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dark, in respect of the glory and honour which re for thine own body. To be free-minded and cheerflected upon men from the wars in ancient time. fully disposed, at hours of meat, and of sleep, and There be now, for martial encouragement, some of exercise, is one of the best precepts of long lastdegrees and orders of chivalry, which nevertheless ing. As for the passions and studies of the mind, are conferred promiscuously upon soldiers and no avoid envy, anxious fears, anger, fretting inwards, soldiers : and some remembrance perhaps upon the subtile and knotty inquisitions, joys and exhilaraescutcheon, and some hospitals for maimed soldiers, tions in excess, sadness not communicated. Enterand such like things. But in ancient times, the tain hopes, mirth rather than joy, variety of delights trophies erected upon the place of the victory; the rather than surfeit of them; wonder and admiration, funeral laudatives and monuments for those that died and therefore novelties; studies that fill the mind in the wars; the crowns and garlands personal; the with splendid and illustrious objects, as histories, style of emperor, which the great kings of the world fables, and contemplations of nature. If you fly after borrowed ; the triumphs of the generals upon physic in health altogether, it will be too strange their return; the great donatives and largesses upon for your body when you shall need it. If you make the disbanding of the armies, were things able to it too familiar, it will work no extraordinary effect inflame all men's courages; but above all, that of when sickness cometh. I commend rather some the triumph, among the Romans, was not pageants diet for certain seasons, than frequent use of physic, or gaudery, but one of the wisest and noblest insti. except it be grown into a custom. For those diets tutions that ever was. For it contained three things; alter the body more, and trouble it less. Despise honour to the general ; riches to the treasury out of no new accident in your body, but ask opinion of it. the spoils ; and donatives to the army. But that in sickness respect health principally: and in honour, perhaps, were not fit for monarchies ; ex health, action. For those that put their bodies to cept it be in the person of the monarch himself, or endure in health, may in most sicknesses, which his sons: as it came to pass in the times of the Ro are not very sharp, be cured only with diet and tenman emperors, who did impropriate the actual tri- dering. Celsus could never have spoken it as a umphs to themselves and their sons, for such wars physician, had he not been a wise man withal; as they did achieve in person ; and left only, for when he giveth it for one of the great precepts of wars achieved by subjects, some triumphal garments health and lasting, that a man do vary and interand ensigns to the general.
change contraries; but with an inclination to the To conclude: no man can, by care taking, as the more benign extreme. Use fasting and full eating, Scripture saith, add a cubit to his stature, in this but rather full eating; watching and sleep, but little model of a man's body : but in the great frame rather sleep; sitting and exercise, but rather exerof kingdoms and commonwealths, it is in the power cise, and the like. So shall nature be cherished, of princes or estates, to add amplitude and greatness and yet taught masteries. Physicians are some of to their kingdoms. For by introducing such ordi- them so pleasing and conformable to the humour of nances, constitutions, and customs, as we have now the patient, as they press not the true cure of the touched, they may sow greatness to their posterity disease ; and some other are so regular in proceedand succession. But these things are commonly ing according to art for the disease, as they respect not observed, but left to take their chance.
not sufficiently the condition of the patient. Take
one of a middle temper; or if it may not be found XXX. OF REGIMENT OF HEALTH. in one man, combine two of either sort ; and forget
not to call as well the best acquainted with your There is a wisdom in this beyond the rules of body, as the best reputed of for his faculty. physic: a man's own observation, what he finds good of, and what he finds hurt of, is the best phy
XXXI. OF SUSPICION. sic to preserve health. But it is a safer conclusion to say this, “ This agreeth not well with me, there Suspicions amongst thoughts, are like bats fore I will not continue it;" than this, “ I find no amongst birds, they ever fly by twilight. Certainly offence of this, therefore I may use it.” For they are to be repressed, or at the least well strength of nature in youth passeth over many guarded : for they cloud the mind, they lose friends, excesses, which are owing a man till his age. and they check with business, whereby business canDiscern of the coming on of years, and think not to not go on currently and constantly. They dispose do the same things still; for age will not be defied. kings to tyranny, husbands to jealousy, wise men to Beware of sudden change in any great point of diet, irresolution and melancholy. They are defects not and if necessity enforce it, fit the rest to it. For it in the heart, but in the brain ; for they take place is a secret both in nature and state, that it is safer in the stoutest natures; as in the example of Henry to change many things than one. Examine thy the Seventh of England; there was not a more suscustoms of diet, sleep, exercise, apparel, and the picious man, nor a more stout. And in such a comlike ; and try in any thing thou shalt judge hurtful, position they do small hurt. For commonly they to discontinue it by little and little; but so, as if are not admitted but with examination, whether thou dost find any inconvenience by the change, they be likely or no ? But in fearful natures they thou come back to it again ; for it is hard to distin- gain ground too fast. There is nothing makes a guish that which is generally held good and whole man suspect much, more than to know little : and some, from that which is good particularly, and fit I therefore men should remedy suspicion, by procuring
to know more, and not to keep their suspicions in knowledge. But let his questions not be troublesmother. What would men have? Do they think some, for that is fit for a poser. And let him be those they employ and deal with are saints ? Do sure to leave other men their turns to speak. Nay, they not think they will have their own ends, and if there be any that would reign, and take up all be truer to themselves than to them. Therefore the time, let him find means to take them off, and there is no better way to moderate suspicions, than | bring others on; as musicians use to do with those to account upon such suspicions as true, and yet to that dance too long galliards. If you dissemble bridle them as false : for so far a man ought to sometimes your knowledge of that you are thought make use of suspicions, as to provide, as if that to know, you shall be thought another time to know should be true that he suspects, yet it may do him that you know not. Speech of a man's self ought no hurt. Suspicions that the mind of itself gathers to be seldom, and well chosen. I knew one was are but buzzes; but suspicions that are artificially wont to say in scorn, “ He must needs be a wise nourished, and put into men's heads by the tales man, he speaks so much of himself;" and there is and whisperings of others, have stings. Certainly but one case wherein a man may commend himself the best mean to clear the way in this same wood of with good grace, and that is in commending virtue suspicions, is frankly to communicate them with the in another ; especially if it be such a virtue whereparty that he suspects; for thereby he shall be sure unto himself pretendeth. Speech of touch towards to know more of the truth of them than he did others should be sparingly used : for discourse ought before ; and withal shall make that party more cir to be as a field, without coming home to any man. cumspect not to give farther cause of suspicion. I knew two noblemen of the west part of England, But this would not be done to men of base natures: whereof the one was given to scoff, but kept ever for they, if they find themselves once suspected, royal cheer in his house; the other would ask of will never be true. The Italian says, “ Sospetto those that had been at the other's table, “ Tell licentia fede ;” as if suspicion did give a passport truly, was there never a flout or dry blow given ?" to faith; but it ought rather to kindle it to discharge To which the guest would answer, Such and such a itself.
thing passed. The lord would say, “ I thought he
would mar a good dinner.” Discretion of speech is XXXII. OF DISCOURSE.
more than eloquence; and to speak agreeably to him
with whom we deal, is more than to speak in good Some in their discourse desire rather commenda- words, or in good order. A good continued speech, tion of wit, in being able to hold all arguments, than without a good speech of interlocution, shows slowof judgment in discerning what is true ; as if it ness: and a good reply, or second speech, without were a praise to know what might be said, and not a good settled speech, showeth shallowness and what should be thought. Some have certain com weakness. As we see in beasts, that those that are mon-places and themes, wherein they are good, and weakest in the course, are yet nimblest in the turn : want variety : which kind of poverty is for the most as it is betwixt the greyhound and the hare. To part tedious, and, when it is once perceived, ridicu use too many circumstances ere one come to the lous. The honourablest part of talk is to give the matter, is wearisome; to use none at all, is blunt. occasion; and again, to moderate, and pass to somewhat else ; for then a man leads the dance. It
XXXIIL OF PLANTATIONS. is good in discourse and speech of conversation to vary, and intermingle speech of the present occasion Plantations are amongst ancient, primitive, and with arguments; tales with reasons; asking of ques- heroical works. When the world was young, it betions with telling of opinions; and jest with earnest; gat more children; but now it is old, it begets for it is a dull thing to tire, and, as we say now, to fewer : for I may justly account new plantations to jade any thing too far. As for jest, there be cer be the children of former kingdoms. I like a plantatain things which ought to be privileged from it; tion in a pure soil; that is, where people are not namely, religion, matters of state, great persons, any displanted to the end to plant in others. For else man's present business of importance, and any case it is rather an extirpation, than a plantation. Plantthat deserveth pity. Yet there be some that think ing of countries is like planting of woods ; for you their wits have been asleep, except they dart out must make account to lose almost twenty years somewhat that is piquant, and to the quick : that is profit, and expect your recompence in the end. For a vein which would be bridled;
the principal thing that hath been the destruction of Parce, puer, stimulis, et fortius utere loris.”
most plantations, hath been the base and hasty
drawing of profit in the first years. It is true, And generally men ought to find the difference be. speedy profit is not to be neglected, as far as may tween saltness and bitterness. Certainly he that stand with the good of the plantation, but no hath a satirical vein, as he maketh others afraid of farther. It is a shameful and unblessed thing, to his wit, so he had need be afraid of others' memory. take the scum of people, and wicked condemned He that questioneth much shall learn much, and men, to be the people with whom you plant; and not content much; but especially if he apply his ques-only so, but it spoileth the plantation; for they will tions to the skill of the persons whom he asketh ; ever live like rogues, and not fall to work, but be for he shall give them occasion to please themselves lazy, and do mischief, and spend victuals, and be in speaking, and himself shall continually gather quickly weary, and then certify over to their country
to the discredit of the plantation. The people caution. Cram not in people, by sending too fast wherewith you plant ought to be gardeners, plough- company after company; but rather hearken how men, labourers, smiths, carpenters, joiners, fisher-they waste, and send supplies proportionably; but men, fowlers, with some few apothecaries, surgeons, so as the number may live well in the plantation, cooks, and bakers. In a country of plantation, first and not by surcharge be in penury. It hath been a look about what kind of victual the country yields of great endangering to the health of some plantations, itself to hand; as chestnuts, walnuts, pine-apples, that they have built along the sea and rivers, in olives, dates, plumbs, cherries, wild honey, and the marish and unwholesome grounds. Therefore though like, and make use of them. Then consider what you begin there to avoid carriage, and other like victual or esculent things there are, which grow discommodities, yet build still rather upwards from speedily and within the year; as parsnips, carrots, the streams, than along. It concerneth likewise the turnips, onions, radishes, artichokes of Jerusalem, health of the plantation, that they have good store maiz, and the like. For wheat, barley, and oats, of salt with them, that they may use it in their victhey ask too much labour: but with peas and beans tuals when it shall be necessary. If you plant you may begin ; both because they ask less labour, where savages are, do not only entertain them with and because they serve for meat, as well as for trifles and gingles; but use them justly and gracibread. And of rice likewise cometh a great increase, ously, with sufficient guard nevertheless : and do not and it is a kind of meat. Above all, there ought to win their favour by helping them to invade their be brought store of biscuit, oatmeal, flour, meal, and enemies; but for their defence it is not amiss. And the like, in the beginning, till bread may be had. send oft of them over to the country that plants, For beasts or birds, take chiefly such as are least that they may see better condition than their own, subject to diseases, and multiply fastest: as swine, and commend it when they return. When the plangoats, cocks, hens, turkeys, geese, house-doves, and tation grows to strength, then it is time to plant the like. The victual in plantations ought to be with women as well as men; that the plantation expended almost as in a besieged town; that is, with may spread into generations, and not be ever pieced certain allowance. And let the main part of the from without. It is the sinfullest thing in the world ground employed to gardens or corn be to a common to forsake or destitute a plantation once in forwardstock; and to be laid in, and stored up, and then ness: for besides the dishonour, it is the guiltiness delivered out in proportion ; besides some spots of of blood of many commiserable persons. ground that any particular person will manure for his own private use. Consider likewise what commo.
xxxiv. OF RICHES. dities the soil where the plantation is doth naturally yield, that they may some way help to defray the I cannot call riches better than the baggage of charge of the plantation : so it be not, as was said, virtue. The Roman word is better, "impedimenta.” to the untimely prejudice of the main business; as For as the baggage is to an army, so are riches to it hath fared with tobacco in Virginia Wood com virtue. It cannot be spared, nor left behind, but it monly aboundeth but too much : and therefore tim- hindereth the march; yea, and the care of it someber is fit to be one. If there be iron ore, and streams times loseth or disturbeth the victory. Of great whereupon to set the mills; iron is a brave commo riches there is no real use, except it be in the disdity where wood aboundeth. Making of bay-salt, tribution ; the rest is but conceit. So saith Soloif the climate be proper for it, would be put in ex
“ Where much is, there are many to consume perience. Growing silk likewise, if any be, is a it; and what hath the owner, but the sight of it likely commodity. Pitch and tar, where store of with his eyes?” The personal fruition in any man, firs and pines are, will not fail. So drugs and sweet cannot reach to feel great riches: there is a custody woods, where they are, cannot but yield great profit. of them ; or a power of dole and donative of them; Soap-ashes, likewise, and other things that may
or a fame of them; but no solid use to the owner. thought of. But moil not too much under ground; Do you not see what feigned prices are set upon for the hope of mines is very uncertain, and useth little stones and rarities ? And what works of ostento make the planters lazy in other things. Fortation are undertaken, because there might seem to government, let it be in the hands of one assisted be some use of great riches ? But then you will say, with some counsel: and let them have commission they may be of use, to buy men out of dangers or to exercise martial laws with some limitation. And troubles. As Solomon saith, “Riches are as a strong above all, let men make that profit of being in the hold in the imagination of the rich man.” But this wilderness, as they have God always, and his ser- is excellently expressed, that it is in imagination, vice, before their eyes. Let not the government of and not always in fact. For certainly great riches the plantation depend upon too many counsellors have sold more men than they have bought out. and undertakers in the country that planteth, but Seek not proud riches, but such as thou mayest get upon a temperate number ; and let those be rather justly, use soberly, distribute cheerfully, and leave noblemen and gentlemen, than merchants; for they contentedly. Yet have no abstract nor friarly conlook ever to the present gain. Let there be free-tempt of them : but distinguish, as Cicero saith well doms from custom, till the plantation be of strength : of Rabirius Posthumus; “in studio rei amplificandæ and not only freedom from custom, but freedom to apparebat, non avaritiæ prædam, sed instrumentum carry their commodities where they may make their bonitati quæri.” Hearken also to Solomon, and bebest of them, except there be some special cause of ware of hasty gathering of riches : “Qui festinat ad
divitias, non erit insons." The poets feign, that where they are not restrained, are great means to when Plutus, which is riches, is sent from Jupiter, enrich; especially if the party have intelligence he limps, and goes slowly ; but when he is sent what things are like to come into request, and so from Pluto, he runs, and is swift of foot: meaning, store himself beforehand. Riches gotten by serthat riches gotten by good means and just labour, vice, though it be of the best rise, yet when they pace slowly ; but when they come by the death of are gotten by flattery, feeding humours, and other others, as by the course of inheritance, testaments, servile conditions, they may be placed amongst the and the like, they come tumbling upon a man. But worst. As for fishing for testaments and executorit might be applied likewise to Pluto, taking him ships, as Tacitus saith of Seneca, “ Testamenta et for the devil. For when riches come from the devil, orbos tanquam indagine capi,” it is yet worse ; by as by fraud, and oppression, and unjust means, they how much men submit themselves to meaner percome upon speed. The ways to enrich are many, sons, than in service. Believe not much them that and most of them foul. Parsimony is one of the seem to despise riches; for they despise them that best, and yet is not innocent: for it withholdeth despair of them: and none worse when they come men from works of liberality and charity. The to them. Be not penny-wise; riches have wings, improvement of the ground is the most natural ob- and sometimes they fly away of themselves, sometaining of riches; for it is our great mother's bless- times they must be set flying to bring in more. Men ing, the earth's; but it is slow. And yet, where leave their riches either to their kindred, or to the men of great wealth do stoop to husbandry, it mul public: and moderate portions prosper best in both. tiplieth riches exceedingly. I knew a nobleman in A great estate left to an heir, is as a lure to all the England that had the greatest audits of any man in birds of prey round about, to seize on him, if he be my time: a great grazier, a great sheep-master, a not the better established in years and judgment. great timber-man, a great collier, a great corn Likewise glorious gifts and foundations are like master, a great lead-man; and so of iron, and a sacrifices without salt; and but the painted number of the like points of husbandry : so as the sepulchres of alms, which soon will putrify and earth seemed a sea to him, in respect of the perpe- corrupt inwardly. Therefore measure not thine adtual importation. It was truly observed by one, vancements by quantity, but frame them by measure: that himself came very hardly to a little riches, and and defer not charities till death : for certainly, if a very easily to great riches. For when a man's man weigh it rightly, he that doth so, is rather stock is come to that, that he can expect the prime liberal of another man's than of his own. of markets, and overcome those bargains, which for their greatness are few men's money, and be partner
XXXV. OF PROPHECIES. in the industries of young men, he cannot but increase mainly. The gains of ordinary trades and I mean not to speak of divine prophecies, nor of vocations are honest, and farthered by two things, heathen oracles, nor of natural predictions; but only chiefly, by diligence, and by a good name for good of prophecies that have been of certain memory, and fair dealing. But the gains of bargains are of and from hidden causes. Saith the Pythonissa to a more doubtful nature, when men should wait upon Saul; “To-morrow thou and thy son shall be with others' necessity ; broke by servants and instruments me." Virgil hath these verses from Homer: to draw them on; put off others cunningly that would
“At domus Æneæ cunctis dominabitur oris, be better chapmen, and the like practices, which Et nati natorum, et qui nascentur ab illis." are crafty and naught. As for the chopping of
Æneid. iii. 97. bargains, when a man buys, not to hold, but to sell
A prophecy, as it seems, of the Roman empire. over again, that commonly grindeth double, both
Seneca the tragedian hath these verses : upon the seller, and upon the buyer. Sharings do
Venient annis greatly enrich, if the hands be well chosen that are
Secula seris, quibus oceanus trusted. Usury is the certainest means of gain,
Vincula rerum laxet, et ingens though one of the worst, as that whereby a man
Pateat tellus, Tiphysque novos doth eat his bread “in sudore vultus alieni ;” and
Detegat orbes; nec sit terris
Ultima Thule" beside, doth plough upon Sundays. But yet certain though it be, it hath flaws; for that the scriveners a prophecy of the discovery of America. The and brokers do value unsound men, to serve their daughter of Polycrates dreamed, that Jupiter bathed own turn. The fortune in being the first in an in- her father, and Apollo anointed him: and it came to vention, or in privilege, doth cause sometimes a pass, that he was crucified in an open place, where wonderful overgrowth in riches; as it was with the the sun made his body run with sweat, and the rain first sugar-man in the Canaries. Therefore, if a washed it. Philip of Macedon dreamed he sealed man can play the true logician, to have as well judg- up his wife's belly; whereby he did expound it, ment as invention, he may do great matters, espe that his wife should be barren; but Aristander the cially if the times be fit. He that resteth upon gains soothsayer told him, his wife was with child: becertain, shall hardly grow to great riches. And he cause men do not use to seal vessels that are empty. that puts all upon adventures, doth oftentimes break, A phantasm that appeared to M. Brutus, in his and come to poverty: it is good therefore to guard tent, said to him, “ Philippis iterum me videbis." adventures with certainties that may uphold losses. Tiberius said to Galba, " Tu quoque, Galba, degusMonopolies, and coemption of wares for re-sale, tabis imperium." In Vespasian's time there went
a prophecy in the east, that those that should come when they miss; as they do, generally, also of forth of Judea, should reign over the world; which dreams. The second is, that probable conjectures, though it may be was meant of our Saviour, yet or obscure traditions, many times, turn themselves Tacitus expounds it of Vespasian. Domitian dream-into prophecies: while the nature of man, which ed, the night before he was slain, that a golden head coveteth divination, thinks it no peril to foretell that, was growing out of the nape of his neck: and indeed which indeed they do but collect; as that of Senethe succession that followed him, for many years, ca's verse. For so much was then subject to demade golden times. Henry the sixth of England monstration, that the globe of the earth had great said of Henry the seventh, when he was a lad, and parts beyond the Atlantic, which might be probably gave him water; “ This is the lad that shall enjoy conceived not to be all sea: and adding thereto the crown for which we strive." When I was in the tradition in Plato's Timæus, and his Atlanticus, France, I heard from one Dr. Pena, that the queen- it might encourage one to turn it to a prediction. mother, who was given to curious arts, caused the The third and last, which is the great one, is, that king her husband's nativity to be calculated under a almost all of them, being infinite in number, have false name; and the astrologer gave a judgment, that been impostures, and by idle and crafty brains, merehe should be killed in a duel; at which the queen ly contrived and feigned, after the event passed. laughed, thinking her husband to be above challenges and duels : but he was slain upon a course at tilt,
XXXVI. OF AMBITION. the splinters of the staff of Montgomery going in at his beaver. The trivial prophecy, which I heard Ambition is like choler, which is an humour that when I was a child, and queen Elizabeth was in the maketh men active, earnest, full of alacrity, and flower of her years, was;
stirring, if it be not stopped. But if it be stopped, “ When hempe is spun,
and cannot have its way, it becometh adust, and England's done.”
thereby malign and venomous.
So ambitious men,
if they find the way open for their rising, and still Whereby it was generally conceived, that after the get forward, they are rather busy than dangerous ; princes had reigned, which had the principal letters but if they be checked in their desires, they become of that word hempe, which were Henry, Edward, secretly discontent, and look upon men and matMary, Philip, and Elizabeth, England should come ters with an evil eye, and are best pleased when to utter confusion; which, thanks be to God, is veri. things go backward; which is the worst property fied only in the change of the name, for that the king's in a servant of a prince or state. Therefore it style is now no more of England, but of Britain. is good for princes, if they use ambitious men, to There was also another prophecy before the year handle it so, as they be still progressive, and not of eighty-eight, which I do not well understand : retrograde; which, because it cannot be without “ There shall be seen upon a day,
inconvenience, it is good not to use such natures at Between the Baugh and the May,
all. For if they rise not with their service, they The black fleet of Norway. When that is come and
will take order to make their service fall with them. gone, England build houses of lime and stone,
But since we have said it were good not to use men For after wars shall you have none."
of ambitious natures, except it be upon necessity, it It was generally conceived to be meant of the Spanis fit we speak, in what cases they are of necessity. ish fleet that came in eighty-eight. For that the Good commanders in the wars must be taken, be king of Spain's surname, as they say, is Norway. they never so ambitious : for the use of their serThe prediction of Regiomontanus,
vice dispenseth with the rest; and to take a soldier
without ambition, is to pull off his spurs. There is “ Octogesimus octavus mirabilis annus :"
also great use of ambitious men, in being screens to was thought likewise accomplished, in the sending princes, in matters of danger and envy: for no man of that great fleet, being the greatest in strength, will take that part except he be like a seeled dove, though not in number, of all that ever swam upon the that mounts, and mounts, because he cannot see
As for Cleon's dream, I think it was a jest: about him. There is use also of ambitious men it was, that he was devoured of a long dragon; and in pulling down the greatness of any subject that it was expounded of a maker of sausages, that trou- over-tops; as Tiberius used Macro in the pulling bled him exceedingly. There are numbers of the down of Sejanus. Since therefore they must be like kind; especially if you include dreams, and used in such cases, there resteth to speak how they predictions of astrology. But I have set down these are to be bridled, that they may be less dangerous. few only of certain credit, for example. My judg.There is less danger of them, if they be of mean ment is, that they ought all to be despised, and birth, than if they be noble ; and if they be rather ought to serve but for winter talk by the fire-side. harsh of nature, than gracious and popular; and if Though when I say despised, I mean it as for they be rather new raised, than grown cunning and belief: for otherwise, the spreading or publishing of fortified in their greatness. It is counted by some them, is in no sort to be despised; for they have done a weakness in princes to have favourites; but it is much mischief. And I see many severe laws made of all others, the best remedy against ambitious to suppress them. That that hath given them great ones. For when the way of pleasuring and grace, and some credit, consisteth in three things: displeasuring lieth by the favourite, it is impossible first, that men mark when they hit, and never mark | any other should be over-great. Another means to