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apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study ex nobis ;” as was to be seen in the league of France. the schoolmen ; for they are cymini sectores : if he When factions are carried too high, and too violentbe not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one ly, it is a sign of weakness in princes, and much to thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the prejudice both of their authority and business. the lawyers' cases : so every defect of the mind may The motions of factions under kings ought to be like have a special receipt.

the motions, as the astronomers speak, of the inferior

orbs; which may have their proper motions, but yet LI. OF FACTION.

still are quietly carried by the higher motion of

primum mobile. Many have an opinion not wise; that for a prince to govern his estate, or for a great person to govern LII. OF CEREMONIES AND RESPECTS. his proceedings, according to the respect of factions, is a principal part of policy; whereas, contrariwise, He that is only real, had need have exceeding the chiefest wisdom is, either in ordering those great parts of virtue; as the stone had need to be things which are general, and wherein men of seve rich that is set without foil; but if a man mark it ral factions do nevertheless agree, or in dealing with well, it is in praise and commendation of men, as it correspondence to particular persons, one by one. is in gettings and gains. For the proverb is true, But I say not, that the consideration of factions is that light gains make heavy purses; for light gains to be neglected. Mean men, in their rising, must come thick, whereas great come but now and then. adhere; but great men, that have strength in them- | So it is true, that small matters win great comselves, were better to maintain themselves indiffer-mendation, because they are continually in use, and ent and neutral. Yet even in beginners, to adhere in note; whereas the occasion of any great virtue so moderately, as he be a man of the one faction, cometh but on festivals : therefore it doth much add which is most passable with the other, commonly to a man's reputation, and is, as queen Isabella said, giveth best way. The lower and weaker faction is like perpetual letters commendatory, to have good the firmer in conjunction : and it is often seen, that a forms. To attain them, it almost sufficeth not to few that are stiff do tire out a greater number that despise them: for so shall a man observe them in are more moderate. When one of the factions is others; and let him trust himself with the rest. For extinguished, the remaining subdivideth : as the fac- if he labour too much to express them, he shall lose tion between Lucullus and the rest of the nobles of their grace; which is to be natural and unaffected. the senate, which they call optimates, held out a Some men's behaviour is like a verse, wherein every while against the faction of Pompey and Cæsar: syllable is measured: how can a man comprehend but when the senate's authority was pulled down, great matters, that breaketh his mind too much to Cæsar and Pompey soon after brake. The faction small observations ? Not to use ceremonies at all, or party of Antonius and Octavianus Cæsar, against is to teach others not to use them again, and so dimiBrutus and Cassius, held out likewise for a time : nisheth respect to himself; especially they be not to but when Brutus and Cassius were overthrown, then be omitted to strangers and formal natures: but the soon after Antonius and Octavianus brake and sub-dwelling upon them and exalting them above the moon, divided. These examples are of wars, but the same is not only tedious, but doth diminish the faith and holdeth in private factions. And therefore those credit of him that speaks. And certainly there is a that are seconds in factions, do many times, when kind of conveying of effectual and imprinting pasthe faction subdivideth, prove principals: but many sages, amongst compliments, which is of singular times also they prove cyphers and cashiered; for use, if a man can hit upon it. Amongst a man's many a man's strength is in opposition, and when

peers, a man shall be sure of familiarity; and therethat faileth he groweth out of use. It is commonly fore it is good a little to keep state. Amongst a man's seen, that men once placed, take in with the con inferiors one shall be sure of reverence; and theretrary faction to that by which they enter ; thinking fore it is good a little to be familiar. He that is too belike that they have the first sure, and now are much in any thing, so that he giveth another occaready for a new purchase. The traitor in faction sion of satiety, maketh himself cheap. To apply lightly goeth away with it: for when matters have one's self to others is good; so it be with demonstrastuck long in balancing, the winning of some one tion that a man doth it upon regard, and not upon man casteth them, and he getteth all the thanks. facility. It is a good precept, generally in seconding The even carriage between two factions, proceedeth another, yet to add somewhat of one's own; as if not always of moderation, but of a trueness to a you will grant his opinion, let it be with some disman's self, with end to make use of both. Certain-tinction; if you will follow his motion, let it be with ly in Italy they hold it a little suspect in popes, condition ; if you allow his counsel, let it be with when they have often in their mouth “ Padre com- alleging farther reason. Men had need beware mune:” and take it to be sign of one that meaneth how they be too perfect in compliments; for be they to refer all to the greatness of his own house. Kings never so sufficient otherwise ; their enviers will be had need beware how they side themselves, and sure to give them that attribute, to the disadvantage make themselves as of a faction or party; for leagues of their greater virtues. It is loss also in business, within the state are ever pernicious to monarchies; to be too full of respects, or to be too curious in for they raise an obligation paramount to obligation observing times and opportunities : Solomon saith, of sovereignty, and make the king " tanquam unus “He that considereth the wind shall not sow; and

he that looketh to the clouds shall not reap.” A though many times those under-sheriffries do more wise man will make more opportunities than he good than their high speculations. St. Paul, when finds. Men's behaviour should be like their apparel; he boasts of himself, he doth oft interlace, “ I speak not too strait or point device, but free for exercise like a fool ;” but speaking of his calling, he saith, or motion.

magnificabo apostolatum meum."



Praise is the reflexion of virtue: but it is as the It was prettily devised of Æsop: The fly sat upon glass or body which giveth the reflexion. If it be the axle-tree of the chariot-wheel, and said, What a from the common people, it is commonly false and dust do I raise ? So are there some vain persons, nought; and rather followeth vain persons than vir- that whatsoever goeth alone, or moveth upon greater tuous; for the common people understand not many means, if they have never so little hand in it, they excellent virtues : the lowest virtues draw praise think it is they that carry it. They that are from them ; the middle virtues work in themglorious must needs be factious; for all bravery astonishment or admiration; but of the highest vir-stands upon comparisons. They must needs be tues they have no sense or perceiving at all: but violent to make good their own vaunts : neither can shows, and species virtutibus similes, serve best with they be secret, and therefore not effectual; but acthem. Certainly fame is like a river, that beareth cording to the French proverb, “ Beaucoup de bruit, up things light and swoln, and drowns things weighty peu de fruit:" Much bruit, little fruit. Yet certainand solid : but if persons of quality and judgment ly there is use of this quality in civil affairs: where concur, then it is, as the Scripture saith, “ Nomen there is an opinion, and fame to be created, either bonum instar unguenti fragrantis." It filleth all of virtue or greatness, these men are good trumpeters. round about, and will not easily away: for the odours Again, as Titus Livius noteth, in the case of Anof ointments are more durable than those of flowers. tiochus and the Ætolians, there are sometimes great There be so many false points of praise, that a man effects of cross lies; as if a man that negotiates bemay justly hold it a suspect. Some praises proceed tween two princes, to draw them to join in a war merely of flattery; and if he be an ordinary flat- against the third, doth extol the forces of either of terer, he will have certain common attributes, them above measure, the one to the other: and which may serve every man ; if he be a cunning sometimes he that deals between man and man, flatterer, he will follow the arch-flatterer, which is a raiseth his own credit with both, by pretending man's self; and wherein a man thinketh best of greater interest than he hath in either. And in himself, therein the flatterer will uphold him most: these and the like kinds, it often falls out, that somebut if he be an impudent flatterer, look, wherein a what is produced of nothing; for lies are sufficient man is conscious to himself that he is most defective, to breed opinion, and opinion brings on substance. and is most out of countenance in himself, that will | In military commanders and soldiers, vain-glory is an the flatterer entitle him to perforce, spretâ con essential point; for as iron sharpens iron, so by scientiâ. Some praises come of good wishes and glory one courage sharpeneth another: in cases of respects, which is a form due in civility to kings and great enterprise, upon charge and adventure, a comgreat persons; laudando præcipere; when by telling position of glorious natures doth put life into busimen what they are, they represent to them what ness; and those that are of solid and sober natures, they should be. Some men are praised maliciously have more of the ballast than of the sail. In fame to their hurt, thereby to stir envy and jealousy to- of learning, the flight will be slow, without some wards them: pessimum genus inimicorum laudan- feathers of ostentation : "Qui de contemnendâ gloria tium ; insomuch as it was a proverb amongst the libros scribunt, nomen suum inscribunt.” Socrates, Grecians, that he that was praised to his hurt, Aristotle, Galen, were men full of ostentation. Cershould have a push rise upon his nose ; as we say, tainly vain-glory helpeth to perpetuate a man's that a blister will rise upon one's tongue that tells memory; and virtue was never so beholden to human a lie. Certainly moderate praise, used with oppor- nature, as it received its due at the second hand. tunity, and not vulgar, is that which doth the good. Neither had the fame of Cicero, Seneca, Plinius Solomon saith, “ He that praiseth his friend aloud, Secundus, borne her age so well, if it had not been rising early, it shall be to him no better than a curse." joined with some vanity in themselves : like unto Too much magnifying of man or matter, doth irri- varnish, that makes ceilings not only shine but last. tate contradiction, and procure envy and scorn. To But all this while, when I speak of vain-glory, I mean praise a man's self cannot be decent, except it be in not of that property that Tacitus doth attribute to rare cases : but to praise a man's office or profession, Mucianus; “ omnium, quæ dixerat, feceratque, arte he may do it with good grace, and with a kind of quâdam ostentator :" for that proceeds not of vanity, magnanimity. The cardinals of Rome, which are but of natural magnanimity and discretion : and in theologues, and friars, and schoolmen, have a phrase some persons, is not only comely but gracious. For of notable contempt and scorn, towards civil busi- excusations, cessions, modesty itself well governed, ness; for they call all temporal business, of wars, are but arts of ostentation. And amongst those embassages, judicature, and other employments, arts, there is none better than that which Plinius sirrbirie, which is under-sheriffries, as if they were Secundus speaketh of; which is to be liberal of but matters for under-sheriffs and catch-poles ; praise and commendation to otheçs, in that wherein

And some,

a man's self hath any perfection. For, saith Pliny, curarum, those upon whom princes do discharge very wittily, “ in commending another you do your the greatest weight of their affairs; their right self right; for he that you commend is either hands, as we call them. The next are duces belli, superior to you in that you commend, or inferior. If great leaders; such as are princes' lieutenants, and he be inferior, if he be to be commended, you much do them notable services in the wars. The third more. If he be superior, if he be not to be com are gratiosi, favourites ; such as exceed not this mended, you much less." Glorious men are the scantling, to be solace to the sovereign, and harmless scorn of wise men, the admiration of fools, the to the people : and the fourth, negotiis pares; such idols of parasites, and slaves of their own vaunts. as have great places under princes, and execute

their places with sufficiency. There is an honour LV. OF HONOUR AND REPUTATION.

likewise, which may be ranked amongst the greatest,

which happeneth rarely; that is, of such as sacrifice The winning of honour is but the revealing of a themselves to death or danger for the good of their man's virtue and worth without disadvantage. For country; as was M. Regulus, and the two Decii. some in their actions do woo and affect honour and reputation ; which sort of men are commonly much

LVI. OF JUDICATURE. talked of, but inwardly little admired. contrariwise, darken their virtue in the show of it; Judges ought to remember, that their office is so as they be undervalued in opinion. If a man per- jus dicere, and not jus dare ; to interpret law, and form that which hath not been attempted before, or not to make law, or give law. Else will it be like the attempted and given over; or hath been achieved, but authority claimed by the church of Rome; which, not with so good circumstance: he shall purchase under pretext of exposition of Scripture, doth not more honour than by affecting a matter of greater stick to add and alter ; and to pronounce that which difficulty or virtue, wherein he is but a follower. they do not find; and by show of antiquity to introIf a man so temper his actions, as in some one of duce novelty. Judges ought to be more learned them he doth content every faction or combination than witty ; more reverend than plausible; and more of people, the music will be the fuller. A man is an advised than confident. Above all things, integrity ill husband of his honour that entereth into any is their portion and proper virtue. “Cursed,” saith action, the failing wherein may disgrace him more the law, “is he that removeth the land-mark.” The than the carrying of it through can honour him. mislayer of a mere-stone is to blame : but it is the Honour that is gained and broken upon another, unjust judge that is the capital remover of land-marks, hath the quickest reflexion, like diamonds cut with when he defineth amiss of lands and property. One fascets. And therefore let a man contend to excel foul sentence doth more hurt than many foul exany competitors of his in honour, in out-shooting amples. For these do but corrupt the stream: the them, if he can, in their own bow. Discreet follow other corrupteth the fountain. So saith Solomon ; ers and servants help much to reputation : "omnis “Fons turbatus, et vena corrupta, est justus cadens fama a domesticis emanat.” Envy, which is the in causâ suâ coram adversario." The office of judges canker of honour, is best extinguished by declaring may have reference unto the parties that sue ; unto a man's self in his ends, rather to seek merit than the advocates that plead; unto the clerks and mifame; and by attributing a man's success rather to nisters of justice underneath them; and to the so Divine Providence and felicity, than to his own virtue vereign or state above them. or policy. The true marshalling of the degrees of First, for the causes or parties that sue.

- There sovereign honour, are these. In the first place are be," saith the Scripture, “ that turn judgment into conditores imperiorum, founders of states and com- wormwood;" and surely there be also that turn it monwealths ; such as were Romulus, Cyrus, Cæsar, into vinegar: for injustice maketh it bitter, and deOttoman, Ismael. In the second place are legis- lays make it sour. The principal duty of a judge latores, lawgivers, which are also called second found is, to suppress force and fraud; whereof force is the ers, or perpetui principes, because they govern by more pernicious when it is open ; and fraud when their ordinances, after they are gone : such were it is close and disguised. Add thereto contentious Lycurgus, Solon, Justinian, Edgar, Alphonsus of suits, which ought to be spewed out as the surfeit of Castile, the wise, that made the Siete partidas. In courts. A judge ought to prepare his way to a just the third place are liberatores, or salvatores; such sentence, as God useth to prepare his way, by raisas compound the long miseries of civil wars, or de ing valleys and taking down hills; so when there liver their countries from servitude of strangers or appeareth on either side a high hand, violent protyrants; as Augustus Cæsar, Vespasianus, Aurelianus, secution, cunning advantages taken, combination, Theodoricus, King Henry the seventh of England, power, great counsel, then is the virtue of a judge King Henry the fourth of France. In the fourth seen, to make inequality equal; that he may plant place are propagatores, or propugnatores imperii, his judgm as upon an even ground. “ Qui forsuch as in honourable wars enlarge their territories, titer emungit, elicit sanguinem ;" and where the or make noble defence against invaders. And in the wine-press is hard wrought, it yields a harsh wine, last place are patres patriæ, which reign justly, and that tastes of the grape-stone. Judges must beware make the times good wherein they live. Both which of hard constructions and strained inferences ; for last kinds need no examples, they are in such number, there is no worse torture than the torture of laws; Degrees of honour in subjects are ; first, participes especially in case of laws penal they ought to have

care, that that which was meant for terror be not and the country pine. The second sort is of those turned into rigour; and that they bring not upon the that engage courts in quarrels of jurisdiction, and people that shower whereof the Scripture speaketh, are not truly amici curiæ, but parasiti curiæ, in puff“pluet super eos laqueos :" for penal laws pressed ing a court up beyond her bounds, for their own are a shower of snares upon the people. Therefore scraps and advantage. The third sort is of those let penal laws, if they have been sleepers of long, that may be accounted the left hands of courts; or if they be grown unfit for the present time, be by persons that are full of nimble and sinister tricks wise judges confined in the execution ; “Judicis and shifts, whereby they pervert the plain and officium est, ut res, ita tempora rerum,” etc. In causes direct courses of courts, and bring justice into of life and death, judges ought, as far as the law oblique lines and labyrinths. And the fourth is, the perunitteth, in justice to remember mercy; and to poller and exacter of fees; which justifies the comcast a severe eye upon the example, but a merciful mon resemblance of the courts of justice to the eye upon the person.

bush, whereunto while the sheep flies for defence in Secondly, for the advocates and counsel that weather, he is sure to lose part of his fleece. On plead: patience and gravity of hearing is an es the other side, an ancient clerk, skilful in precesential part of justice; and an over-speaking judge dents, wary in proceeding, and understanding in the is no well-tuned cymbal. It is no grace to a judge, business of the court, is an excellent finger of a first to find that which he might have heard in due court, and doth many times point the way to the time from the bar; or to show quickness of conceit judge himself. in cutting off evidence or counsel too short; or to Fourthly, for that which may concern the soveprevent information by questions, though pertinent. reign and estate. Judges ought above all to rememThe parts of a judge in hearing are four : to direct ber the conclusion of the Roman twelve tables ; the evidence; to moderate length, repetition, or im “ salus populi suprema lex ;” and to know that pertinency of speech; to recapitulate, select, and laws, except they be in order to that end, are but collate, the material points of that which hath been things captious, and oracles not well inspired. said; and to give the rule or sentence. Whatsoever Therefore it is a happy thing in a state when is above these is too much ; and proceedeth either kings and states do often consult with judges ; and of glory and willingness to speak, or of impatience again, when judges do often consult with the king to hear, or of shortness of memory, or of want of a and state ; the one, when there is matter of law stayed and equal attention. It is a strange thing to intervenient in business of state ; the other, when see, that the boldness of advocates should prevail there is some consideration of state intervenient in with judges; whereas they should imitate God, in matter of law. For many times the things deduced whose seat they sit, who “represseth the presump- to judgment may be meum and tuum, when the reatuous, and giveth grace to the modest.” But it is son and consequence thereof may trench to point of more strange that judges should have noted favour- estate : I call matter of estate, not only the parts of ites ; which cannot but cause multiplication of fees sovereignty, but whatsoever introduceth any great and suspicion of bye-ways. There is due from the alteration, or dangerous precedent; or concerneth judge to the advocate some commendation and manifestly any great portion of people. And let no gracing where causes are well handled, and fairly man weakly conceive, that just laws and true policy pleaded ; especially towards the side which obtain- have any antipathy; for they are like the spirits eth not: for that upholds in the client the reputa- and sinews, that one moves with the other. Let tion of his counsel, and beats down in him the con- judges also remember, that Solomon's throne was ceit of his cause. There is likewise due to the supported by lions on both sides; let them be lions, public a civil reprehension of advocates, where there but yet lions under the throne; being circumspect appeareth cunning counsel, gross neglect, slight that they do not check or oppose any points of information, indiscreet pressing, or an over-bold sovereignty. Let not judges also be so ignorant of defence. And let not the counsel of the bar chop their own right, as to think there is not left to with the judge, nor wind himself into handling of them, as a principal part of their office, a wise use the cause anew, after the judge hath declared his and application of laws. For they may remember sentence: but on the other side, let not the judge what the apostle saith of a greater law than theirs, meet the cause half way; nor give occasion to the “Nos scimus quia lex bona est, modo quis eâ utaparty to say, his counsel or proofs were not heard. tur legitime." Thirdly, for that that concerns clerks and minis

LVII. OF ANGER. ters. The place of justice is a hallowed place; and therefore not only the bench, but the foot-pace, To seek to extinguish anger utterly, is but a braand precincts, and purprise thereof, ought to be pre- very of the Stoics. We have better oracles : “ Be served without scandal and corruption. For cer

angry, but sin not.

Let not the sun go down upon tainly “ grapes," as the Scripture saith, “ will not your anger.” Anger must be limited and confined, be gathered of thorns or thistles:" neither can jus both in race and in time. We will first speak, how tice yield her fruit with sweetness, amongst the the natural inclination and habit, to be angry, may briers and brambles of catching and polling clerks be attempered and calmed. Secondly, how the parand ministers. The attendance of courts is subject ticular motions of anger may be repressed, or at to four bad instruments. First, certain persons that least refrained from doing mischief. Thirdly, how are sowers of suits; which make the court swell, / to raise anger, or appease anger, in another.




For the first, there is no other way, but to meditate and ruminate well upon the effects of anger, LVIII. OF VICISSITUDE OF THINGS. how it troubles man's life. And the best time to do this, is to look back upon anger when the fit is Solomon saith, “ There is no new thing upon the thoroughly over. Seneca saith; That anger is like earth:” so that as Plato had an imagination, that all ruin, which breaks itself upon that it falls. The knowledge was but remembrance; so Solomon givScripture exhorteth us " to possess our souls in eth his sentence, “ that all novelty is but oblivion.” patience.” Whosoever is out of patience, is out of Whereby you may see, that the river of Lethe runpossession of his soul. Men must not turn bees; neth as well above ground as below. There is an -Animasque in vulnere ponunt.”

abstruse astrologer, that saith, if it were not for two

things that are constant (the one is, that the fixed Anger is certainly a kind of baseness; as it stars ever stand at like distance one from another, appears well in the weakness of those subjects in and never come nearer together, nor go farther asunwhom it reigns; children, women, old folks, sick der; the other, that the diurnal motion perpetually folks. Only men must beware, that they carry their keepeth time) no individual would last one moment. anger rather with scorn, than with fear; so that certain it is, that the matter is in a perpetual flux, they may seem rather to be above the injury, than and never at a stay. The great winding-sheets, that below it. Which is a thing easily done, if a man bury all things in oblivion, are two : deluges, and will give law to himself in it.

earthquakes. As for conflagrations, and great For the second point, the causes and motives of droughts, they do merely dispeople and destroy. anger are chiefly three. First, to be too sensible of Phaeton's car went but a day. And the three years' hurt; for no man is angry that feels not himself drought in the time of Elias, was but particular, and hurt: and therefore tender and delicate persons must left people alive. As for the great burnings by needs be oft angry; they have so many things to lightnings, which are often in the West Indies, they trouble them, which more robust natures have little are but narrow. But in the other two destructions, sense of. The next is, the apprehension and con by deluge and earthquake, it is farther to be noted, struction the injury offered to be, in the circum- that the remnant of people which hap to be reserved, stances thereof, full of contempt. For contempt is are commonly ignorant and mountainous people, that which putteth an edge upon anger, as much or that can give no account of the time past; so that more than the hurt itself. And therefore when men the oblivion is all one, as if none had been left. If are ingenious in picking out circumstances of con you consider well of the people of the West Indies, tempt, they do kindle their anger much. Lastly, it is very probable that they are a newer or a opinion of the touch of a man's reputation doth mul- younger people than the people of the old world : tiply and sharpen anger. Wherein the remedy is, and it is much more likely, that the destruction that that a man should have, as Consalvo was wont to hath heretofore been there, was not by earthquakes, say, “ telam honoris crassiorem.” But in all re (as the Ægyptian priest told Solon, concerning the frainings of anger, it is the best remedy to win time ; | island of Atlantis, that it was swallowed by an earthand to make a man's self believe, that the opportu- quake,) but rather, that it was desolated by a partinity of his revenge is not yet come: but that he cular deluge ; for earthquakes are seldom in those foresees a time for it, and so to still himself in the parts: but, on the other side, they have such pourmean time, and reserve it. To contain anger from ing rivers, as the rivers of Asia, and Africa, and mischief, though it take hold of a man, there be two Europe, are but brooks to them. Their Andes likethings whereof you must have special caution. The wise, or mountains, are far higher than those with one, of extreme bitterness of words, especially if they us; whereby it seems, that the remnants of generabe aculeate and proper; for communia maledictations of men were in such a particular deluge saved. are nothing so much: and again, that in anger a As for the observation that Machiavel hath, that the man reveal no secrets; for that makes him not fit jealousy of sects doth much extinguish the memory for society. The other, that you do not perempto- of things ; traducing Gregory the Great, that he rily break off, in any business, in a fit of anger; did what in him lay to extinguish all heathen antibut howsoever you show bitterness, do not act any quities; I do not find that those zeals do any great thing that is not revocable.

effects, nor last long; as it appeared in the sucFor raising and appeasing anger in another; it cession of Sabinian, who did revive the former is done chiefly by choosing of times. When men antiquities. are frowardest and worst disposed, to incense them. The vicissitude or mutations in the superior globe Again, by gathering, as was touched before, all that are no fit matter for this present argument. you can find out to aggravate the contempt: and the be, Plato's great year, if the world should last so two remedies are by the contraries. The former to long, would have some effect, not in renewing the take good times, when first to relate to a man an angry state of like individuals, (for that is the fume of business ; for the first impression is much. And those, that conceive the celestial bodies have more the other is, to sever, as much as may be, the con accurate influences upon these things below than struction of the injury from the point of contempt; indeed they have,) but in gross. Comets, out of imputing it to misunderstanding, fear, passion, or question, have likewise power and effect over the what you will

gross and mass of things : but they are rather gazed upon, and waited upon in their journey, than wisely

It may

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