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are but a gallery of pictures; and talk but a tinkling purnia; this man lifted him gently by the arm out
cymbal, where there is no love. The Latin adage of his chair, telling him, He hoped he would not
meeteth with it a little ; “ Magna civitas, magna dismiss the senate, till his wife had dreamed a bet-
solitudo ;” because in a great town friends are scat ter dream. And it seemeth, his favour was so great,
tered, so that there is not that fellowship, for the as Antonius, in a letter which is recited verbatim
most part, which is in less neighbourhoods. But in one of Cicero's Philippics, calleth him
we may go farther and affirm most truly, that it is fica,” witch; as if he had enchanted Cæsar. Au-
a mere and miserable solitude, to want true friends, gustus raised Agrippa, though of mean birth, to
without which the world is but a wilderness. And that height, as when he consulted with Mæcenas
even in this sense also of solitude, whosoever in the about the marriage of his daughter Julia, Mæcenas
frame of his nature and affections is unfit for friend- took the liberty to tell him, That he must either
ship, he taketh it of the beast, and not from hu- marry his daughter to Agrippa, or take away his

life; there was no third way, he had made him so A principal fruit of friendship is the ease and great. With Tiberius Cæsar Sejanus had ascended discharge of the fulness and swellings of the heart, to that height, as they two were termed and reckwhich passions of all kinds do cause and induce. oned as a pair of friends. Tiberius in a letter to We know diseases of stoppings and suffocations are him ith; "Hæc pro amicitiâ nostrâ non occultavi:” the most dangerous in the body; and it is not much and the whole senate dedicated an altar to friendotherwise in the mind; you may take sarza to open ship as to a goddess, in respect of the great dearthe liver ; steel to open the spleen; flour of sul ness of friendship between them two. The like or phur for the lungs; castoreum for the brain ; but more was between Septimius Severus and Plantiano receipt openeth the heart but a true friend, to For he forced his eldest son to marry the whom you may impart griefs, joys, fears, hopes, daughter of Plantianus; and would often maintain suspicions, counsels, and whatsoever lieth upon Plantianus in doing affronts to his son: and did the heart, to oppress it, in a kind of civil shrift or write also in a letter to the senate by these words: confession.

“ I love the man so well, as I wish he may overIt is a strange thing to observe, how high a rate live me.” Now if these princes had been as a Tragreat kings and monarchs do set upon this fruit of jan or a Marcus Aurelius, a man might have thought friendship, whereof we speak; so great, as they that this had proceeded of an abundant goodness of purchase it many times at the hazard of their own nature; but being men so wise, of such strength safety and greatness. For princes, in regard of the and severity of mind, and so extreme lovers of themdistance of their fortune from that of their subjects selves, as all these were ; it proveth most plainly, and servants, cannot gather this fruit, except, to that they found their own felicity, though as great make themselves capable thereof, they raise some as ever happened to mortal men, but as an half persons to be as it were companions, and almost piece, except they might have a friend to make it equals to themselves; which many times sorteth entire; and yet, which is more, they were princes to inconvenience. The modern languages give unto that had wives, sons, nephews; and yet all these such persons the name of favourites or privadoes; could not supply the comfort of friendship. as if it were matter of grace or conversation : but It is not to be forgotten what Commineus observ. the Roman name attaineth the true use and cause eth of his first master duke Charles the Hardy, thereof; naming them “ participes curarum ;" for namely, That he would communicate his secrets it is that which tieth the knot. And we see plainly, with none: and least of all those secrets which that this hath been done, not by weak and passion- troubled him most. Whereupon he goeth on, and ate princes only, but by the wisest and most politic saith, That towards his latter time, that closeness that ever reigned, who have oftentimes joined to did impair, and a little perish his understanding. themselves some of their servants, whem both them. Surely Commineus might have made the same judgselves have called friends, and allowed others like ment also if it had pleased him, of his second maswise to call them in the same manner, using the ter Lewis the eleventh, whose closeness was indeed word which is received between private men. his tormentor. The parable of Pythagoras is dark,

L. Sylla, when he commanded Rome, raised but true; “ Cor ne edito,” eat not the heart. CerPompey, after surnamed the Great, to that height, tainly, if a man would give it a hard phrase, those that Pompey vaunted himself for Sylla's over-match. that want friends to open themselves unto, are canFor when he had the consulship for a friend of his nibals of their own hearts. But one thing is most against the pursuit of Sylla, and that Sylla did a admirable, wherewith I will conclude this first fruit little resent thereat, and began to speak great, Pom- of friendship, which is, that this communicating of pey turned upon him again, and in effect bade him a man's self to his friend works two contrary effects; be quiet; for that more men adored the sun rising, for it redoubleth joys and cutteth griefs in halfs. For than the sun setting. With Julius Cæsar, Decimus there is no man that imparteth his joys to his Brutus had obtained that interest, as he set him friend, but he joyeth the more ; and no man that down in his testament for heir in remainder after imparteth his griefs to his friend, but he grieveth his nephew. And this was the man that had power the less. So that it is in truth of operation upon a with him to draw him forth to his death. For when man's mind of like virtue, as the alchemists use to Cæsar would have discharged the senate, in regard attribute to their stone, for man's body; that it of some ill presages, and especially a dream of Cal- | worketh all contrary effects, but still to the good and

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benefit of nature. But yet, without praying in aid | sort, do commit for want of a friend to tell them of of alchemists, there is a manifest image of this in them ; to the great damage both of their fame and the ordinary course of nature. For in bodies, union fortune. For, as St. James saith, they are as men strengtheneth and cherisheth any natural action ; " that look sometimes into a glass, and presently and on the other side, weakeneth and dulleth any forget their own shape and favour.” As for busiviolent impression; and even so is it of minds. ness, a man may think if he will, that two eyes see

The second fruit of friendship is healthful and no more than one; or that a gamester seeth always sovereign for the understanding, as the first is for more than a looker-on; or that a man in anger is the affections. For friendship maketh indeed a as wise as he that hath said over the four and fair day in the affections, from storm and tempests ; twenty letters; or that a musket may be shot off, as but it maketh day-light in the understanding, out of well upon the arm, as upon a rest; and such other darkness and confusion of thoughts : neither is this fond and high imaginations, to think himself, all in to be understood only of faithful counsel, which a all. But when all is done, the help of good counsel man receiveth from his friend; but before you come is that which setteth business straight. And if any to that, certain it is, that whosoever hath his mind man think, that he will take counsel, but it shall be fraught with many thoughts, his wits and underby pieces; asking counsel in one business of one standing do clarify and break up in the communi- man, and in another business of another man; it is cating and discoursing with another: he tosseth his well, that is to say, better perhaps than if he asked thoughts more easily; he marshalleth them more none at all, but he runneth two dangers : one, that orderly ; he seeth how they look when they are he shall not be faithfully counselled; for it is a rare turned into words; finally, he waxeth wiser than thing, except it be from a perfect and entire friend, himself; and that more by an hour's discourse, to have counsel given, but such as shall be bowed than by a day's meditation. It was well said by and crooked to some ends which he hath that giveth Themistocles to the king of Persia, That speech was it. The other, that he shall have counsel given, like cloth of Arras, opened and put abroad, whereby hurtful and unsafe, though with good meaning, and the imagery doth appear in figure; whereas in mixed partly of mischief, and partly of remedy: thoughts they lie but as in packs. Neither is this even as if you would call a physician that is thought second fruit of friendship, in opening the under- good for the cure of the disease you complain of, but standing, restrained only to such friends, as are is unacquainted with your body; and therefore may able to give a man counsel : they indeed are best : put you in way for a present cure, but overthroweth but even, without that, a man learneth of himself your health in some other kind, and so cure the and bringeth his own thoughts to light, and whet- disease and kill the patient. But a friend that is teth his wits as against a stone, which itself cuts wholly acquainted with a man's estate, will beware not. In a word; a man were better relate himself by farthering any present business how he dasheth to a statue or picture, than to suffer his thoughts to upon other inconvenience. And therefore rest not pass in smother.

upon scattered counsels; they will rather distract Add now, to make this second fruit of friendship and mislead, than settle and direct. complete, that other point which lieth more open, After these two noble fruits of friendship, peace and falleth within vulgar observation; which is in the affections, and support of the judgment, folfaithful counsel from a friend. Heraclitus saith loweth the last fruit, which is like the pomegranate, well in one of his ænigmas, Dry light is ever the full of many kernels; I mean aid, and bearing a best. And certain it is, that the light that a man part in all actions and occasions. Here the best receiveth by counsel from another, is drier and way to represent to life the manifold use of friendpurer, than that which cometh from his own under ship, is to cast and see how many things there are standing and judgment; which is ever infused and which a man cannot do himself; and then it will drenched in his affections and customs.

appear that it was a sparing speech of the ancients there is as much difference between the counsel to say, That a friend is another himself; for that a that a friend giveth, and that a man giveth himself, friend is far more than himself. Men have their as there is between the counsel of a friend, and of time, and die many times in desire of some things a flatterer. For there is no such flatterer as is a which they principally take to heart; the bestowing man's self; and there is no such remedy against of a child, the finishing of a work, or the like. If flattery of a man's self, as the liberty of a friend. a man have a true friend, he may rest almost secure, Counsel is of two sorts; the one concerning man that the care of those things will continue after him. ners, the other concerning business. For the first, So that a man hath as it were two lives in his the best preservative to keep the mind in health, is desires. A man hath a body, and that body is conthe faithful admonition of a friend. The calling a fined to a place ; but where friendship is, all offices man's self to a strict account, is a medicine some of life are as it were granted to him and his deputy: times too piercing and corrosive. Reading good for he may exercise them by his friend. How books of morality, is a little flat and dead. Observ- many things are there, which a man cannot, with ing our faults in others, is sometimes improper for any face or comeliness, say or do himself? A man our case : but the best receipt, best, I say, to work, can scarce allege his own merits with modesty, and best to take, is the admonition of a friend. It much less extol them : a man cannot sometimes is a strange thing to behold what gross errors and brook to supplicate or beg; and a number of the extreme absurdities many, especially of the greater / like. But all these things are graceful in a friend's

So as

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mouth, which are blushing in a man's own. So censure, applied at large to others.

Desired at a again, a man's person hath many proper relations, feast to touch a lute, he said, He could not fiddle, which he cannot put off. A man cannot speak to but yet he could make a small town a great city. his son, but as a father ; to his wife, but as a hus. These words, holpen a little with a metaphor, may þand; to his enemy, but upon terms; whereas a express two differing abilities in those that deal in friend may speak as the case requires, and not as it business of estate. For if a true survey be taken of sorteth with the person. But to enumerate these counsellors and statesmen, there may be found, things were endless ; I have given the rule, where though rarely, those which can make a small state a man cannot fitly play his own part; if he have great, and yet cannot fiddle; as on the other side, not a friend, he may quit the stage.

there will be found a great many that can fiddle

very cunningly, but yet are so far from being able to XXVIII. OF EXPENSE.

make a small state great, as their gift lieth the other

way; to bring a great and flourishing estate to ruin Riches are for spending; and spending for and decay. And certainly those degenerate arts honour and good actions. Therefore extraordinary and shifts, whereby many counsellors and governors expense must be limited by the worth of the occa- gain both favour with their masters, and estimation sion; for voluntary undoing may be as well for a with the vulgar, deserve no better name than man's country, as for the kingdom of heaven. But fiddling; being things rather pleasing for the time, ordinary expense ought to be limited by a man's and graceful to themselves only, than tending to the estate, and governed with such regard as it be within weal and advancement of the state which they serve. his compass; and not subject to deceit and abuse of There are also, no doubt, counsellors and governors servants; and ordered to the best show, that the which may be held sufficient, negotiis pares, able to bills may be less than the estimation abroad. Cer manage affairs, and to keep them from precipices tainly if a man will keep but of even hand, his ordi- and manifest inconveniences, which nevertheless are nary expenses ought to be but to the half of his far from the ability to raise and amplify an estate, receipts; and if he think to wax rich, but to the in power, means, and fortune. But be the workmen

It is no baseness for the greatest, to what they may be, let us speak of the work; that descend and look into their own estate. Some for- is, the true greatness of kingdoms and estates, and bear it, not upon negligence alone, but doubting to the means thereof. An argument fit for great and bring themselves into melancholy, in respect they mighty princes to have in their hand; to the end shall find it broken. But wounds cannot be cured that neither by over-measuring their forces they lose without searching. He that cannot look into his themselves in vain enterprises : nor on the other side, own estate at all, had need both choose well those by undervaluing them, they descend to fearful and whom he employeth, and change them often: for pusillanimous counsels.

third part.

new are more timorous and less subtile. He that The

greatness of an estate in bulk and territory

can look into his estate but seldom, it behoveth him doth fall under measure, and the greatness of
to turn all to certainties. A man had need, if he finances and revenue doth fall under computation.
be plentiful in some kind of expense, to be as saving The population may appear by musters; and the
again in some other. As if he be plentiful in diet, number and greatness of cities and towns by cards
to be saving in apparel : if he be plentiful in the and maps. But yet there is not any thing amongst
hall, to be saving in the stable: and the like. For civil affairs more subject to error, than the right
he that is plentiful in expenses of all kinds, will valuation and true judgment concerning the power
hardly be preserved from decay. In clearing of a and forces of an estate. The kingdom of heaven is
man's estate, he may as well hurt himself in being compared, not to any great kernel or nut, but to a
too sudden, as in letting it run on too long : for grain of mustard seed; which is one of the least
hasty selling is commonly as disadvantageable as grains, but hath in it a property and spirit hastily
interest. Besides, he that clears at once will re to get up and spread. So are there states, great in
lapse; for finding himself out of straits, he will re- territory, and yet not apt to enlarge or command ;
vert to his customs; but he that cleareth by degrees and some that have but a small dimension of stem;
induceth a habit of frugality, and gaineth as well and yet apt to be the foundations of great mon-
upon his mind as upon his estate. Certainly, who archies.
hath a state to repair, may not despise small things: Walled towns, stored arsenals and armouries,
and commonly it is less dishonourable to abridge goodly races of horse, chariots of war, elephants,
petty charges, than to stoop to petty gettings. A ordnance, artillery, and the like: all this is but a
man ought warily to begin charges, which once be sheep in a lion's skin, except the breed and disposi-
gun will continue; but in matters that return not, he tion of the people be stout and warlike. Nay, num-
may be more magnificent.

ber itself, in armies, importeth not much, where the

people is of weak courage; for, as Virgil saith, it XXIX. OF THE TRUE GREATNESS OF KING

never troubles a wolf how many the sheep be. The DOMS AND ESTATES.

army of the Persians, in the plains of Arbela, was

such a vast sea of people, as it did somewhat The speech of Themistocles the Athenian, which astonish the commanders in Alexander's army ; was haughty and arrogant in taking so much to who came to him therefore, and wished him to set himself, had been a grave and wise observation and upon them by night; but he answered he would not

pilfer the victory: and the defeat was easy. When profound and admirable; in making farms and Tigranes the Armenian, being encamped upon a hill houses of husbandry of a standard; that is, mainwith four hundred thousand men, discovered the tained with such a proportion of land unto them, as army of the Romans, being not above fourteen thou- may breed a subject to live in convenient plenty, and sand, marching towards him; he made himself no servile condition; and to keep the plough in the merry with it, and said, “ Yonder men are too many hands of the owners, and not mere hirelings. And for an embassage, and too few for a fight.” But thus indeed you shall attain to Virgil's character, before the sun set, he found them enow to give him which he gives to ancient Italy : the chase, with infinite slaughter. Many are the

“ Terra potens armis, atque ubere glebæ.” examples of the great odds between number and courage : so that a man may truly make a judgment, Neither is that state, which, for any thing I know, that the principal point of greatness in any state is is almost peculiar to England, and hardly to be found to have a race of military men. Neither is money any where else, except it be perhaps in Poland, to the sinews of war, as it is trivially said, where the be passed over; I mean the state of free servants, sinews of men's arms, in base and effeminate people, and attendants upon noblemen and gentlemen, which are failing. For Solon said well to Cræsus, when are no ways inferior unto the yeomanry for arms : in ostentation he showed him his gold, “Sir, if any and therefore out of all question, the splendour and other come that hath better iron than you, he will magnificence, and great retinues, and hospitality of be master of all this gold.” Therefore let any noblemen and gentlemen, received into custom, do prince or state think soberly of his forces, except much conduce unto martial greatness : whereas, conhis militia of natives be of good and valiant soldiers. trariwise, the close and reserved living of noblemen And let princes, on the other side, that have subjects and gentlemen causeth a penury of military forces. of martial disposition, know their own strength, un By all means it is to be procured, that the trunk less they be otherwise wanting unto themselves. of Nebuchadnezzar's tree of monarchy be great As for mercenary forces, which is the help in this enough to bear the branches and the boughs; that is, case, all examples show, that whatsoever estate or that the natural subjects of the crown or state bear prince doth rest upon them, he may spread his a sufficient proportion to the stranger subjects that feathers for a time, but he will mew them soon after they govern. Therefore all states, that are liberal

The blessing of Judah and Issachar will never of naturalization towards strangers, are fit for empire. meet; that the same people or nation should be both For to think that a handful of people can, with the the lion's whelp, and the ass between burdens. greatest courage and policy in the world, embrace Neither will it be, that a people over-laid with taxes too large extent of dominion, it may hold for a time, should ever become valiant and martial. It is true, but it will fail suddenly. The Spartans were a nice that taxes levied by consent of the estate, do abate people in point of naturalization ; whereby, while men's courage less; as it hath been seen notably in they kept their compass, they stood firm; but when the excises of the Low Countries; and, in some de- they did spread, and their boughs were become too gree, in the subsidies of England. For you must great for their stem, they became a windfall upon note, that we speak now of the heart, and not of the the sudden. Never any state was, in this point, so purse. So that although the same tribute and tax, open to receive strangers into their body, as were laid by consent, or by imposing, be all one to the the Romans; therefore it sorted with them accordpurse, yet it works diversly upon the courage. So ingly, for they grew to the greatest monarchy. that you may conclude, that no people overcharged | Their manner was to grant naturalization, which they with tribute is fit for empire.

called “jus civitatis," and to grant it in the highest Let states that aim at greatness, take heed how degree, that is, not only “jus commercii

, jus contheir nobility and gentlemen do multiply too fast; nubii, jus hereditatis ;” but also, “jus suffragii," and for that maketh the common subject grow to be a “jus honorum :" and this not to singular persons peasant and base swain, driven out of heart, and in alone, but likewise to whole families; yea, to cities, effect but the gentleman's labourer. Even as you and sometimes to nations. Add to this, their custom may see in coppice woods ; if you leave your stad- of plantation of colonies, whereby the Roman plant dles too thick, you shall never have clean underwood, was removed into the soil of other nations: and but shrubs and bushes. So in countries, if the gentle- putting both constitutions together, you will say, that men be too many, the commons will be base; and it was not the Romans that spread upon the world, you will bring it to that, that not the hundredth poll but it was the world that spread upon the Romans : will be fit for an helmet; especially as to the infan- and that was the sure way of greatness. I have try, which is the nerve of an army : and so there marvelled sometimes at Spain, how they clasp and will be great population, and little strength. This contain so large dominions, with so few natural which I speak of, hath been no where better seen, Spaniards : but sure the whole compass of Spain is than by comparing of England and Fran whereof a very great body of a tree, far above Rome and England, though far less in territory and population, Sparta at the first. And besides, though they have hath been, nevertheless, an overmatch ; in regard not had that usage, to naturalize liberally, yet they the middle people of England make good soldiers, have that which is next to it; that is, to employ, which the peasants of France do not. And herein almost indifferently, all nations in their militia of the device of king Henry the seventh, whereof Iordinary soldiers; yea, and sometimes in their highest have spoken largely in the history of his life, was commands. Nay, it seemeth at this instant, they

are sensible of this want of natives; as by the prag- sensible of wrongs, either upon borderers, merchants, matical sanction, now published, appeareth.

or politic ministers ; and that they sit not too long It is certain, that sedentary and within-door arts, upon a provocation. Secondly, let them be pressed and delicate manufactures, that require rather the and ready to give aids and succours to their confefinger than the arm, have in their nature a contra- derates; as it ever was with the Romans : insomuch, riety to a military disposition. And generally all as if the confederates had leagues defensive with diwarlike people are a little idle, and love danger better vers other states, and, upon invasion offered, did than travail: neither must they be too much broken implore their aids severally, yet the Romans would of it, if they shall be preserved in vigour. There ever be the foremost, and leave it to none other fore it was great advantage in the ancient states of to have the honour. As for the wars, which were Sparta, Athens, Rome, and others, that they had the anciently made on the behalf of a kind of party, or use of slaves, which commonly did rid those manu tacit conformity of estate, I do not see how they factures. But that is abolished, in greatest part, by may be well justified; as when the Romans made a the christian law. That which cometh nearest to it, war for the liberty of Græcia; or when the Lacedæis, to leave those arts chiefly to strangers, which for monians and Athenians made wars, to set up or pull that purpose are the more easily to be received, and down democracies and oligarchies; or when wars to contain the principal bulk of the vulgar natives were made by foreigners, under the pretence of juswithin those three kinds ; tillers of the ground, free. tice or protection, to deliver the subjects of others servants, and handicraftsmen of strong and manly from tyranny and oppression; and the like. Let it arts, as smiths, masons, carpenters, &c. not reckon- suffice, that no estate expect to be great, that is not ing professed soldiers.

awake upon any just occasion of arming. But above all, for empire and greatness, it im No body can be healthful without exercise, neither porteth most, that a nation do profess arms as their natural body nor politic : and certainly, to a kingdom principal honour, study, and occupation. For the lor estate, a just and honourable war is the true exthings which we formerly have spoken of, are but ercise. A civil war, indeed, is like the heat of a habilitations towards arms; and what is habilitation fever ; but a foreign war is like the heat of exercise, without intention and act? Romulus, after his death, and serveth to keep the body in health. For in a as they report or feign, sent a present to the Romans, slothful peace, both courages will effeminate, and that above all they should intend arms, and then manners corrupt. But howsoever it be for happiness they should prove the greatest empire of the world. without all question, for greatness it maketh, to be The fabric of the state of Sparta was wholly, though still

, for the most part, in arms : and the strength not wisely, framed and composed to that scope and of a veteran army, though it be a chargeable busiend. The Persians and Macedonians had it for a ness, always on foot, is that which commonly giveth flash. The Gauls, Germans, Goths, Saxons, Nor- the law, or at least the reputation, amongst all neighmans, and others, had it for a time. The Turks bour states, as may well be seen in Spain ; which have it at this day, though in great declination. Of hath had, in one part or other, a veteran army, christian Europe they that have it, are in effect almost continually, now by the space of six-score only the Spaniards. But it is so plain, that every years. man profiteth in that he most intendeth, that it need To be master of the sea, is an abridgement of a eth not to be stood upon. It is enough to point at monarchy. Cicero, writing to Atticus of Pompey his it; that no nation, which doth not directly profess preparation against Cæsar, saith, “Consilium Pomarms, may look to have greatness fall into their peii plane Themistocleum est; putat enim, qui mari mouths. And on the other side, it is a most certain potitur, eum rerum potiri.” And without doubt oracle of time, that those states that continue long Pompey had tired out Cæsar, if upon vain confidence in that profession, as the Romans and Turks princi- he had not left that way. We see the great effects pally have done, do wonders: and those that have of battles by sea. The battle of Actium decided the professed arms but for an age, have notwithstanding empire of the world. The battle of Lepanto arrested commonly attained that greatness in that age, which the greatness of the Turk. There be many examples, maintained them long after, when their profession where sea fights have been final to the war; but and exercise of arms hath grown to decay.

this is, when princes or states have set up their rest Incident to this point is, for a state to have those upon the battles. But thus much is certain ; that laws or customs, which may reach forth unto them he that commands the sea is at great liberty, and just occasions, as may be pretended, of war. For may take as much and as little of the war as he there is that justice imprinted in the nature of men, will. Whereas those that be strongest by land are that they enter not upon wars, whereof so many ca many times, nevertheless, in great straits. Surely, lamities do ensue, but upon some, at the least speci- at this day, with us of Europe, the vantage of strength ous, grounds and quarrels. The Turk hath at hand, at sea, which is one of the principal dowries of this for cause of war, the propagation of his law or sect; kingdom of Great Britain, is great: both because a quarrel that he may always command. The Ro- most of the kingdoms of Europe are not merely inmans, though they esteemed the extending the limits land, but girt with the sea, most part of their compass; of their empire to be great honour to their generals, and because the wealth of both Indies seems in when it was done ; yet they never rested upon that great part but an accessary to the command of the alone to begin a war. First therefore, let nations that pretend to greatness have this, that they be The wars of latter ages seem to be made in the


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