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A man that is busy and inquisitive, is commonly Persons of noble blood are less envied in their envious : for to know much of other men's matters rising; for it seemeth but right done to their birth : cannot be, because all that ado may concern his own besides, there seemeth not much added to their forestate : therefore it must needs be, that he taketh tune; and envy is as the sun-beams, that beat hotter a kind of play-pleasure in looking upon the fortunes upon a bank or steep rising ground than upon a flat. of others; neither can he that mindeth but his own And for the same reason, those that are advanced business find much matter for envy. For envy is aby degrees, are less envied than those that are adgadding passion, and walketh the streets, and doth vanced suddenly, and per saltum. not keep home ; “ Non est curiosus, quin idem sit Those that have joined with their honour great malevolus.”
travels, cares, or perils, are less subject to envy : Men of noble birth are notec. to be envious to for men think that they earn their honours hardly, wards new men when they rise : for the distance and pity them sometimes ; and pity ever healeth is altered; and it is like a deceit of the eye, that envy: wherefore you shall observe, that the more when others come on, they think themselves go deep and sober sort of politic persons, in their greatback.
ness, are ever bemoaning themselves what a life Deformed persons and eunuchs, and old men and they lead, chanting a “ Quanta patimur:" not that bastards, are envious : for he that cannot possibly they feel it so, but only to abate the edge of envy. mend his own case, will do what he can to impair But this is to be understood of business that is laid another's; except these defects light upon very upon men, and not such as they call unto themselves : brave and heroical nature, which thinketh to make for nothing increaseth envy more, than an unneceshis natural wants part of his honour; in that it sary and ambitious engrossing of business : and noshould be said, that an eunuch or a lame man did thing doth extinguish envy more, than for a great such great matters; affecting the honour of a mira- person to preserve all other inferior officers in their cle: as it was in Narses the eunuch, and Agesilaus full rights and pre-eminences of their places: for and Tamerlane, that were lame men.
by that means there be so many screens between The same is the case of men that rise after cala- him and envy. mities and misfortunes; for they are as men fallen Above all, those are most subject to envy, which out with the times, and think other men's harms a carry the greatness of their fortunes in an insolent redemption of their own sufferings.
and proud manner : being never well but while they They that desire to excel in too many matters, out are showing how great they are, either by outward of levity and vain-glory, are ever envious, for they pomp, or by triumphing over all opposition or comcannot want work; it being impossible but many, petition : whereas wise men will rather do sacrifice in some one of those things, should surpass them. to envy, in suffering themselves sometimes of purWhich was the character of Adrian the emperor, pose to be crossed and overborne in things that do that mortally envied poets, and painters, and artifi- not much concern them. Notwithstanding, so much cers, in works wherein he had a vein to excel. is true, that the carriage of greatness in a plain
Lastly, near kinsfolks, and fellows in office, and and open manner, so it be without arrogancy and those that have been bred together, are more apt to vain-glory, doth draw less envy, than if it be in a envy their equals when they are raised. For it more crafty and cunning fashion. For in that course doth upbraid unto them their own fortunes, and a man doth but disavow fortune, and seemeth to be pointeth at them, and cometh oftener into their re conscious of his own want in worth, and doth but membrance, and incurreth likewise more into the teach others to envy him. note of others; and envy ever redoubleth from Lastly, to conclude this part; as we said in the speech and fame. Cain's envy was the more vile beginning, that the act of envy had somewhat in it and malignant towards his brother Abel, because, of witchcraft, so there is no other cure of envy, but when his sacrifice was better accepted, there was no the cure of witchcraft: and that is, to remove the body to look on. Thus much for those that are apt lot, as they call it, and to lay it upon another. For
which purpose, the wiser sort of great persons bring Concerning those that are more or less subject to in ever upon the stage somebody upon whom to envy: First, persons of eminent virtue, when they derive the envy that would come upon themselves; are advanced, are less envied. For their fortune sometimes upon ministers and servants, sometimes seemeth but due unto them ; and no man envieth upon colleagues and associates, and the like : and the payment of a debt, but rewards, and liberality for that turn, there are never wanting some persons rather. Again, envy is ever joined with the com of violent and undertaking natures, who, so they paring of a man's self; and where there is no com may have power and business, will take it at any parison, no envy; and therefore kings are not en cost. vied but by kings. Nevertheless it is to be noted, Now to speak of public envy. There is yet some that unworthy persons are most envied at their first good in public envy, whereas in private there is coming in, and afterwards overcome it better; where- none. For public envy is as an ostracism, that as contrariwise, persons of worth and merit are most eclipseth men when they grow too great: and thereenvied when their fortune continueth long. For by fore it is a bridle also to great ones, to keep them that time, though their virtue be the same, yet it within bounds. hath not the same lustre ; for fresh men grow up This envy, being in the Latin word invidia, goeth that darken it.
in the modern languages by the name of discontent
ment; of which we shall speak in handling sedition. I of this passion ; and how it braves the nature and It is a disease in a state like to infection : for as value of things by this, that the speaking in a perinfection spreadeth upon that which is sound, and petual hyperbole is comely in nothing but in love. tainteth it; so when envy is gotten once into a Neither is it merely in the phrase ; for whereas it state, it traduceth even the best actions thereof, and hath been well said, that the arch flatterer, with turneth them into an ill odour ; and therefore there whom all the petty flatterers have intelligence, is a is little won by intermingling of plausible actions : man's self; certainly the lover is more. For there for that doth argue but a weakness and fear of envy, was never proud man thought so absurdly well of which hurteth so much the more ; as it is likewise himself, as the lover doth of the person loved ; and usual in infections, which if you fear them, you call therefore it was well said, that it is impossible to love, them upon you.
and to be wise. Neither doth this weakness appear This public envy seemeth to beat chiefly upon to others only, and not to the party loved, but to the principal officers or ministers, rather than upon kings loved most of all ; except the love be reciproque. and estates themselves. But this is a sure rule, that if For it is a true rule, that love is ever rewarded the envy upon the minister be great, when the cause either with the reciproque, or with an inward and of it in him is small ; or if the envy be general in secret contempt : by how much the more men ought a manner upon all the ministers of an estate, then to beware of this passion, which loseth not only the envy, though hidden, is truly upon the state other things, but itself. As for the other losses, the itself. And so much of public envy or discontent- poet's relation doth well figure them; that he that ment, and the difference thereof from private envy, preferred Helena, quitted the gifts of Juno and Pal. which was handled in the first place.
las: for whosoever esteemeth too much of amorous We will add this in general touching the affec- affection, quitteth both riches and wisdom. This tion of envy: that of all other affections, it is the passion hath its floods in the very times of weakmost importune and continual : for of other affec-ness, which are great prosperity, and great adversity; tions there is occasion given but now and then: and though this latter hath been less observed: both therefore it is well said, " Invidia festos dies non which times kindle love, and make it more fervent, agit :" for it is ever working upon some or other. And and therefore, show it to be the child of folly. it is also noted, that love and envy do make a man They do best, who, if they cannot but admit love, pine, which other affections do not, because they are yet make it keep quarter; and sever it wholly from not so continual. It is also the vilest affection, and their serious affairs and actions of life: for if it the most depraved ; for which cause it is the proper check once with business, it troubleth men's fortunes, attribute of the devil, who is called “the envious and maketh men that they can no ways be true to man, that soweth tares amongst the wheat by night:" their own ends. I know not how, but martial men as it always cometh to pass, that envy worketh are given to love : I think it is, but as they are subtilty, and in the dark; and to the prejudice of given to wine; for perils commonly ask to be paid good things, such as is the wheat.
in pleasures. There is in man's nature a secret in
clination and motion towards love of others, which if X. OF LOVE.
it be not spent upon some one or a few, doth naturally
spread itself towards many, and maketh men beThe stage is more beholden to love, than the life come humane and charitable; as it is seen sometimes of man. For as to the stage, love is ever matter of in friars. (Nuptial love maketh mankind; friendly comedies, and now and then of tragedies; but in life love perfecteth it; but wanton love corrupteth and it doth much mischief, sometimes like a siren, some embaseth it. times like a fury. You may observe, that amongst all the great and worthy persons, whereof the me
XI. OF GREAT PLACE. mory remaineth, either ancient or recent, there is not one that hath been transported to the mad de Men in great place are thrice servants : servants gree of love ; which shows, that great spirits and of the sovereign or state ; servants of fame ; and great business do keep out this weak passion. You servants of business : so as they have no freedom, must except nevertheless Marcus Antonius, the half neither in their persons, nor in their actions, nor in partner of the empire of Rome, and Appius Claudius, their times. It is a strange desire, to seek power, the decemvir and lawgiver; whereof the former was and to lose liberty; or to seek power over others, indeed a voluptuous man and inordinate ; but the and to lose power over a man's self.,The rising unto latter was an austere and wise man: and therefore place is laborious; and by pains men come to greater it seems, though rarely, that love can find entrance, pains: and it is sometimes base; and by indignities not only into an open heart, but also into a heart men come to dignities. The standing is slippery, well fortified, if watch be not well kept. It is a poor and the regress is either a downfal, or at least an saying of Epicurus ; "Satis magnum alter alteri eclipse, which is a melancholy thing. “ Cum non sis theatrum sumus :” as if man, made for the con- qui fueris, non esse cur velis vivere ?” Nay, retire templation of heaven, and all noble objects, should men cannot when they would ; neither will they do nothing but kneel before a little idol, and make when it were reason ; but are impatient of privatehimself subject, though not of the mouth, as beasts ness, even in age and sickness, which require the are, yet of the eye, which was given him for higher shadow : like old townsmen, that will be still sitting purposes. It is a strange thing to note the excess at their street door, though thereby they offer age
to scorn. Certainly great persons had need to bor but integrity professed, and with a manifest detestarow other men's opinions to think themselves happy; tion of bribery, doth the other : and avoid not only for if they judge by their own feeling, they cannot the fault, but the suspicion. Whosoever is found find it; but if they think with themselves what other variable, and changeth manifestly without manifest men think of them, and that other men would fain cause, giveth suspicion of corruption. Therefore be as they are, then they happy as it were by always when thou changest thine opinion or course, report, when perhaps they find the contrary within. profess it plainly, and declare it, together with the For they are the first that find their own griefs ; reasons that move thee to change; and do not think though they be the last that find their own faults. to steal it. A servant or a favourite, if he be inCertainly men in great fortunes are strangers to ward, and no other apparent cause of esteem, is themselves, and while they are in the puzzle of commonly thought but a bye-way to close corruption. business, they have no time to tend their health For roughness, it is a needless cause of discontent ; either of body or mind. “Illi mors gravis incubat, severity breedeth fear, but roughness breedeth hate. qui notus nimis omnibus, ignotus moritur sibi.” In Even reproofs from authority ought to be grave, place there is licence to do good and evil; whereof and not taunting. As for facility, it is worse than the latter is a curse; for in evil the best condition bribery. For bribes come but now and then ; but if is not to will, the second not to can. (But power to importunity or idle respects lead a man, he shall do good is the true and lawful end of aspiring. For never be without. As Solomon saith ; "to respect good thoughts, though God accept them, yet towards persons is not good; for such a man will transgress men are little better than good dreams, except they for a piece of bread.” It is most true that was be put in act; and that cannot be without power anciently spoken, “ A place showeth the man :" and and place; as the vantage and commanding ground. it showeth some to the better, and some to the Merit and good works is the end of man's motion; worse ; “omnium consensu, capax imperii, nisi imand conscience of the same is the accomplishment perasset,” saith Tacitus of Galba : but of Vespasian of man's rest. For if a man can be partaker of he saith ; " solus imperantium Vespasianus mutatus God's theatre, he shall likewise be partaker of God's in melius." Though the one was meant of sufrest. “ Et conversus Deus, ut aspiceret opera, quæ ficiency, the other of manners and affection. It is fecerunt manus suæ, vidit quod omnia essent bona an assured sign of a worthy and generous spirit, nimis ;” and then the sabbath. In the discharge of whom honour amends. For honour is, or should thy place, set before thee the best examples; for be, the place of virtue: and as in nature things imitation is a globe of precepts. And after a time move violently to their place, and calmly in their set before thee thine own example; and examine thy place ; so virtue in ambition is violent, in authority self strictly, whether thou didst not best at first. settled and calm. All rising to great place is by a Neglect not also the examples of those, that have winding-stair; and if there be factions, it is good to carried themselves ill in the same place: not to set side a man's self whilst he is in the rising; and to off thyself by taxing their memory; but to director balance himself when he is placed. Use the memory thyself what to avoid. Reform, therefore, without of thy predecessor fairly and tenderly; for if thou bravery or scandal of former times and persons; but dost not, it is a debt will sure be paid when thou art yet set it down to thyself, as well to create good pre gone. If thou have colleagues, respect them, and cedents, as to follow them. Reduce things to the rather call them when they look not for it, than exfirst institution, and observe wherein and how they clude them when they have reason to look to be have degenerated; but yet ask counsel of both times: called. Be not too sensible, or too remembering of of the ancient time what is best; and of the latter thy place in conversation, and private answers to time what is fittest. Seek to make thy course suitors; but let it rather be said, When he sits in regular; that men may know beforehand what they place he is another man. may expect : but be not too positive and peremptory; and express thyself well when thou digressest from
XII. OF BOLDNESS. thy rule. Preserve the right of thy place, but stir not questions of jurisdictionand rather assume thy It is a trivial grammar-school text, but yet worthy right in silence, and de facto, than voice it with a wise man's consideration. Question was asked of claims and challenges. Preserve likewise the rights Demosthenes, what was the chief part of an orator ? of inferior places : and think it more honour to direct He answered, Action. What next ?-Action. What in chief, than to be busy in all. Embrace and in next again ?-Action. He said it that knew it best; vite helps and advices touching the execution of thy and had by nature himself no advantage in that he place; and do not drive away such as bring thee in commended. A strange thing, that that part of an formation, as meddlers, but accept of them in good orator, which is but superficial, and rather the virtue part. The vices of authority are chiefly four ; de of a player, should be placed so high above those lays, corruption, roughness, and facility. For de other noble parts of invention, elocution, and the lays; give easy access; keep times appointed ; go rest: nay almost alone, as if it were all in all. But through with that which is in hand; and interlace the reason is plain. There is in human nature, not business but of necessity. For corruption ; do generally, more of the fool than of the wise; and not only bind thine own hands, or thy servant's hand, therefore those faculties by which the foolish part from taking, but bind the hands of suitors also of men's minds is taken, are most potent. Wonderfrom offering. For integrity used doth the one ; ful like is the case of boldness in civil business; what
first ?—Boldness. What second and third p—Bold- the angels to fall; the desire of knowledge in excess
And yet boldness is a child of ignorance and caused man to fall: but in charity there is no excess; baseness, far inferior to other parts. But neverthe- neither can angel or man come in danger by it. The less it doth fascinate, and bind hand and foot those inclination to goodness is imprinted deeply in the that are either shallow in judgment, or weak in nature of man ; insomuch, that if it issue not tocourage, which are the greatest part; yea, and pre-wards men, it will take unto other living creatures; vaileth with wise men at weak times: therefore we as it is seen in the Turks, a cruel people, who see it hath done wonders in popular states, but with nevertheless are kind to beasts, and give alms to senates and princes less; and more ever upon the dogs and birds : insomuch, as Busbechius reporteth, first entrance of bold persons into action, than soon a christian boy in Constantinople had like to have after; for boldness is an ill keeper of promise. been stoned, for gagging, in a waggishness, a Surely, as there are mountebanks for the natural long-billed fowl. Errors indeed in this virtue of body, so there are mountebanks for the politic body: goodness or charity may be committed. The Italians men that undertake great cures, and perhaps have have an ungracious proverb; " Tanto buon che val been lucky in two or three experiments, but want niente;" So good that he is good for nothing. And the grounds of science, and therefore cannot hold one of the doctors of Italy, Nicholas Machiavel, out: nay, you shall see a bold fellow many times do had the confidence to put in writing, almost in plain Mahomet's miracle. Mahomet made the people terms, that the christian faith had given up good believe that he would call a hill to him, and from men in prey to those that are tyrannical and unthe top of it offer up prayers for the observers of just : which he spake, because indeed there was his law. The people assembled : Mahomet called never law, or sect, or opinion, did so much magnify the hill to come to him again and again; and when goodness, as the christian religion doth : therefore the hill stood still he was never a whit abashed, but to avoid the scandal, and the danger both, it is good said, “ If the hill will not come to Mahomet, Maho- to take knowledge of the errors of a habit so exmet will go to the hill.” So these men when they cellent. Seek the good of other men, but be not in have promised great matters, and failed most shame bondage to their faces or fancies; for that is but fully, yet, if they have the perfection of boldness, facility or softness, which taketh an honest mind they will but slight it over, and make a turn, and prisoner.) Neither give thou Æsop's cock a gem, no more ado. Certainly to men of great judgment who would be better pleased and happier if he had bold persons are a sport to behold; nay, and to the a barley-corn. The example of God teacheth the vulgar also boldness hath somewhat of the ridicu- lesson truly ; " he sendeth his rain and maketh his lous: for if absurdity be the subject of laughter, sun to shine upon the just and the unjust;" but he doubt you not but great boldness is seldom without doth not rain wealth nor shine honour and virtues some absurdity: especially it is a sport to see when upon men equally : common benefits are to be coma bold fellow is out of countenance, for that puts his municated with all, but peculiar benefits with choice. face into a most shrunken and wooden posture, as And beware, how in making the portraiture thou needs it must; for in bashfulness the spirits do a breakest the pattern; for divinity maketh the love little go and come ; but with bold men, upon like of ourselves the pattern, the love of our neighbours occasion, they stand at a stay; like a stale at chess, but the portraiture : “Sell all thou hast, and give it where it is no mate, but yet the game cannot stir: to the poor, and follow me.” But sell not all thou but this last were fitter for a satire, than for a seri- hast, except thou come and follow me; that is, exous observation. This is well to be weighed, that cept thou have a vocation, wherein thou mayest do boldness is ever blind; for it seeth not dangers and as much good with little means as with great: for inconveniences : therefore it is ill in counsel, good otherwise, in feeding the streams thou driest the in execution : so that the right use of bold persons fountain. Neither is there only a habit of goodness is, that they never command in chief, but be se directed by right reason ; but there is in some men, conds, and under the direction of others. For in even in nature, a disposition towards it; as on the counsel, it is good to see dangers; and in execution other side there is a natural malignity. For there not to see them, except they be very great.
be, that in their nature do not affect the good of
others. The lighter sort of malignity turneth but XIII. OF GOODNESS, AND GOODNESS OF
to a crossness, or frowardness, or aptness to oppose, NATURE.
or difficileness, or the like; but the deeper sort to
envy, and mere mischief. Such men, in other men's I take goodness in this sense, the affecting of the calamities, are as it were in season, and are ever on weal of men, which is that the Grecians called phi- the loading part : not so good as the dogs that lanthropia; and the word humanity, as it is used, is licked Lazarus' sores, but like flies that are still a little too light to express it. Goodness I call the buzzing upon any thing that is raw; misanthropi, habit, and goodness of nature the inclination. This that make it their practice to bring men to the of all virtues and dignities of the mind is the great bough, and yet have never a tree for the purpose est, being the character of the Deity; and without in their gardens, as Timon had. Such dispositions it man is a busy, mischievous, wretched thing, no are the very errors of human nature, and yet they better than a kind of vermin. Goodness answers to are the fittest timber to make great politics of; like the theological virtue, charity, and admits no excess to knee-timber, that is good for ships that are orbut error.
The desire of power in excess caused | dained to be tossed, but not for building houses that
shall stand firm. The parts and signs of goodness birth commonly abateth industry; and he that is not are many. If a man be gracious and courteous to industrious envieth him that is. Besides, noble perstrangers, it shows he is a citizen of the world, and sons cannot go much higher; and he that standeth that his heart is no island cut off from other lands, at a stay, when others rise, can hardly avoid motions but a continent that joins to them. If he be compas- of envy. On the other side, nobility extinguisheth sionate towards the afflictions of ers, it shows the passive envy from others towards them, because that his heart is like the noble tree that is wounded they are in possession of honour. Certainly kings itself when it gives the balm. If he easily pardons that have able men of their nobility, shall find ease and remits offences, it shows that his mind is plant- in employing them, and a better slide into their ed above injuries, so that he cannot be shot. If he business : for people naturally bend to them, as born be thankful for small benefits, it shows that he in some sort to command. weighs men's minds, and not their trash. But above all, if he have St. Paul's perfection, that he
XV. OF SEDITIONS AND TROUBLES. would wish to be an anathema from Christ for the salvation of his brethren, it shows much of a di Shepherds of people had need know the kalenvine nature, and a kind of conformity with Christ ders of tempests in state; which are commonly greathimself.
est when things grow to equality; as natural tempests are greatest about the equinoctia. And as there are
certain hollow blasts of wind, and secret swellings XIV. OF NOBILITY.
of seas, before a tempest, so are there in states : We will speak of nobility first as a portion of an
“Ille etiam cæcos instare tumultus estate, then as a condition of particular persons. A
Sæpe monet, fraudesque et operta tumescere bella.” monarchy, where there is no nobility at all, is ever a pure and absolute tyranny; as that of the Turks : Libels and licentious discourses against the state, for nobility attempers sovereignty, and draws the eyes when they are frequent and open, and in like sort of the people somewhat aside from the line royal. false news often running up and down to the disadBut for democracies, they need it not; and they are vantage of the state, and hastily embraced, are commonly more quiet, and less subject to sedition, amongst the signs of troubles. Virgil giving the than where there are stirps of nobles; for men's eyes pedigree of Fame, saith, she was sister to the giants. are upon the business, and not upon the persons: or
“Illam Terra parens, ira irritata Deorum, if upon the persons, it is for the business' sake, as Extremam, ut perhibent, Cæo Enceladoque sororem fittest, and not for flags and pedigree. We see the
Progenuit." Switzers last well, notwithstanding their diversity As if fames were the relics of seditions past : but of religion, and of cantons ; for utility is their bond, they are no less indeed the preludes of seditions to and not respects. The United Provinces of the Low
Howsoever he noted it right, that seditious Countries, in their government, excel : for where tumults, and seditious fames, differ no more, but as there is an equality, the consultations are more
brother and sister, masculine and feminine ; espeindifferent, and the payments and tributes more cially if it come to that, that the best actions of a cheerful. A great and potent nobility addeth majesty state, and the most plausible, and which ought to to a monarch, but diminisheth power; and putteth give greatest contentment, are taken in ill sense and life and spirit into the people, but presseth their traduced : for that shows the envy great, as Tacitus fortune. It is well when nobles are not too great saith ; "conflata magna invidia, seu bene, seu male, for sovereignty, nor for justice ; and yet maintained gesta premunt.” Neither doth it follow, that bein that height, as the insolency of inferiors may be cause these fames are a sign of troubles, that the broken upon them, before it come on too fast upon suppressing of them with too much severity should the majesty of kings. A numerous nobility caus be a remedy of troubles. For the despising of them eth poverty and inconvenience in a state, for it is many times checks them best: and the going about a surcharge of expense ; and besides, it being of to stop them, doth but make a wonder long-lived. necessity that many of the nobility fall in time to be Also that kind of obedience which Tacitus speaketh weak in fortune, it maketh a kind of disproportion of, is to be held suspected ; “ Erant in officio, sed between honour and means.
tamen qui mallent mandata imperantium interpretari As for nobility in particular persons; it is a reve quam exequi ;” disputing, excusing, cavilling upon rend thing to see an ancient castle or building not mandates, and directions, is a kind of shaking off the in decay; or to see a fair timber tree sound and yoke, and assay of disobedience: especially if in perfect; how much more to behold an ancient noble those disputings, they which are for the direction, family, which hath stood against the waves and speak fearfully and tenderly; and those that are weathers of time! for new nobility is but the act against it, audaciously. of power, but ancient nobility is the act of time. Also, as Machiavel noteth well, when princes, that Those that are first raised to nobility, are commonly ought to be common parents, make themselves as a more virtuous, but less innocent, than their descend- party, and lean to a side, it is as a boat that is overants; for there is rarely any rising, but by a com thrown by uneven weight on the one side : as was mixture of good and evil arts : but it is reason the well seen in the time of Henry the third of France; memory of their virtues remain to their posterity, for first, himself entered league for the extirpation and their faults die with themselves. Nobility of of the protestants; and presently after the same