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Judgment by Induction. si. {Reduction inverse.





The Doctrine of the Use and Objects of the Faculties.


s The Invention of Arts

The Process from Experiment to Experiment, or Learned Experience. Art of Invention.

The Process from Experiments to Axioms, or the Art of Induction.
The Invention of Arguments.


S General.
Reduction direct.


Art of Judging.
Judgment by Syllogism. Analytics.

Confutation of Sophisms.
| Doctrine of Confutations.

Confutation of Interpretation.

Confutation of Idols or false Notions.
Appendix to the Art of Judging.–The Assignation of Demonstrations according to the Nature of the Subject.
The Doctrine of Helps for the Memory.

Art of Custody.... The Doctrine of the Memory itself


s Hieroglyphics and Gestures.
The Doctrine of the Organ (The Doctrine of the Marks of Things....
of Speech, or Literary Art of Speaking.–Sound. Measure.

Real Characters.

Art of Writing

Cypher. Decyphering.
Philosophical Grammar.

Doctrinal and initiative.

Open and concealed.
Doctrine of Tradition.
Method of Speech, or Doctrine of traditive Prudence

Aphoristical and regular.
s The Disposition of a whole Work. Question and Answer.
Method has two Parts....

(The Limitation of Propositions. Method of conquering Prejudice.
The Doctrine of the Illustration of Speech, or Rhetoric.

A Collection of Sophisms.
Three Appendages to this Doctrine. A Collection of studied Antithets.

A Collection of lesser Forms of Speech.
- Two Appendages to the Doctrine of Tradition. The Art of Criticism.

School Learning.

Individual or Self Good ......

s Conservative.
The Exemplar of Good...

Good of Communion

Duties of Man in common.

Respective Duties.
The Doctrine of Men's Natures and Dispositions.
The Cultivation of the Mind The Inquiry into the Affections.

The Doctrine of Remedies.
Appendix to the Cultivation of the Mind.—The Relation between the Good of the Mind and the Good of the Body.
Prudence in Conversation.

The Doctrine of various Occasions.
Prudence in Business

1 The Doctrine of rising in Life.

The Doctrine of enlarging the Bounds of Empire. Prudence in Government

| The Doctrine of universal Justice.

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Historia literarum.

History is Natural, Civil, Ecclesi- ment to the appetite of curious and vain wits, as the

astical, and Literary; whereof the manner of mirabilaries is to do; but for two reasons, three first I allow as extant, the fourth I note as both of great weight: the one to correct the partialdeficient. For no man hath propounded to himself ity of axioms and opinions, which are commonly the general state of learning to be described and framed only upon common and familiar examples; represented from age to age, as many have done the the other, because from the wonders of nature is works of nature, and the state civil and ecclesiasti- the nearest intelligence and passage towards the cal; without which the history of the world seemeth wonders of art: for it is no more, but by followto me to be as the statue of Polyphemus with his ing, and as it were hounding nature in her wandereye out, that part being wanting which doth most ings, to be able to lead her afterwards to the same show the spirit and life of the person : and yet I place again. am not ignorant, that in divers particular sciences, Neither am I of opinion, in this history of maras of the jurisconsults, the mathematicians, the rhe- vels, that superstitious narrations of sorceries, witchtoricians, the philosophers, there are set down some crafts, dreams, divinations, and the like, where there small memorials of the schools, authors, and books ; is an assurance and clear evidence of the fact, be and so likewise some barren relations touching the altogether excluded. For it is not yet known in inventions of arts or usages.

what cases, and how far, effects attributed to superBut a just story of learning, containing the anti- stition do participate of natural causes: and therequities and originals of knowledges and their sects, fore howsoever the practice of such things is to be their inventions, their traditions, their diverse ad- condemned, yet from the speculation and consideraministrations and managings, their flourishings, their tion of them light may be taken, not only for the oppositions, decays, depressions, oblivions, removes, discerning of the offences, but for the farther diswith the causes and occasions of them, and all other closing of nature. Neither ought a man to make events concerning learning, throughout the ages of scruple of entering into these things for inquisition the world, I may truly affirm to be wanting. of truth, as your majesty hath shown in your own

The use and end of which work, I do not so example; who with the two clear eyes of religion much design for curiosity, or satisfaction of those and natural philosophy have looked deeply and that are the lovers of learning, but chiefly for a wisely into these shadows, and yet proved yourself more serious and grave purpose, which is this in to be of the nature of the sun, which passeth through few words, that it will make learned men wise in pollutions, and itself remains as pure as before. the use and administration of learning, For it is But this I hold fit, that these narrations, which not St. Augustine's nor St. Ambrose's works that have mixture with superstition, be sorted by themwill make so wise a divine, as ecclesiastical history selves, and not be mingled with the narrations, throughly read and observed ; and the same rea which are merely and sincerely natural. son is of learning.

But as for the narrations touching the prodigies History of Nature is of three sorts; of nature and miracles of religions, they are either not true, in course, of nature erring or varying, and of nature or not natural; and therefore impertinent for the altered or wrought; that is, history of creatures, story of nature. history of marvels, and history of arts.

For history of nature wrought, or

Historia The first of these, no doubt, is extant, and that mechanical, i find some collections

mechanica in good perfection; the two latter are handled so made of agriculture, and likewise of weakly and unprofitably, as I am moved to note manual arts, but commonly with a rejection of them as deficient.

experiments familiar and vulgar. For I find no sufficient or competent For it is esteemed a kind of dishonour unto learnHistoria natu- collection of the works of nature, which ing, to descend to inquiry or meditation upon mat

have a digression and deflexion from ters mechanical, except they be such as may be the ordinary course of generations, productions, and thought secrets, rarities, and special subtilties; motions, whether they be singularities of place and which humour of vain and supercilious arrogancy region, or the strange events of time and chance, or is justly derided in Plato ; where he brings in Hipthe effects of yet unknown properties, or the in- pias, a vaunting sophist, disputing with Socrates, a stances of exception to general kinds : it is true, I true and unfeigned inquisitor of truth; where the find a number of books of fabulous experiments subject being touching beauty, Socrates, after his and secrets, and frivolous impostures for pleasure wandering manner of inductions, put first an examand strangeness: but a substantial and severe col ple of a fair virgin, and then of a fair horse, and lection of the heteroclites, or irregulars of nature, then of a fair pot well glazed, whereat Hippias was well examined and described, I find not, especially offended ; and said, “ More than for courtesy's not with due rejection of fables, and popular errors : sake, he did not think much to dispute with any for as things now are, if an untruth in nature be that did allege such base and sordid instances :" once on foot, what by reason of the neglect of ex whereunto Socrates answered, “ You have reason, amination and countenance of antiquity, and what and it becomes you well, being a man so trim in by reason of the use of the opinion in similitudes your vestments,” &c. And so goeth on in an irony. and ornaments of speech, it is never called down. But the truth is, they be not the highest instances

The use of this work, honoured with a precedent that give the securest information ; as may be well in Aristotle, is nothing less than to give content- I expressed in the tale so common of the philosopher,

ræ errantis.

that while he gazed upwards to the stars fell into Antiquities, or remnants of history, are, as was the water; for if he had looked down he might said, tanquam tabula naufragii, when industrious have seen the stars in the water, but looking aloft, persons, by an exact and scrupulous diligence and he could not see the water in the stars. So it observation, out of monuments, names, words, procometh often to pass, that mean and small things verbs, traditions, private records and evidences, fragdiscover great, better than great can discover the ments of stories, passages of books that concern not small; and therefore Aristotle noteth well, “ that story, and the like, do save and recover somewhat the nature of every thing is best seen in his small from the deluge of time. est portions." And for that cause he inquireth the In these kinds of imperfect histories I do assign nature of a commonwealth, first in a family, and the no deficience, for they are tanquam imperfectæ simple conjugations of man and wife, parent and mista, and therefore any deficience in them is but child, master and servant, which are in every cot their nature. tage. Even so likewise the nature of this great city As for the corruptions and moths of history, of the world, and the policy thereof, must be first which are Epitomes, the use of them deserveth to sought in mean concordances and small portions. be banished, as all men of sound judgment have conSo we see how that secret of nature, of the turning of fessed, as those that have fretted and corroded the iron, touched with the loadstone, towards the north, sound bodies of many excellent histories, and was found out in needles of iron, not in bars of iron. wrought them into base and unprofitable dregs.

But if my judgment be of any weight, the use of History, which may be called Just and Perfect History Mechanical is, of all others, the most radical History, is of three kinds, according to the object and fundamental towards natural philosophy; such which it propoundeth, or pretendeth to represent: natural philosophy as shall not vanish in the fume for it either representeth a time, or a person, or an of subtile, sublime, or delectable speculation, but action. The first we call Chronicles, the second such as shall be operative to the endowment and Lives, and the third Narrations, or Relations. benefit of man's life : for it will not only minister Of these, although the first be the most complete and suggest for the present many ingenious prac- and absolute kind of history, and hath most estimatices in all trades, by a connexion and transferring tion and glory, yet the second excelleth it in profit of the observations of one art to the use of another, and use, and the third in verity and sincerity. For when the experiences of several mysteries shall fall history of times representeth the magnitude of acunder the consideration of one man's mind; but far- tions, and the public faces and deportments of perther, it will give a more true and real illumination con- sons, and passeth over in silence the smaller pascerning causes and axioms than is hitherto attained. sages and motions of men and matters.

For like as a man's disposition is never well But such being the workmanship of God, as he known till he be crossed, nor Proteus ever changed doth hang the greatest weight upon the smallest shapes till he was straitened and held fast; so the wires, maxima è minimis suspendens, it comes therepassages and variations of nature cannot appear so fore to pass, that such histories do rather set forth fully in the liberty of nature, as in the trials and the pomp of business than the true and inward revexations of art.

sorts thereof. But lives, if they be well written,

propounding to themselves a person to represent, in For Civil History, it is of three kinds, not unfitly whom actions, both greater and smaller, public and to be compared with the three kinds of pictures or private, have a commixture, must of necessity conimages : for of pictures or images, we see, some are tain a more true, native, and lively representation. unfinished, some are perfect, and some are defaced. So again narrations and relations of actions, as the So of histories we may find three kinds, Memorials, War of Peloponnesus, the Expedition of Cyrus Minor, Perfect Histories, and Antiquities ; for memorials the Conspiracy of Catiline, cannot but be more purely are history unfinished, or the first or rough draughts and exactly true, than histories of times, because of history; and antiquities are history defaced, or they may choose an argument comprehensible within some remnants of history which have casually the notice and instructions of the writer: whereas escaped the shipwreck of time.

he that undertaketh the story of a time, especially Memorials, or preparatory history, are of two of any length, cannot but meet with many blanks sorts, whereof the one may be termed Commentaries, and spaces, which he must be forced to fill up out and the other Registers. Commentaries are they of his own wit and conjecture. which set down a continuance of the naked events For the History of Times, I mean of civil history, and actions, without the motives or designs, the the providence of God hath made the distribution : counsels, the speeches, the pretexts, the occasions, for it hath pleased God to ordain and illustrate two and other passages of action : for this is the true exemplar states of the world for arms, learning, nature of a Commentary, though Cæsar, in modesty moral virtue, policy, and laws; the state of Græcia, mixed with greatness, did for his pleasure apply the and the state of Rome: the histories whereof occuname of a Commentary to the best history of the pying the middle part of time, have more ancient to world. Registers are collections of public acts, as them, histories which may by one common name be decrees of council, judicial proceedings, declarations termed the Antiquities of the world; and after them, and letters of state, orations, and the like, without histories which may be likewise called by the name a perfect continuance or contexture of the thread of Modern History. of the narration.

Now to speak of the deficiencies. As to the

heathen antiquities of the world, it is in vain to note And now last, this most happy and glorious event, them for deficient: deficient they are no doubt, con that this island of Britain, divided from all the world, sisting most of fables and fragments, but the defi- should be united in itself: and that oracle of rest, cience cannot be holpen; for antiquity is like fame, given to Æneas, “ Antiquam exquirite matrem," caput inter nubila condit, her head is muffled from should now be performed and fulfilled upon the our sight. For the history of the exemplar states, nations of England and Scotland, being now reunited it is extant in good perfection. Not but I could in the ancient mother name of Britain, as a full wish there were a perfect course of history for period of all instability and peregrinations : so that Græcia from Theseus to Philopæmen, what time the as it cometh to pass in massive bodies, that they affairs of Græcia were drowned and extinguished in have certain trepidations and waverings before they the affairs of Rome; and for Rome from Romulus fix and settle ; so it seemeth that by the providence to Justinianus, who may be truly said to be ultimus of God, this monarchy, before it was to settle in your Romanorum. In which sequences of story the text majesty and your generations, in which I hope it is of Thucydides and Xenophon in the one, and the now established for ever, it had these prelusive text of Livius, Polybius, Salustius, Cæsar, Appianus, changes and varieties. Tacitus, Herodianus, in the other, to be kept entire, For Lives; I do find strange that these times have without any diminution at all, and only to be sup so little esteemed the virtues of the times, as that plied and continued. But this is matter of magni- the writing of lives should be no more frequent. For ficence, rather to be commended than required; and although there be not many sovereign princes or we speak now of parts of learning supplemental, absolute commanders, and that states are most coland not of supererogation.

lected into monarchies, yet there are many worthy But for Modern Histories, whereof there are some personages that deserve better than dispersed report few very worthy, but the greater part beneath me or barren elogies. For herein the invention of one diocrity, leaving the care of foreign stories to foreign of the late poets is proper, and doth well enrich the states, because I will not be curiosus in alienâ re ancient fiction: for he feigneth, that at the end of the publicâ, I cannot fail to represent to your majesty thread or web of every man's life there was a little the unworthiness of the history of England in the medal containing the person's name, and that Time main continuance thereof, and the partiality and waited upon the shears; and as soon as the thread obliquity of that of Scotland, in the latest and largest was cut, caught the medals, and carried them to the author that I have seen; supposing that it would river of Lethe ; and about the bank there were be honour for your majesty, and a work very me many birds flying up and down, that would get the morable, if this island of Great Britain, as it is now medals, and carry them in their beak a little while, joined in monarchy for the ages to come, so were and then let them fall into the river : only there joined in one history for the times passed, after the were a few swans, which if they got a name, would manner of the sacred history, which draweth down carry it to a temple, where it was consecrated. the story of the ten tribes, and of the two tribes, as And though many men, more mortal in their af. twins, together. And if it shall seem that the great- fections than in their bodies, do esteem desire of ness of this work may make it less exactly perform name and memory but as a vanity and ventosity, ed, there is an excellent period of a much smaller

“Animi nil magnæ laudis egentes;” compass of time, as to the story of England ; that is to say, from the uniting of the roses to the uniting which opinion cometh from the root, "non prius of the kingdoms : a portion of time, wherein, to my laudes contempsimus, quam laudanda facere desiviunderstanding, there hath been the rarest varieties, mus :" yet that will not alter Solomon's judgment, that in like number of successions of any hereditary " Memoria justi cum laudibus, at impiorum nomen monarchy hath been known: for it beginneth with putrescet:" the one flourisheth, the other either the mixed adeption of a crown by arms and title; consumeth to present oblivion, or turneth to an ill an entry by battle, an establishment by marriage ; odour. and therefore times answerable, like waters after And therefore in that style or addition, which is a tempest, full of working and swelling, though and hath been long well received and brought in without extremity of storm : but well passed through use, “felicis memoriæ, piæ memoriæ, bonæ memoby the wisdom of the pilot, being one of the most riæ,” we do acknowledge that which Cicero saith, sufficient kings of all the number. Then followeth borrowing it from Demosthenes, that " bona fama the reign of a king, whose actions, howsoever con propria possessio defunctorum ;" which possession ducted, had much intermixture with the affairs of I cannot but note, that in our times it lieth much Europe, balancing and inclining them variably; in waste, and that therein there is a deficience. whose time also began that great alteration in the For Narrations and Relations of particular actions, state ecclesiastical, an action which seldom cometh there were also to be wished a greater diligence upon the stage. Then the reign of a minor : then therein ; for there is no great action but hath some an offer of an usurpation, though it was but as febris good pen which attends it. ephemera : then the reign of a queen matched with And because it is an ability not common to write a foreigner : then of a queen that lived solitary and a good history, as may well appear by the small unmarried, and yet her government so masculine, as number of them; yet if particularity of actions it had greater impression and operation upon the memorable were but tolerably reported as they pass, states abroad than it any ways received from thence. I the compiling of a complete history of times might

be the better expected, when a writer should arise “Nosque ubi primus equis oriens aflavit anhelis, that were fit for it; for the collection of such

Illic sera rubens accendit lumina Vesper :” relations might be as a nursery garden, whereby yet that might be by demonstration, and not in fact; to plant a fair and stately garden, when time should and if by travel, it requireth the voyage but of half serve.

the globe. But to circle the earth, as the heavenly There is yet another partition of history which bodies do, was not done or enterprised till these Cornelius Tacitus maketh, which is not to be for later times : and therefore these times may justly gotten, especially with that application which he bear in their word, not only plus ultra in precedence accoupleth it withal, Annals and Journals : appro- of the ancient non ultra, and imitabile fulmen, in priating to the former, matters of state; and to the precedence of the ancient non imitabile fulmen, latter, acts and accidents of a meaner nature. For

“Demens qui nimbos et non imitabile fulmen,” etc. giving but a touch of certain magnificent buildings, he addeth, “Cum ex dignitate populi Romani re but likewise imitabile cælum; in respect of the pertum sit, res illustres annalibus, talia diurnis urbis many memorable voyages, after the manner of heaactis mandare.” So as there is a kind of contem- ven, about the globe of the earth. plative heraldry, as well as civil. And as nothing And this proficiency in navigation and discoveries doth derogate from the dignity of a state more than may plant also an expectation of the farther proficonfusion of degrees; so it doth not a little embase ciency and augmentation of all sciences ; because, the authority of a history, to intermingle matters it may seem, they are ordained by God to be coevals, of triumph, or matters of ceremony, or matters of that is, to meet in one age. For so the prophet novelty, with matters of state. But the use of a Daniel, speaking of the latter times, foretelleth ; journal hath not only been in the history of time, but “ Plurimi pertransibunt, et multiplex erit scientia ;" likewise in the history of persons, and chiefly of as if the openness and thorough passage of the actions : for princes in ancient time had, upon point world, and the increase of knowledge, were appointof honour and policy both, journals kept, of what ed to be in the same ages, as we see it is already passed day by day : for we see the chronicle which performed in great part: the learning of these latwas read before Ahasuerus, when he could not take ter times not much giving place to the former two rest, contained matters of affairs indeed, but such as periods or returns of learning, the one of the Grehad passed in his own time, and very lately before : cians, the other of the Romans. but the journal of Alexander's house expressed every small particularity even concerning his person and History ecclesiastical receiveth the same divi. court; and it is yet a use well received in enter- sions with history civil; but farther, in the propriety prises memorable, as expeditions of war, navigations, thereof, may be divided into the History of the and the like, to keep diaries of that which passeth church, by a general name; History of Prophecy; continually.

and History of Providence. I cannot likewise be ignorant of a form of writing, The first describeth the times of the militant which some grave and wise men have used, con- church, whether it be fluctuant, as the ark of Noah; taining a scattered history of those actions which or movable, as the ark in the wilderness; or at they have thought worthy of memory, with politic rest, as the ark in the temple; that is, the state of discourse and observation thereupon; not incorpo- the church in persecution, in remove, and in peace. rated into the history, but separately, and as the This part I ought in no sort to note as deficient, more principal in their intention ; which kind of only I would the virtue and sincerity of it were acruminated history I think more fit to place amongst cording to the mass and quantity. But I am not books of policy, whereof we shall hereafter speak, now in hand with censures, but with omissions. than amongst books of history : for it is the true The second, which is history of prooffice of history to represent the events themselves phecy, consisteth of two relatives, the

Prophetica. together with the counsels, and to leave the ob- prophecy, and the accomplishment; servations and conclusions thereupon to the liberty and therefore the nature of such a work ought to be, and faculty of every man's judgment; but mixtures that every prophecy of the Scripture be sorted with are things irregular, whereof no man can define. the event fulfilling the same, throughout the ages

So also is there another kind of history manifoldly of the world; both for the better confirmation of mixed, and that is History of Cosmography, being faith, and for the better illumination of the church compounded of natural history, in respect to the touching those parts of prophecies which are yet regions themselves; of history civil, in respect of unfulfilled: allowing nevertheless that latitude which the habitations, regiments, and manners of the peo- is agreeable and familiar unto divine prophecies, ple; and the mathematics, in respect of the climates being of the nature of their Author, with whom a and configurations towards the heavens : which part thousand years are but as one day, and therefore of learning of all others, in this latter time, hath are not fulfilled punctually at once, but have springobtained most proficience. For it may be truly ing and germinant accomplishment throughout many afirmed to the honour of these times, and in a ages; though the height or fulness of them may virtuous emulation with antiquity, that this great refer to some one age. building of the world had never thorough lights This is a work which I find deficient, but is to be done made in it, till the age of us and our fathers : for with wisdom, sobriety, and reverence, or not at all. although they had knowledge of the antipodes, The third, which is history of providence, con


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