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them, which lurcheth all provisions, and maketh front. And in all the four corners of that court, fair every thing dear; where a man hath a great living staircases cast into turrets on the outside, and not laid together, and where he is scanted : all which, within the row of buildings themselves : but those as it is impossible perhaps to find together, so it is towers are not to be of the height of the front, good to know them, and think of them, that a man but rather proportionable to the lower building. Let may take as many as he can : and if he have several the court not be paved, for that striketh up a great dwellings, that he sort them so, that what he want heat in summer, and much cold in winter: but only eth in the one, he may find in the other. Lucullus some side alleys, with a cross, and the quarters to answered Pompey well, who, when he saw his stately graze, being kept shorn, but not too near shorn. galleries and rooms, so large and lightsome in one The row of return on the banquet side, let it be all of his houses, said, “Surely an excellent place for stately galleries; in which galleries let there be summer, but how do you do in winter ?” Lucullus three, or five, fine cupolas, in the length of it, placed answered, "Why, do you not think me as wise as at equal distance; and fine coloured windows of some fowls are, that ever change their abode towards several works. On the household side, chambers the winter!"

of presence and ordinary entertainments, with some To pass from the seat to the house itself, we will bed-chambers; and let all three sides be a double do as Cicero doth in the orator's art, who writes house, without thorough lights on the sides, that you books "De Oratore," and a book he entitles “Orator:" may have rooms from the sun, both for forenoon whereof the former delivers the precepts of the art, and afternoon. Cast it also, that you may have and the latter the perfection. We will therefore rooms both for summer and winter; shady for sumdescribe a princely palace, making a brief model mer, and warm for winter. You shall have somethereof. For it is strange to see, now in Europe, times fair houses so full of glass, that one cannot such huge buildings as the Vatican, and Escurial, tell where to become to be out of the sun or cold. and some others be, and yet scarce a very fair room For imbowed windows, I hold them of good use, (in in them.

cities, indeed, upright do better, in respect of the First therefore, I say, you cannot have a perfect uniformity towards the street,) for they be pretty palace, except you have two several sides ; a side retiring places for conference; and besides, they for the banquet, as is spoken of in the book of keep both the wind and sun off; for that which Esther; and a side for the household : the one for would strike almost through the room, doth scarce feasts and triumphs, the other for dwelling. I un pass the window. But let them be but few, four in derstand both these sides to be not only returns, but the court, on the sides only. parts of the front; and to be uniform without, though Beyond this court, let there be an inward court, severally partitioned within; and to be on both sides of the same square and height, which is to be enof a great and stately tower, in the midst of the front; vironed with the garden on all sides: and in the inthat as it were joineth them together on either hand. side, cloistered on all sides upon decent and beautiful I would have on the one side of the banquet, in front, arches, as high as the first story: on the under one only goodly room above stairs, of some forty story, towards the garden, let it be turned to a grotto, foot high ; and under it a room for a dressing or or place of shade or estivation : and only have openpreparing place, at times of triumphs. On the othering and windows towards the garden, and be level side, which is the household side, I wish it divided upon the floor, no whit sunk under ground, to avoid at the first into a hall and a chapel, with a partition all dampishness. And let there be a fountain, or between, both of good state and bigness; and those some fair work of statues, in the midst of this court; not to go all the length, but to have at the farther and to be paved as the other court was. These end a winter and a summer parlour, both fair: and buildings to be for privy lodgings on both sides, and under these rooms a fair and large cellar sunk under the end for privy galleries: whereof you must foreground; and likewise some privy kitchens, with see, that one of them be for an infirmary, if the butteries and pantries, and the like. As for the prince or any special person should be sick, with tower, I would have it two stories, of eighteen foot chambers, bed-chamber, antecamera and recamera, high apiece, above the two wings; and goodly leads joining to it. This upon the second story. Upon upon the top, railed, with statues interposed; and the ground-story, a fair gallery, open, upon pillars ; the same tower to be divided into rooms, as shall be and upon the third story, likewise, an open gallery, thought fit. The stairs likewise to the upper rooms, upon pillars, to take the prospect and freshness of let them be upon a fair open newel, and finely railed the garden. At both corners of the farther side, by in, with images of wood cast into a brass colour; way of return, let there be two delicate or rich and a very fair landing-place at the top. But this cabinets, daintily paved, richly hanged, glazed with to be, if you do not appoint any of the lower rooms crystalline glass, and a rich cupola in the midst; for a dining-place of servants; for otherwise you and all other elegancy that may be thought upon. shall have the servants' dinner after your own: for In the upper gallery too, I wish that there may be, the steam of it will come up as in a tunnel. And if the place will yield it, some fountains running in so much for the front. Only I understand the divers places from the wall, with some fine avoidheight of the first stairs to be sixteen foot, which is

And thus much for the model of the palace; the height of the lower room.

save that you must have, before you come to the Beyond this front is there to be a fair court, but front, three courts : a green court plain, with a wall three sides of it of a far lower building than the | about it: a second court of the same, but more


garnished, with little turrets, or rather embellish oaks, and such like. These particulars are for the
ments upon the wall; and a third court, to make a climate of London: but my meaning is perceived,
square with the front, but not to be built, nor yet that you may have ver perpetuum, as the place
enclosed with a naked wall, but enclosed with ter- affords.
races, leaded aloft, and fairly garnished on the three And because the breath of flowers is far sweeter
sides; and cloistered on the inside with pillars, and in the air, where it comes and goes, like the warbling
not with arches below. As for offices, let them of music, than in the hand, therefore nothing is more
stand at distance, with some low galleries to pass fit for that delight, than to know what be the flowers
from them to the palace itself.

and plants that do best perfume the air. Roses,

damask and red, are fast flowers of their smells ; so XLVI. OF GARDENS.

that you may walk by a whole row of them, and find

nothing of their sweetness : yea, though it be in a God Almighty first planted a garden : and indeed morning's dew. Bays likewise yield no smell, as it is the purest of human pleasures. It is the they grow; rosemary, little ; nor sweet marjoram. greatest refreshment of the spirits of man; without That which above all others yields the sweetest which, buildings and palaces are but gross handy- smell in the air, is the violet; especially the white works: and a man shall ever see, that when ages double violet, which comes twice a year; about the grow to civility and elegancy, men come to build middle of April, and about Bartholomew-tide. Next stately, sooner than to garden finely; as if garden- to that is the musk-rose ; then the strawberry. ing were the greater perfection. I do hold it, in the leaves dying, with a most excellent cordial smell; royal ordering of gardens, there ought to be gardens then the flower of the vines; it is a little dust, like for all the months in the year: in which, severally, the dust of a bent, which grows upon the cluster, in things of beauty may be then in season. For De- the first coming forth; then sweet-brier : then wallcember and January, and the latter part of Novem- flowers, which are very delightful, to be set under a ber, you must take such things as are green all parlour, or lower chamber window; then pinks and winter ; holly ; ivy; bays; juniper ; cypress-trees; gilliflowers, especially the matted pink, and cloveyew; pine-apple trees; fir-trees; rosemary ; laven- gilliflower; then the flowers of the lime-tree; then der; periwinkle, the white, the purple, and the the honey-suckles, so they be somewhat afar off. blue ; germander; flags; orange-trees; lemon-trees; Of bean-flowers I speak not, because they are fieldand myrtles, if they be stoved; and sweet marjoram, flowers; but those which perfume the air most dewarm set. There followeth, for the latter part of lightfully, not passed by as the rest, but being trodJanuary and February, the mezereon tree, which den upon and crushed, are three; that is, burnet, then blossoms; crocus vernus, both the yellow and wild thyme, and water mints. Therefore you are to the gray; primroses; anemonies; the early tulip; set whole alleys of them, to have the pleasure when hyacinthus orientalis; chamaïris ; fritellaria. For you walk or tread. March there come violets, especially the single blue, For gardens, speaking of those which are indeed which are the earliest ; the yellow daffodil; the prince-like, as we have done of buildings, the condaisy; the almond-tree in blossom; the peach-tree tents ought not well to be under thirty acres of in blossom ; the cornelian-tree in blossom ; sweet- ground, and to be divided into three parts : a green brier. In April follow the double white violet ; in the entrance; a heath or desert in the going forth; the wall-flower; the stock-gilliflower; the cowslip; and the main garden in the midst; besides alleys flower-de-luces; and lilies of all natures; rosemary on both sides. And I like well, that four acres of flowers; the tulip; the double piony; the pale daf- ground be assigned to the green, six to the heath, fodil; the French honey-suckle; the cherry-tree in four and four to either side, and twelve to the main blossom; the damascene and plum-trees in blossom; garden. The green hath two pleasures; the one, the white-thorn in leaf; the lilach-tree.

In May

because nothing is more pleasant to the eye than and June come pinks of all sorts; especially the green grass kept finely shorn; the other, because blush pink ; roses of all kinds, except the musk, it will give you a fair alley in the midst; by which which comes later ; honey-suckles ; strawberries ; you may go in front upon a stately hedge, which is bugloss; columbine; the French marygold: flos to enclose the garden. But because the alley will Africanus; cherry-tree in fruit; ribes; figs in fruit ; be long, and in great heat of the year or day, you rasps ; vine-flowers ; lavender in flowers; the sweet ought not to buy the shade in the garden by going satyrian, with the white flower; herba muscaria ; in the sun through the green; therefore you are, lilium convallium ; the apple-tree in blossom. In of either side the green, to plant a covert alley, July come gilliflowers of all varieties; musk roses; upon carpenters' work, about twelve foot in height, the lime-tree in blossom; early pears and plums in by which you may go in shade into the garden. As fruit, gennitings, codlins. In August come plums of for the making of knots or figures, with divers coall sorts in fruit; pears; apricots; berberries; fil-loured earths, that they may lie under the windows berds; musk melons; monks-hoods, of all colours. of the house, on that side which the garden stands, In September come grapes; apples; poppies of all they be but toys; you may see as good sights, colours; peaches; melo-cotones; nectarines ; corne many times, in tarts. The garden is best to be lians; wardens ; quinces. In October, and the be- square, encompassed on all the four sides with a givning of November, come services; medlars ; stately arched hedge: the arches to be upon pillars bullaces; roses cut or removed to come late ; holly- of carpenters' work, of some ten foot high, and six



foot broad; and the spaces between of the same di- | the pool, and delivered into it by fair spouts, and mension with the breadth of the arch. Over the then discharged away under ground by some equal. arches let there be an entire hedge, of some four ity of bores, that it stay little. And for fine devices foot high, framed also upon carpenters' work; and of arching water without spilling and making it rise upon the upper hedge, over every arch, a little tur- in several forms, of feathers, drinking glasses, canoret, with a belly enough to receive a cage of birds ; pies, and the like, they be pretty things to look on, and over every space between the arches, some other but nothing to health and sweetness. little figure, with broad plates of round coloured glass, For the heath, which was the third part of our gilt, for the sun to play upon. But this hedge I plot, I wish it to be framed as much as may be to intend to be raised upon a bank, not steep, but gen a natural wildness. Trees I would have none in it, tly slope, of some six foot, set all with flowers. Also but some thickets made only of sweet-brier and I understand, that this square of the garden should honey-suckle, and some wild vine amongst; and the not be the whole breadth of the ground, but to ground set with violets, strawberries, and primroses. leave on either side ground enough for diversity of For these are sweet and prosper in the shade. And side alleys; unto which the two covert alleys of the these to be in the heath here and there, not in any green may deliver you: but there must be no al- order. I like also little heaps, in the nature of leys with hedges at either end of this great en mole-hills, such as are in wild heaths, to be set some closure; not at the hither end, for letting your pros. with wild thyme, some with pinks, some with gerpect upon the fair hedge from the green; nor at mander, that gives a good flower to the eye, some the farther end, for letting your prospect from the with periwinkle, some with violets, some with strawhedge, through the arches, upon the heath.

berries, some with cowslips, some with daisies, some For the ordering of the ground within the great with red roses, some with lilium convallium, some hedge, I leave it to variety of device; advising with sweet-williams red, some with bears-foot, and nevertheless, that whatsoever form you cast it into the like low flowers being withal sweet and sightly. first it be not too busy, or full of work; wherein I, Part of which heaps to be with standards of little for my part, do not like images cut out in juniper bushes, pricked upon their top, and part without. or other garden stuff; they be for children. Little The standards to be roses, juniper, holly, berberries, low hedges round, like welts, with some pretty pyra- but here and there, because of the smell of their mids, I like well; and in some places, fair columns blossom, red currants, gooseberries, rosemary, bays, upon frames of carpenters' work. I would also have sweet brier, and such like. But these standards the alleys spacious and fair. You may have closer to be kept with cutting, that they grow not out of alleys upon the side grounds, but none in the main garden. I wish also, in the very middle, a fair For the side grounds, you are to fill them with mount, with three ascents and alleys, enough for variety of alleys, private, to give a full shade, some four to walk a-breast; which I would have to be of them, wheresoever the sun be. You are to frame perfect circles, without any bulwarks or emboss some of them likewise for shelter, that when the ments; and the whole mount to be thirty foot high; wind blows sharp, you may walk as in a gallery. and some fine banqueting house, with some chim- And those alleys must be likewise hedged at both neys neatly cast, and without too much glass. ends, to keep out the wind ; and these closer alleys

For fountains, they are a great beauty and re must be ever finely gravelled, and no grass, because freshment; but pools mar all, and make the garden of going wet. In many of these alleys likewise, unwholesome, and full of flies and frogs. Fountains you are to set fruit-trees of all sorts ; as well upon I intend to be of two natures: the one that sprink- the walls as in ranges. And this would be generally leth or spouteth water; the other a fair receipt of observed, that the borders wherein you plant your water, of some thirty or forty foot square, but with fruit-trees, be fair and large, and low, and not steep; out fish, or slime, or mud. For the first, the orna and set with fine flowers, but thin and sparingly, ments of images gilt, or of marble, which are in lest they deceive the trees. At the end of both the use, do well: but the main matter is so to convey side grounds, I would have a mount of some pretty the water, as it never stay either in the bowls, or in height, leaving the wall of the enclosure breast high, the cistern; that the water be never by rest dis- to look abroad into the fields. coloured, green or red, or the like; or gather any For the main garden, I do not deny but there mossiness or putrefaction. Besides that, it is to be should be some fair alleys, ranged on both sides, with cleansed every day by the hand. Also some steps fruit-trees, and some pretty tufts of fruit-trees, and up to it, and some fine pavement about it doth well. arbours with seats, set in some decent order ; but As for the other kind of fountain, which we may these to be by no means set too thick, but to leave call a bathing pool, it may admit much curiosity and the main garden so as it be not close, but the air beauty, wherewith we will not trouble ourselves; open and free. For as for shade, I would have you as, that the bottom be finely paved, and with images; rest upon the alleys of the side grounds, there to the sides likewise ; and withal embellished with walk, if you be disposed, in the heat of the year or coloured glass, and such things of lustre ; encom but to make account, that the main garden is passed also with fine rails of low statues. But the for the more temperate parts of the year; and in main point is the same which we mentioned in the the hcat of summer, for the morning and the evening, former kind of fountain ; which is that the water or overcast days. be in perpetual motion, fed by a water higher than For aviaries, I like them not, except they be of

day ;

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that largeness, as they may be turfed, and have | and so govern him. In dealing with cunning persons, living plants and bushes set in them; that the birds we must ever consider their ends to interpret their may have more scope, and natural nestling, and that speeches; and it is good to say little to them, and no foulness appear in the floor of the aviary. that which they least look for. In all negotiations of

So I have made a platform of a princely garden, difficulty, a man may not look to sow and reap at partly by precept, partly by drawing; not a model, once; but must prepare business, and so ripen it by but some general lines of it; and in this I have degrees. spared for no cost. But it is nothing for great princes, that for the most part, taking advice with

XLVIII. OF FOLLOWERS AND FRIENDS. workmen, with no less cost set their things together ; and sometimes add statues, and such things, for state Costly followers are not to be liked ; lest while a and magnificence, but nothing to the true pleasure man maketh his train longer, he make his wings of a garden.

shorter. I reckon to be costly, not them alone which

charge the purse, but which are wearisome and imXLVII. OF NEGOTIATING.

portune in suits. Ordinary followers ought to chal

lenge no higher conditions than countenance, recomIt is generally better to deal by speech, than by mendation, and protection from wrongs. Factious letter; and by the mediation of a third, than by a followers are worse to be liked, which follow not man's self. Letters are good, when a man would upon affection to him with whom they range themdraw an answer by letter back again; or when it selves, but upon discontentment conceived against may serve for a man's justification, afterwards to some other: whereupon commonly ensueth that ill produce his own letter; or where it may be danger intelligence that we many times see between great to be interrupted, or heard by pieces. To deal in personages. Likewise glorious followers, who make person is good, when a man's face breedeth regard, themselves as trumpets of the commendation of those as commonly with inferiors; or in tender cases, they follow, are full of inconvenience; for they taint where a man's eye upon the countenance of him business through want of secrecy; and they export with whom he speaketh, may give him a direction honour from a man, and make him a return in envy. how far to go: and generally where a man will re There is a kind of followers likewise, which are serve to himself liberty, either to disavow or to ex- dangerous, being indeed espials ; which inquire the pound. In choice of instruments, it is better to secrets of the house, and bear tales of them to others. choose men of a plainer sort, that are like to do that Yet such men many times are in great favour; for that is committed to them, and to report back again they are officious, and commonly exchange tales. faithfully the success ; than those that are cunning The following by certain estates of men answerable to contrive out of other men's business somewhat to to that which a great person himself professeth, as grace themselves, and will help the matter in report, of soldiers to him that have been employed in the for satisfaction sake. Use also such persons as affect wars, and the like, hath ever been a thing civil, and the business wherein they are employed, for that well taken even in monarchies; so it be without too quickeneth much ; and such as are fit for the matter; much pomp or popularity. But the most honourable as bold men for expostulation, fair-spoken men for kind of following, is to be followed as one that appersuasion, crafty men for inquiry and observation, prehendeth to advance virtue and desert in all sorts froward and absurd men for business that doth not of persons. And yet where there is no eminent odds well bear out itself. Use also such as have been in sufficiency, it is better to take with the more lucky, and prevailed before in things wherein you passable than with the more able. And besides, to have employed them; for that breeds confidence, speak truth, in base times active men are of more and they will strive to maintain their prescription. use than virtuous. It is true, that in government, It is better to sound a person with whom one deals, it is good to use men of one rank equally: for to afar off, than to fall upon the point at first ; except countenance some extraordinarily, is to make them you mean to surprise him by some short question. | insolent, and the rest discontent; because they may It is better dealing with men in appetite than with claim a due. But contrariwise in favour, to use men those that are where they would be. If a man deal with much difference and election is good; for it with another upon conditions, the start or first per- maketh the persons preferred more thankful, and formance is all; which a man cannot reasonably the rest more officious; because all is of favour. It demand, except either the nature of the thing be such is good discretion not to make too much of any man which must go before; or else a man can persuade at the first; because one cannot hold out that prothe other party, that he shall still need him in some portion. To be governed, as we call it, by one, is other thing; or else that he be counted the honester not safe ; for it shows softness, and gives a freedom

All practice is to discover, or to work. Men to scandal and disreputation ; for those that would discover themselves in trust, in passion, at unawares, not censure, or speak ill of a man immediately, will and of necessity, when they would have somewhat talk more boldly of those that are so great with them, done, and cannot find an apt pretext. If you would and thereby wound their honour. Yet to be diswork any man, you must either know his.nature and tracted with many, is worse ; for it makes men to fashions, and so lead him; or his ends, and so per- be of the last impression, and full of change. To suade him ; or his weakness and disadvantages, and take advice of some few friends is ever honourable; so awe him; or those that have interest in him, for lookers-on many times see more than gamesters;


and the vale best discovereth the hill. There is little Iniquum petas, ut æquum feras,” is a good rule, friendship in the world, and least of all between where a man hath strength of favour; but otherwise equals, which was wont to be magnified. That that a man were better rise in his suit ; for he that would is, is between superior and inferior, whose fortunes have ventured at first to have lost the suitor, will may comprehend the one the other.

not in the conclusion lose both the suitor and his own

former favour. Nothing is thought so easy a reXLIX. OF SUITORS.

quest to a great person, as his letter ; and yet, if it

be not in a good cause, it is so much out of his reMany ill matters and projects are undertaken; putation. There are no worse instruments than and private suits do putrify the public good. Many these general contrivers of suits; for they are but a good matters are undertaken with bad minds ; I kind of poison and infection to public proceedings. mcan not only corrupt minds, but crafty minds, that intend not performance. Some embrace suits, which

L. OF STUDIES. never mean to deal effectually in them; but if they see there may be life in the matter by some other Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for mean, they will be content to win a thank, or take ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privatea second reward, or at least to make use in the mean ness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and time of the suitor's hopes. Some take hold of suits for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of only for an occasion to cross some other, or to make business. For expert men can execute, and perhaps an information, whereof they could not otherwise judge of particulars, one by one ; but the general have apt pretext; without care what become of the counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, suit when that turn is served: or generally, to make come best from those that are learned. To spend other men's business a kind of entertainment to too much time in studies, is sloth; to use them too bring in their own. Nay, some undertake suits, much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgment with a full purpose to let them fall; to the end to only by their rules, is the humour of a scholar. gratify the adverse party or competitor. Surely They perfect nature, and are perfected by experithere is in some sort a right in every suit ; either ence : for natural abilities are like natural plants, a right of equity, if it be a suit of controversy; or a that need pruning by study; and studies themselves right of desert, if it be a suit of petition. If affection do give forth directions too much at large, except lead a man to favour the wrong side in justice, let they be bounded in by experience. Crafty men him rather use his countenance to compound the contemn studies; simple men admire them; and wise matter than to carry it. If affection lead a man to men use them: for they teach not their own use: favour the less worthy in desert, let him do it with but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, out depraving or disabling the better deserved. In won by observation. Read not to contradict and suits which a man doth not well understand, it is confute ; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to good to refer them to some friend of trust and judg- find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider. ment, that may report whether he may deal in them Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, with honour ; but let him choose well his referen- and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, daries, for else he may be led by the nose. Suitors some books are to be read only in parts; others to are so distasted with delays and abuses, that plain be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read dealing in denying to deal in suits at first, and re wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some porting the success barely, and in challenging no books also may be read by deputy, and extracts more thanks than one hath deserved, is grown not made of them by others; but that would be only in only honourable, but also gracious. In suits of fa- the less important arguments, and the meaner sort vour, the first coming ought to take little place; so of books: else distilled books are like common disfar forth consideration may be had of his trust, that, tilled waters, flashy things. ( Reading maketh a full if intelligence of the matter could not otherwise man; conference a ready man; and writing an exhave been had but by him, advantage be not taken act man. And therefore if a man write little, he of the note, but the party left to his other means, had need have a great memory; if he confer little, and in some sort recompensed for his discovery. he had need have a present wit; and if he read To be ignorant of the value of a suit, is simplicity ; little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to as well as to be ignorant of the right thereof, is know that he doth not. Histories make men wise ; want of conscience. Secrecy in suits is a great poets, witty; the mathematics, subtile; natural phimean of obtaining; for voicing them to be in for- losophy, deep; moral, grave; logic and rhetoric, wardness, may discourage some kind of suitors; but able to contend : “ Abeunt studia in mores.” Nay, doth quicken and awake others. But timing of the there is no stond or impediment in the wit, but may suit is the principal ; timing, I say, not only in re be wrought out by fit studies; like as diseases of spect of the person that shall grant it, but in respect the body may have appropriate exercises: bowling of those which are like to cross it. Let a man, in the is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the choice of his mean, rather choose the fittest mean than lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; the greatest mean: and rather them that deal in cer-riding for the head; and the like. So if a man's tain things than those that are general. The repara- wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics ; tion of a denial is sometimes equal to the first grant; if for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away nea man show himself neither dejected nor discontented. ver so little, he must begin again: if his wit be not

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