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be impossible for me, by any pleading of mine, to ferred empire with any condition never so detestable; reverse the judgment, either of Asop's cock, that or of Ulysses, “qui vetulam prætulit immortalitati," preferred the barley-corn before the gem; or of Mi- being a figure of those which prefer custom and habit das, that being chosen judge between Apollo, presi- before all excellence; or of a number of the like dent of the Muses, and Pan, god of the flocks, popular judgments. For these things must continue judged for plenty; or of Paris, that judged for beau as they have been ; but so will that also continue, ty and love, against wisdom and power; or of Agrip whereupon learning hath ever relied, and which pina, “ Occidat matrem, modo imperet,” that pre- | faileth not : “ Justificata est sapientia a filiis suis.”
It might seem to have more convenience, though it advancement of learning, wherein I purpose to speak come often otherwise to pass, excellent king, that actively, without digressing or dilating. those, which are fruitful in their generations, and Let this ground therefore be laid, that all works have in themselves the foresight of immortality in are overcome by amplitude of reward, by soundness their descendants, should likewise be more careful of direction, and by the conjunction of labours. The of the good estate of future times, unto which, they first multiplieth endeavour, the second preventeth know, they must transmit and commend over their error, and the third supplieth the frailty of man; dearest pledges. Queen Elizabeth was a sojourner but the principal of these is direction : for "claudas in the world, in respect of her unmarried life, and in via antevertit cursorem extra viam ;” and Solowas a blessing to her own times; and yet so as the mon excellently setteth it down, “ If the iron be not impression of her good government, besides her sharp, it requireth more strength; but wisdom is happy memory, is not without some effect which that which prevaileth :” signifying, that the invendoth survive her. But to your majesty, whom God tion or election of the mean is more effectual than hath already blessed with so much royal issue, any enforcement or accumulation of endeavours. worthy to continue and represent you for ever: and This I am induced to speak, for that, not derogating whose youthful and fruitful bed doth yet promise from the noble intention of any that have been demany the like renovations; it is proper and agree servers towards the state of learning, I do observe, able to be conversant, not only in the transitory nevertheless, that their works and acts are rather parts of good government, but in those acts also matters of magnificence and memory, than of prowhich are in their nature permanent and perpetual: gression and proficience, and tend rather to aug. amongst the which, if affection do not transport me, ment the mass of learning, in the multitude of there is not any more worthy, than the farther en- learned men, than to rectify or raise the sciences dowment of the world with sound and faithful know-themselves. ledge. For why should a few received authors The works or acts of merit towards learning are stand up like Hercules's columns; beyond which conversant about three objects : the places of learnthere should be no sailing or discovering, since we ing, the books of learning, and the persons of the have so bright and benign a star as your majesty, learned. For as water, whether it be the dew of to conduct and prosper us? To return therefore heaven, or the springs of the earth, doin scatter and where we left, it remaineth to consider of what kind lose itself in the ground, except it be collected into those acts are, which have been undertaken and some receptacle, where it may by union comfort performed by kings and others, for the increase and and sustain itself; and for that cause the industry of
man hath made and framed spring-heads, conduits, | a tree bear more fruit than it hath used to do, it is cisterns, and pools, which men have accustomed not any thing you can do to the boughs, but it is likewise to beautify and adorn with accomplishments the stirring of the earth, and putting new mould of magnificence and state, as well as of use and ne about the roots, that must work it. Neither is it to cessity; so this excellent liquor of knowledge, be forgotten, that this dedicating of foundations and whether it descend from divine inspiration, or spring donations to professory learning, hath not only had from human sense, would soon perish and vanish to a malign aspect and influence upon the growth of oblivion, if it were not preserved in books, traditions, sciences, but hath also been prejudicial to states conferences, and places appointed; as universities, and governments. For hence it proceedeth that colleges, and schools, for the receipt and comforting princes find a solitude in regard of able men to serve of the same.
them in causes of state, because there is no educaThe works which concern the seats and places of tion collegiate which is free, where such as were learning are four : foundations and buildings, en so disposed might give themselves to histories, dowments with revenues, endowments with fran-modern languages, books of policy and civil dischises and privileges, institutions and ordinances course, and other the like enablements unto service for government; all tending to quietness and pri- of state. vateness of life, and discharge of cares and troubles; And because founders of colleges do plant, and much like the stations which Virgil prescribeth for founders of lectures do water, it followeth well in the hiving of bees:
order, to speak of the defect which is in public lec
tures; namely, in the smallness and meanness of “ Principio sede apibus statioque petenda, Quo neque sit ventis aditus, etc.
the salary or reward, which in most places is as
signed unto them; whether they be lectures of arts The works touching books are two; first, libra or of professions. For it is necessary to the prories, which are as the shrines where all the relics gression of sciences, that readers be of the most of the ancient saints, full of true virtue, and that able and sufficient men, as those which are ordained without delusion or imposture, are preserved and for generating and propagating of sciences, and not reposed : secondly, new editions of authors, with for transitory use. This cannot be, except their more correct impressions, more faithful translations, condition and endowment be such as may content more profitable glosses, more diligent annotations, the ablest man to appropriate his whole labour, and and the like.
continue his whole age in that function and attendThe works pertaining to the persons of learned ance, and therefore must have a proportion answermen, besides the advancement and countenancing of able to that mediocrity or competency of advancethem in general, are two: the reward and designa- ment, which may be expected from a profession, tion of readers in sciences already extant and in or the practice of a profession. So as, if you will vented; and the reward and designation of writers have sciences flourish, you must observe David's and inquirers concerning any parts of learning not military law, which was, “ That those which staid sufficiently laboured and prosecuted.
with the carriage, should have equal part with those These are summarily the works and acts, wherein which were in the action ;" else will the carriages the merits of many excellent princes and other wor be ill attended. So readers in sciences are indeed thy personages have been conversant. As for any the guardians of the stores and provisions of sciences, particular commemorations, I call to mind what whence men in active courses are furnished, and Cicero said, when he gave general thanks; “ Dif- therefore ought to have equal entertainment with ficile non aliquem, ingratum quenquam præterire." them; otherwise if the fathers in sciences be of the Let us rather, according to the Scriptures, look weakest sort, or be ill maintained, unto the part of the race which is before us, than
“Et patrum invalidi referent jejunia nati.” look back to that which is already attained.
First, therefore, among so many great foundations Another defect I note, wherein I shall need some of colleges in Europe, I find it strange that they are alchemist to help me, who call upon men to sell all dedicated to professions, and none left free to their books, and to build furnaces, quitting and for, arts and sciences at large. For if men judge that saking Minerva and the Muses as barren virgins, learning should be referred to action, they judge and relying upon Vulcan. But certain it is, that well; but in this they fall into the error described unto the deep, fruitful, and operative study of many in the ancient fable, in which the other parts of the sciences, especially natural philosophy and physic, body did suppose the stomach had been idle, because books be not the only instrumentals wherein also it neither performed the office of motion, as the the beneficence of men hath not been altogether limbs do, nor of sense, as the head doth; but yet, wanting: for we see spheres, globes, astrolabes, notwithstanding, it is the stomach that digesteth and maps, and the like, have been provided as appurtedistributeth to all the rest : so if any man think nances to astronomy and cosmography, as well as philosophy and universality to be idle studies, he books ; we see likewise, that some places instituted doth not consider that all professions are from thence for physic have annexed the commodity of gardens served and supplied. And this I take to be a great for simples of all sorts, and do likewise command cause that hath hindered the progression of learn the use of dead bodies for anatomies. But these ing, because these fundamental knowledges have do respect but a few things. In general, there will been studied but in passage. For if you will have | hardly be any main proficience in the disclosing of
nature except there be some allowance for expenses as near as may be to the life of practice, for otherabout experiments ; whether they be experiments wise they do pervert the motions and faculties of appertaining to Vulcanus or Dædalus, furnace or the mind, and not prepare them. The truth whereof engine, or any other kind; and therefore as secre is not obscure, when scholars come to the practices taries and spials of princes and states bring in bills of professions, or other actions of civil life, which for intelligence, so you must allow the spials and when they set into, this want is soon found by themintelligencers of nature to bring in their bills, or selves, and sooner by others. But this part, touching else you shall be ill advertised.
the amendment of the institutions and orders of uni. And if Alexander made such a liberal assignation versities, I will conclude with the clause of Cæsar's to Aristotle of treasure for the allowance of hunters, letter to Oppius and Balbus, “Hoc quemadmodum fowlers, fishers, and the like, that he might compile fieri possit, nonnulla mihi in mentem veniunt, et a history of nature, much better do they deserve it multa reperiri possunt : de iis rebus rogo vos, ut that travail in arts of nature.
cogitationem suscipiatis.” Another defect which I note, is an intermission or Another defect, which I note, ascendeth a little neglect, in those which are governors in universities, higher than the preceding ; for as the proficience of of consultation ; and in princes, or superior persons, learning consisteth much in the orders and instituof visitation : to enter into account and con dera- tions of universities in the same states and kingdoms, tion, whether the readings, exercises, and other cus so it would be yet more advanced, if there were toms, appertaining unto learning, anciently begun, more intelligence mutual between the universities of and since continued, be well instituted or not, and Europe than now there is. We see there be many thereupon to ground an amendment or reformation orders and foundations, which though they be diin that which shall be found inconvenient. For it vided under several sovereignties and territories, yet is one of your majesty's own most wise and princely they take themselves to have a kind of contract, framaxims, “That in all usages and precedents, the ternity, and correspondence one with another, insotimes be considered wherein they first began, which much as they have provincials and generals. And if they were weak or ignorant, it derogateth from surely as nature createth brotherhood in families, the authority of the usage, and leaveth it for sus and arts mechanical contract brotherhoods in compect.” And therefore inasmuch as most of the monalties, and the anointment of God superinduceth usages and orders of the universities were derived a brotherhood in kings and bishops; so in like from more obscure times, it is the more requisite manner there cannot but be a fraternity in learning they be re-examined. In this kind I will give an and illumination, relating to that paternity which is instance or two, for example sake, of things that attributed to God, who is called the Father of illuare the most obvious and familiar : the one is a minations or lights. matter, which though it be ancient and general, yet The last defect which I will note is, that there I hold to be an error, which is, that scholars in hath not been, or very rarely been, any public deuniversities come too soon and too unripe to logic signation of writers or inquirers concerning such and rhetoric, arts fitter for graduates than children parts of knowledge, as may appear not to have been and novices; for these two, rightly taken, are the already sufficiently laboured or undertaken : unto gravest of sciences, being the arts of arts, the one which point it is an inducement to enter into a view for judgment, the other for ornament. And they be and examination what parts of learning have been the rules and directions how to set forth and dispose prosecuted, and what omitted : for the opinion of matter; and therefore for minds empty and un- plenty is amongst the causes of want, and the great fraught with matter, and which have not gathered quantity of books maketh a show rather of superthat which Cicero calleth sylva and supellex, stuff | fluity than lack; which surcharge, nevertheless, is and variety, to begin with those arts, as if one should not to be remedied by making no more books, but by learn to weigh, or to measure, or to paint the wind, making more good books, which, as the serpent of doth work but this effect, that the wisdom of those Moses, might devour the serpents of the enchanters. arts, which is great and universal, is almost made The removing of all the defects formerly enumecontemptible, and is degenerate into childish so rated, except the last, and of the active part also of phistry and ridiculous affectation. And further, the the last, which is the designation of writers, are untimely learning of them hath drawn on, by con opera basilica ; towards which the endeavours of a sequence, the superficial and unprofitable teaching private man may be but as an image in a cross-way, and writing of them, as fitteth indeed to the capacity that may point at the way, but cannot go it. But of children. Another, is a lack I find in the exer the inducing part of the latter, which is the survey cises used in the universities, which do make too of learning, may be set forward by private travel : great a divorce between invention and memory ; for wherefore I will attempt to make a general and their speeches are either premeditate in verbis con- faithful perambulation of learning, with an inquiry ceptis, where nothing is left to invention; or merely what parts thereof lie fresh and waste, and not imextemporal, where little is left to memory ; whereas proved and converted by the industry of man; to the in life and action there is least use of either of these, end that such a plot, made and recorded to memory, but rather of intermixtures of premeditation and in- may both minister light to any public designation, vention, notes and memory; so as the exercise fit and also serve to excite voluntary endeavours : teth not the practice, nor the image the life ; and it wherein, nevertheless, my purpose is at this time to is ever a true rule in exercises, that they be framed | note only omissions and deficiencies, and not to make
any redargution of errors, or incomplete prosecu- | by many though not by any one ; and which may tions : for it is one thing to set forth what ground be done in succession of ages, though not within lieth unmanured, and another thing to correct ill the hour-glass of one man's life ; and which may husbandry in that which is manured.
be done by public designation, though not by private In the handling and undertaking of which work endeavour. I am not ignorant what it is that I do now move and But, notwithstanding, if any man will take to himattempt, nor insensible of mine own weakness to self rather that of Solomon, “ Dicit piger, Leo est sustain my purpose; but my hope is, that if my ex- in via,” than that of Virgil, “ Possunt quia posse treme love to learning carry me too far, I may ob- videntur :" I shall be content that my labours be tain the excuse of affection; for that “it is not esteemed but as the better sort of wishes; for as it granted to man to love and to be wise.” But, I asketh some knowledge to demand a question not know well, I can use no other liberty of judgment impertinent, so it requireth some sense to make a than I must leave to others; and I, for my part, wish not absurd. shall be indifferently glad either to perform myself, or accept from another, that duty of humanity “Nam The parts of human learning have reference to qui erranti comiter monstrat viam,” etc. I do fore- the three parts of man's Understanding, which is see likewise, that of those things which I shall enter the seat of learning : History to his Memory, Poesy and register, as deficiencies and omissions, many will to his Imagination, and Philosophy to his Reason. conceive and censure, that some of them are already Divine learning receiveth the same distribution, for done and extant; others to be but curiosities, and the spirit of man is the same, though the revethings of no great use; and others to be of too lation of oracle and sense be diverse : so as theology great difficulty, and almost impossibility to be com- consisteth also of history of the church; of parapassed and effected: but for the two first, I refer bles, which is divine poesy, and of holy doctrine or myself to the particulars; for the last, touching im- precept: for as for that part which seemeth superpossibility, I take it, those things are to be held numerary, which is prophecy, it is but divine hispossible, which may be done by some person, tory; which hath that prerogative over human, as though not by every one ; and which may be done I the narration may be before the fact, as well as after.
THE GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE.
History of the celestial Bodies.
History of the Earth and Sea.
Assemblages of matter.
History of the Species of Bodies, or
The general History of the Church.
Narrations or Relations.
Particular Civil History.
The true Use of Human Reason in Theology.
A Discourse upon the Degrees of Unity in the City of God.
Inspired Theology. The first Flowings of the Scriptures.
S The common Axioms of all Sciences.
The Transcendental Condition of Things.
The Doctrine of the Principles of Things.
Concrete Physics ; divided as Nat. History.
| The Schemes of Matter.
Appetites and Motions.
The Opinions of the ancient Philosophers.
The Investigation of Forms.
The Doctrine of final Causes.
The Doctrine of Union.
Cure of Diseases.
Prolongation of Life.
Arts of Activity.
s The Doctrine of voluntary Motion.
| The Doctrine of Sense and Sensibility. The Doctrine of the Substance and Faculties of the Soul.
Divination. Two Appendages to this Doctrine......