not insist, because I have no Representative is as a visible history, and is an deficiencies to propound concerning them.
image of actions as if they were present, as history Thus much therefore concerning History, which is of actions in nature as they are, that is, past. is that part of learning which answereth to one of Allusive or parabolical, is a narration applied only the cells, domiciles, or offices of the mind of man, to express some special purpose or conceit; which which is that of the Memory.
latter kind of parabolical wisdom was much more in
use in the ancient times, as by the fables of Æsop, Poesy is a part of learning in measure of words and the brief sentences of the Seven, and the use of for the most part restrained, but in all other points hieroglyphics, may appear. And the cause was, for extremely licensed, and doth truly refer to the imagi- that it was then of necessity to express any point nation ; which being not tied to the laws of matter, of reason, which was more sharp or subtile than may at pleasure join that which nature hath severed, the vulgar, in that manner, because men in those
times wanted both variety of examples and subtilty, which is due, for the expression of affections, pasof conceit: and as hieroglyphics were before letters, sions, corruptions, and customs, we are beholden to so parables were before arguments. And neverthe- poets more than to the philosophers' works; and for less now, and at all times, they do retain much life wit and eloquence, not much less than to orators' and vigour, because reason cannot be so sensible harangues. But it is not good to stay too long in the nor examples so fit.
theatre. Let us now pass on to the judicial place But there remaineth yet another use of poesy or palace of the mind, which we are to approach parabolical, opposite to that which we last men and view with more reverence and attention. tioned: for that tendeth to demonstrate and illustrate that which is taught or delivered, and this The knowledge of man is as the waters, some other to retire and obscure it: that is, when the descending from above, and some springing from secrets and mysteries of religion, policy, or philoso- beneath; the one informed by the light of nature, phy, are involved in fables and parables.
the other inspired by divine revelation. Of this in divine poesy, we see the use is author The light of nature consisteth in the notions of ized. In heathen poesy, we see, the exposition of the mind, and the reports of the senses; for as for fables doth fall out sometimes with great felicity, as knowledge which man receiveth by teaching, it is in the fable that the giants being overthrown in cumulative, and not original, as in a water, that, their war against the gods, the Earth their mother, besides his own spring-head, is fed with other in revenge thereof, brought forth Fame:
springs and streams. So then, according to these "Mam Terra parens irâ irritata deorum,
two differing illuminations or originals, knowledge Extremam, ut perhibent, Cæo Enceladoque sororem is first of all divided into Divinity and Philosophy. Progenuit.”
In philosophy, the contemplations of man do either Expounded, that when princes and monarchs have penetrate unto God, or are circumferred to nature, or suppressed actual and open rebels, then the malig- are reflected or reverted upon himself. Out of nity of the people, which is the mother of rebellion, which several inquiries there do arise three knowdoth bring forth libels and slanders, and taxations ledges, Divine philosophy, Natural philosophy, and of the state, which is of the same kind with rebel- Human philosophy or humanity. For all things are lion, but more feminine. So in the fable, that the marked and stamped with this triple character, of rest of the gods having conspired to bind Jupiter, the power of God, the difference of nature, and the Pallas called Briareus with his hundred hands to use of man, But because the distributions and parhis aid: expounded, that monarchies need not fear titions of knowledge are not like several lines that any curbing of their absoluteness by mighty sub-meet in one angle, and so touch but in a point; but jects, as long as by wisdom they keep the hearts of are like branches of a tree, that meet in a stem, the people, who will be sure to come in on their which hath a dimension and quantity of entireness side. So in the fable, that Achilles was brought up and continuance, before it come to discontinue and under Chiron the centaur, who was part a man and break itself into arms and boughs; therefore it is part a beast : expounded ingeniously, but corruptly, good, before we enter into the former distribution, to by Machiavel, that it belongeth to the education erect and constitute one universal science, by the and discipline of princes, to know as well how to name of Philosophia prima, primitive or summary play the part of the lion in violence, and the fox in philosophy, as the main and common way, before guile, as of the man in virtue and justice.
we come where the ways part and divide themselves; Nevertheless in many the like encounters, I do which science, whether I should report as deficient rather think that the fable was first, and the expo or not, I stand doubtful. sition then devised, than that the moral was first, and For I find a certain rhapsody of natural theology, thereupon the fable framed. For I find it was an and of divers parts of logic; and of that part of ancient vanity in Chrysippus, that troubled himself natural philosophy, which concerneth the princiwith great contention to fasten the assertions of the ples; and of that other part of natural philosophy, Stoics upon the ictions of the ancient poets; but which concerneth the soul or spirit ; all these yet that all the fables and fictions of the poets strangely commixed and confused: but being exwere but pleasure and not figure, I interpose no amined, it seemeth to me rather a depredation of opinion.
other sciences, advanced and exalted unto some Surely of those poets which are now extant, even height of terms, than any thing solid or substantive Homer himself, notwithstanding he was made a kind of itself. of Scripture by the latter schools of the Grecians, Nevertheless, I cannot be ignorant of the distincyet I should without any difficulty pronounce, that tion which is current, that the same things are his fables had no such inwardness in his own mean handled but in several respects. As for example, ing; but what they might have, upon a more origi- that logic considereth of many things as they are in nal tradition, is not easy to affirm, for he was not notion; and this philosophy, as they are in nature; the inventor of many of them.
the one in appearance, the other in existence: but I In this third part of learning, which is poesy, I find this difference better made than pursued. For can report no deficience. For being as a plant that if they had considered quantity, similitude, diversity, cometh of the lust of the earth, without a formal and the rest of those external characters of things, seed, it hath sprung up and spread abroad more as philosophers, and in nature; their inquiries must than any other kind: but to ascribe unto it that I of force have been of a far other kind than they are.
For doth any of them, in handling quantity, speak | row observation may conceive them to be, but the of the force of union, how, and how far it multi same footsteps of nature, treading or printing upon plieth virtue? Doth any give the reason, why some several subjects or matters. things in nature are so common and in so great This science, therefore, as I under. Philosophia
prima, sive de mass, and others so rare, and in so small quantity ? stand it, I may justly report as deficient; fontibus sciDoth any, in handling similitude and diversity, assign for I see sometimes the profounder sort the cause why iron should not move to iron, which of wits, in handling some particular argument, will is more like, but move to the loadstone, which is now and then draw a bucket of water out of this less like ? Why, in all diversities of things, there well for their present use; but the spring-head should be certain participles in nature, which are thereof seemeth to me not to have been visited ; almost ambiguous, to which kind they should be being of so excellent use, both for the disclosing of referred? But there is a mere and deep silence nature, and the abridgment of art. touching the nature and operation of those common This science being therefore first placed as a adjuncts of things, as in nature; and only a resum common parent, like unto Berecynthia, which had ing and repeating of the force and use of them, in so much heavenly issue, “ Omnes cælicolas, omnes speech or argument.
supera alta tenentes,” we may return to the former Th efore because in a writing of this nature I distribution of the three philosophies, divine, natuavoid all subtilty, my meaning touching this original ral, and human. or universal philosophy is thus, in a plain and gross And as concerning Divine Philosophy, or Natural description by negative; " That it be a receptacle Theology, it is that knowledge or rudiment of knowfor all such profitable observations and axioms, as ledge concerning God, which may be obtained by fall not within the compass of any of the special the contemplation of his creatures ; which knowparts of philosophy or sciences, but are more com-ledge may be truly termed divine, in respect of the mon and of a higher stage.”
object, and natural in respect of the light. Now that there are many of that kind, need not The bounds of this knowledge are, that it sufto be doubted. For example: is not the rule, “ Sificeth to convince atheism, but not to inform religion : inæqualibus æqualia addas, omnia erunt inæqualia," and therefore there was never miracle wrought by an axiom as well of justice as of the mathematics ? God to convert an atheist, because the light of naAnd is there not a true coincidence between com ture might have led him to confess a God: but mutative and distributive justice, and arithmetical miracles have been wrought to convert idolaters and and geometrical proportion? Is not that other rule, the superstitious, because no light of nature extend“ Quæ in eodem tertio conveniunt, et inter se con eth to declare the will and true worship of God. veniunt," a rule taken from the mathematics, but so For as all works do show forth the power and potent in logic, as all syllogisms are built upon it ? skill of the workman, and not his image, so it is Is not the observation, “Omnia mutantur, nil inter of the works of God, which do show the omnipoit,” a contemplation in philosophy thus, that the tency and wisdom of the Maker, but not his image: quantum of nature is eternal? in natural theology and therefore therein the heathen opinion differeth thus; that it requireth the same omnipotence to from the sacred truth; for they supposed the world make somewhat nothing, which at the first made to be the image of God, and man to be an extract or nothing somewhat? according to the scripture, “Di-compendious image of the world; but the Scriptures dici quod omnia opera, quæ fecit Deus, perseverent in never vouchsafe to attribute to the world that honperpetuum ; non possimus eis quicquam addere, nec our, as to be the image of God, but only the work auferre."
of his hands : neither do they speak of any other Is not the ground, which Machiavel wisely and image of God, but man: wherefore by the contemlargely discourseth concerning governments, that the plation of nature, to induce and enforce the acknowway to establish and preserve them, is to reduce ledgment of God, and to demonstrate his power, them ad principia, a rule in religion and nature, as providence, and goodness, is an excellent argument, well as in civil administration ? Was not the Persian and hath been excellently handled by divers. magic a reduction or correspondence of the princi But on the other side, out of the contemplation ples and architectures of nature, to the rules and of nature or ground of hunian knowledge, to induce policy of governments ? Is not the precept of a mu- any verity or persuasion concerning the points of sician, to fall from a discord or harsh accord upon a faith, is in my judgment not safe : “ Da fidei, quæ concord or sweet accord, alike true in affection ? Is fidei sunt.” For the heathen themselves conclude not the trope of music, to avoid or slide from the as much in that excellent and divine fable of the close or cadence, common with the trope of rhetoric, golden chain ; " That men and gods were not able of deceiving expectation ? Is not the delight of the to draw Jupiter down to the earth ; but contrariquavering upon a stop in music, the same with wise, Jupiter was able to draw them up to heaven." the playing of light upon the water ?
So as we ought not to attempt to draw down or Splendet tremulo sub lumine pontus."
submit the mysteries of God to our reason ; but
contrariwise, to raise and advance our reason to the Are not the organs of the senses of one kind with divine truth. So as in this part of knowledge, the organs of reflection, the eye with a glass, the touching divine philosophy, K a
am so far from noting ear with a cave or strait determined and bounded? | any deficience, as I rather nokte an excess; whereNeither are these only similitudes, as men of nar unto I have digressed, because of the extreme pre
judice which both religion and philosophy hath re Now although it be true, and I know it well, that ceived, and may receive, by being commixed together; there is an intercourse between causes and effects, as that which undoubtedly will make an heretical so as both these knowledges, speculative and operareligion, and an imaginary and fabulous philosophy. tive, have a great connexion between themselves;
Otherwise it is of the nature of angels and spirits, yet because all true and fruitful natural philosophy which is an appendix of theology, both divine and hath a double scale or ladder, ascendant and denatural, and is neither inscrutable nor interdicted : scendent; ascending from experiments, to the infor although the Scripture saith, “ Let no man de- vention of causes; and descending from causes, to ceive you in sublime discourse touching the worship the invention of new experiments; therefore I judge of angels, pressing into that he knoweth not,” &c. yet it most requisite that these two parts be severally notwithstanding, if you observe well that precept, it considered and handled. may appear thereby that there be two things only Natural science, or theory, is divided into Physic forbidden, adoration of them, and opinion fantastical and Metaphysic; wherein I desire it may be conof them, either to extol them farther than apper-ceived, that I use the word metaphysic in a differtaineth to the degree of a creature, or to extol a ing sense from that that is received : and, in like man's knowledge of them farther than he hath manner, I doubt not but it will easily appear to men ground. But the sober and grounded inquiry, which of judgment, that in this and other particulars, may arise out of the passages of Holy Scriptures, or wheresoever my conception and notion may differ out of the gradations of nature, is not restrained from the ancient, yet I am studious to keep the So of degenerate and revolted spirits, the conversing ancient terms. with them, or the employment of them, is prohibited, For hoping well to deliver myself from mistaking, much more any veneration towards them. But the by the order and perspicuous expressing of that I contemplation or science of their nature, their power, do propound; I am otherwise zealous and affectiontheir illusions, either by Scripture or reason, is a ate to recede as little from antiquity, either in terms part of spiritual wisdom. For so the apostle saith, or opinions, as may stand with truth, and the pro“ We are not ignorant of his stratagems.” And it ficience of knowledge. is no more unlawful to inquire the nature of evil And herein I cannot a little marvel at the phispirits, than to inquire the force of poisons in na- losopher Aristotle, that did proceed in such a spirit ture, or the nature of sin and vice in morality. But of difference and contradiction towards all antiquity, this part, touching angels and spirits, I cannot note undertaking not only to frame new words of science as deficient, for many have occupied themselves in at pleasure, but to confound and extinguish all anit; I may rather challenge it, in many of the writers cient wisdom : insomuch as he never nameth or thereof, as fabulous and fantastical.
mentioneth an ancient author or opinion, but to
confute and reprove; wherein for glory, and drawLEAVING therefore divine philosophy or natural ing followers and disciples, he took the right course. theology, not divinity, or inspired theology, which For certainly there cometh to pass, and hath we reserve for the last of all, as the haven and sab-place in human truth, that which was noted and bath of all man's contemplations, we will now pro pronounced in the highest truth, " Veni in nomine ceed to Natural Philosophy.
Patris, nec recipitis me ; si quis venerit in nomine If then it be true that Democritus said, “ That suo, eum recipietis.” But in this divine aphorism, the truth of nature lieth hid in certain deep mines considering to whom it was applied, namely, to anand caves ;” and if it be true likewise that the al. tichrist, the highest deceiver, we may discern well, chemists do so much inculcate, that Vulcan is a se that the coming in a man's own name, without recond nature, and imitateth that dexterously and com- gard of antiquity or paternity, is no good sign of pendiously, which nature worketh by ambages and truth, although it be joined with the fortune and length of time; it were good to divide natural phi- success of an “Eum recipietis.” losophy into the mine and the furnace, and to make But for this excellent person, Aristotle, I will two professions or occupations of natural philoso- | think of him, that he learned that humour of his phers, some to be pioneers, and some smiths; some scholar, with whom, it seemeth, he did emulate, the to dig, and some to refine and hammer: and surely one to conquer all opinions, as the other to conquer I do best to allow of a division of that kind, though all nations : wherein nevertheless, it may be, he in more familiar and scholastical terms: namely, may at some men's hands, that are of a bitter disthat these be the two parts of natural philosophy, position, get a like title as his scholar did. the inquisition of causes, and the production of ef
“Felix terrarum prædo, non utile mundo fects; speculative and operative; natural science,
Editus exemplum,” etc. and natural prudence. For as in civil matters there is a wisdom of dis
“Felix doctrinæ prædo.” course, and a wisdom of direction; so it is in natural. And here I will make a request, that for the latter, But to me, on the other side, that do desire as much or at least for a part thereof, I may revive and rein as lieth in my pen to ground a sociable intercourse tegrate the misapplied and abused name of natural between antiquity and proficience, it seemeth best magic, which, in the true sense, is but natural wis- to keep way with antiquity usque ad aras; and dom, or natural prudence; taken according to the an therefore to retain the ancient terms, though I somecient acception, purged from vanity and superstition. I times alter the uses and definitions ; according to
the moderate proceeding in civil government, where, or else into the same principle or seeds. So as although there be some alteration, yet that holdeth the first doctrine is touching the contexture or which Tacitus wisely noteth, “ eadem magistratuum configuration of things, as, de mundo, de universivocabula.”
tate rerum. To return therefore to the use and acception of The second is the doctrine concerning the princithe term metaphysic, as I do now understand the ples or originals of things. word; it appeareth, by that which hath been already The third is the doctrine concerning all variety said, that I intend philosophia prima, summary phi- and particularity of things; whether it be of the losophy, and metaphysic, which heretofore have differing substances, or their differing qualities and been confounded as one, to be two distinct things. natures; whereof there needeth no enumeration, this For the one I have made as a parent, or common part being but as a gloss, or paraphrase, that attendancestor, to all knowledge; and the other I have eth upon the text of natural history. now brought in, as a branch, or descendant, of natu Of these three I cannot report any as deficient. ral science. It appeareth likewise that I have as In what truth or perfection they are handled, I make signed to summary philosophy the common principles not now any judgment : but they are parts of knowand axioms which are promiscuous and indifferent ledge not deserted by the labour of man. to several sciences : I have assigned unto it likewise For Metaphysic, we have assigned unto it the the inquiry touching the operation of the relative inquiry of formal and final causes; which assignaand adventive characters of essences, as quantity, tion, as to the former of them, may seem to be similitude, diversity, possibility, and the rest ; with nugatory and void, because of the received and inthis distinction and provision, that they be handled veterate opinion, that the inquisition of man is not as they have efficacy in nature, and not logically. competent to find out essential forms, or true differIt appeareth likewise, that natural theology, which ences: of which opinion we will take this hold, heretofore hath been handled confusedly with me that the invention of forms is of all other parts of taphysic, I have enclosed and bounded by itself. knowledge the worthiest to be sought, if it be pos
It is therefore now a question, what is left re sible to be found. maining for metaphysic ; wherein I may without As for the possibility, they are ill discoverers that prejudice preserve thus much of the conceit of think there is no land, when they can see nothing antiquity, that physic should contemplate that which but sea. is inherent in matter, and therefore transitory ; and (But it is manifest, that Plato, in his opinion of metaphysic, that which is abstracted and fixed. ideas, as one that had a wit of elevation situate as
And again, that physic should handle that which upon a cliff, did descry, " That forms were the true supposeth in nature only a being and moving; object of knowledge ;" but lost the real fruit of his and metaphysic should handle that which supposeth opinion, by considering of forms as absolutely abfarther in nature a reason, understanding, and plat- stracted from matter, and not confined and deterform. But the difference perspicuously expressed, mined by matter; and so turning his opinion upon is most familiar and sensible.
theology, where with all his natural philosophy is For as we divided natural philosophy in general infected. ) into the inquiry of causes, and productions of effects ; But if any man shall keep a continual watchful so that part which concerneth the inquiry of causes, and severe eye upon action, operation, and the use we do subdivide according to the received and sound of knowledge, he may advise and take notice what division of causes; the one part, which is physic, are the forms, the disclosures whereof are fruitful inquireth and handleth the material and efficient and important to the state of man. For as to the causes ; and the other, which is metaphysic, han forms of substances, man only except, of whom it is dleth the formal and final causes.
said, “ Formavit hominem de limo terræ, et spiravit Physic, taking it according to the derivation, and in faciem ejus spiraculum vitæ,” and not as of all not according to our idiom for medicine, situate other creatures, “ Producant aquæ, producat terra ;" in a middle term, or distance, between natural history the forms of substances, I say, as they are now by and metaphysic. For natural history describeth the compounding and transplanting multiplied, are so variety of things; physic the causes, but variable or perplexed, as they are not to be inquired ; respective causes ; and metaphysic, the fixed and than it were either possible or to purpose, to seek constant causes.
in gross the forms of those sounds which make
words, which by composition and transposition of “Limus ut hic durescit, et hæc ut cera liquescit, Uno eodemque igni.”
letters are infinite.
But, on the other side, to inquire the form of those Fire is the cause of induration, but respective to clay : sounds or voices, which make simple letters, is easily fire is the cause of colliquation, but respective to comprehensible; and being known, induceth and wax. But fire is no constant cause either of indu- manifesteth the forms of all words, which consist and ration or colliquation ; so then the physical causes are compounded of them. In the same manner to are but the efficient and the matter.
inquire the form of a lion, of an oak, of gold ; nay, Physic hath three parts, whereof two respect of water, of air, is a vain pursuit : but to inquire the nature united or collected, the third contemplateth forms of sense, of voluntary motion, of vegetation, nature diffused or distributed.
of colours, of gravity and levity, of density, of tenuNature is collected either into one entire total, Iity, of heat, of cold, and all other natures and