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rosemary and its flowers, saffron, musk, amber, rosemary and bays dried, which I use; but once in folium, i. e. nardi folium, balm-gentle, pimpernel, a week to add a little tobacco, without otherwise gems, gold, generous wines, fragrant apples, rose, taking it in a pipe. rosa moschata, cloves, lign-aloes, mace, cinnamon, 7. To appoint every day an hour ad affectus innutmeg, cardamom, galingal, vinegar, kermes berry, tentionales et sanos. Qu. de particulari. herba moschata, betony, white sanders, camphire, 8. To remember masticatories for the mouth. flowers of heliotrope, penny royal, scordium, opium 9. And orange-flower water to be smelt to or snuffcorrected, white pepper, nasturtium, white and red ed up. bean, castum dulce, dactylus, pine, fig, egg-shell, 10. In the third hour after the sun is risen, to vinum malvaticum, ginger, kidneys, oysters, crevises, take in air from some high and open place, with a or river crabs, seed of nettle, oil of sweet almonds, ventilation of rosæ moschatæ, and fresh violets; and sesaminum oleum, asparagus, bulbous roots, onions, to stir the earth, with infusion of wine and mint. garlic, eruca, daucus seed, eringo, siler montanus, 11. To use ale with a little enula campana, carthe smell of musk, cynethi odor, caraway seed, duus, germander, sage, angelica-seed, cresses of a flower of puls, aniseed, pellitory, anointing of the middle age, to beget a robust heat. testicles with oil of elder in which pellitory hath been
12. Mithridate thrice a year. boiled, cloves with goats milk, olibanum.
13. A bit of bread dipt in vino odorato, with
syrup of dry roses, and a little amber, at going to bed. An extract by the Lord Bacon, for his own use, out
14. Never to keep the body in the same posture of the book of the prolongation of life, together above half an hour at a time. with some new advices in order to health.
15. Four precepts. To break off custom. Το 1. Once in the week, or at least in the fortnight, shake off spirits il disposed. To meditate on youth. to take the water of mithridate distilled, with three To do nothing against a man's genius. parts to one, or strawberry-water to allay it; and 16. Syrup of quinces for the mouth of the some grains of nitre and saffron, in the morning be- stomach. Inquire concerning other things useful tween sleeps.
in that kind. 2. To continue my broth with nitre ; but to inter 17. To use once during supper time wine in which change it every other two days, with the juice of gold is quenched. pomegranates expressed, with a little cloves, and 18. To use anointing in the morning lightly with rind of citron.
oil of almonds, with salt and saffron, and a gentle 3. To order the taking of the maceration as rubbing followeth.
19. Ale of the second infusion of the vine of oak. To add to the maceration six grains of cremor 20. Methusalem water, of pearls and shells of tartari, and as much enula.
crabs, and a little chalk. To add to the oxymel some infusion of fennel 21. Ale of raisins, dactyles, potatoes, pistachios, roots in the vinegar, and four grains of angelica- honey, tragacanth, mastic. seed, and juice of lemons, a third part to the vinegar. 22. Wine with swines flesh or harts flesh.
To take it not so immediately before supper, and 23. To drink the first cup at supper hot, and half to have the broth specially made with barley, rose an hour before supper something hot and aromatised. mary, thyme, and cresses.
24. Chalybeates four times a year. Sometimes to add to the maceration three grains 25. Pilulæ ex tribus, once in two months, but of tartar, and two of enula, to cut the more heavy after the mass has been macerated in oil of almonds. and viscous humours; lest rhubarb work only upon 26. Heroic desires. the lightest.
27. Bathing of the feet once in a month, with lye To take sometimes the oxymel before it, and ex sale nigro, camomile, sweet marjoram, fennel, sometimes the Spanish honey simple.
sage, and a little aqua vitæ. 4. To take once in the month at least, and for 28. To provide always an apt breakfast. two days together, a grain and a half of castor, in 29. To beat the flesh before roasting of it. my broth, and breakfast.
30. Maceration in pickles. 5. A cooling clyster to be used once a month, after 31. Agitation of beer by ropes, or in wheelthe working of the maceration is settled.
barrows. Take of barley-water, in which the roots of bu 32. That diet is good which makes lean, and then gloss are boiled, three ounces, with two drams of red
Consider of the ways to effect it. sanders, and two ounces of raisins of the sun, and one ounce of dactyles, and an ounce and a half of MEDICAL RECEIPTS OF THE LORD BACON. fat caricks; let it be strained, and add to it an ounce and a half of syrup of violets : let a clyster be made. His Lordship's usual receipt for the Gout. To Let this be taken, with veal, in the aforesaid de which he refers, Nat. Hist. Cent. I. N. 60. coction. 6. To take every morning the fume of lign-aloes,
1. The poultis.
Take of manchet about three ounces, the crumb * Viz. of rhubarb infused into a draught of white wine and only thin cut; let it be boiled in milk till it grow to beer, mingled together for the space of half an hour, once in six or seven days. See the Lord Bacon's Life, by Dr. Raw.
a pulp. Add in the end a dram and a half of the ley, towards the end.
powder of red roses; of saffron ten grains ; of oil of
roses an ounce ; let it be spread upon a linen cloth, | mallows, one ounce; of anise and fennel seeds, toand applied lukewarm, and continued for three hours gether, one ounce and a half; of flax seed two space.
drams. Make a decoction in spring water. 2. The bath or fomentation.
The second receipt, showing the way of making Take of sage leaves half a handful; of the root a certain ointment, which his Lordship called of hemlock sliced six drams; of briony roots half an
Unguentum fragrans, sive Romanum, the fragrant ounce; of the leaves of red roses two pugils ; let
or Roman unguent. them be boiled in a pottle of water, wherein steel hath Take of the fat of a deer half a pound; of oil of been quenched, till the liquor come to a quart. sweet almonds two ounces : let them be set upon a After the straining, put in half a handful of bay salt. very gentle fire, and stirred with a stick of juniper Let it be used with scarlet cloth, or scarlet wool, till they are melted. Add of root of flower-de-luce dipped in the liquor hot, and so renewed seven times; powdered, damask roses powdered, together, one all in the space of a quarter of an hour, or little more. dram ; of myrrh dissolved in rose-water half a dram; 3. The plaster.
of cloves half a scruple; of civet four grains; of
musk six grains ; of oil of mace expressed one Take emplastrum diachalciteos, as much as is suf- drop; as much of rose-water as sufficeth to keep ficient for the part you mean to cover. Let it be dis- the unguent from being too thick. Let all these be solved with oil of roses, in such a consistence as will put together in a glass, and set upon the embers for stick; and spread upon a piece of holland, and applied. the space of an hour, and stirred with a stick of
juniper. His Lordship's broth and fomentation for the stone. Note, that in the confection of this ointment,
there was not used above a quarter of a pound, and The broth.
a tenth part of a quarter of deer's suet: and that all Take one dram of eryngium roots, cleansed and the ingredients, except the oil of almonds, were sliced; and boil them together with a chicken. In doubled when the ointment was half made, because the end, add of elder flowers, and marigold flowers the fat things seemed to be too predominant. together, one pugil; of angelica-seed half a dram, of raisins of the sun stoned, fifteen; of rosemary,
The third receipt. A manus Christi for the
stomach. thyme, mace, together, a little.
In six ounces of this broth or thereabouts, let Take of the best pearls very finely pulverised, one there be dissolved of white cremor tartari three dram; of sal nitre one scruple; of tartar two grains.
scruples; of ginger and galingal, together, one ounce Every third or fourth day, take a small toast of and a half; of calamus, root of enula campana, nutmanchet, dipped in oil of sweet almonds new meg, together, one scruple and a half; of amber sixdrawn, and sprinkled with a little loaf sugar. You teen grains ; of the best musk ten grains; with rosemay make the broth for two days, and take the one water and the finest sugar, let there be made a half every day.
manus Christi. If you find the stone to stir, forbear the toast for a course or two. The intention of this broth is, not
The fourth receipt. A secret for the stomach. to void, but to undermine the quarry of the stones Take lignum aloes in gross shavings, steep them in the kidneys.
in sack, or alicant, changed twice, half an hour at a
time, till the bitterness be drawn forth. Then take The fomentation.
the shavings forth, and dry them in the shade, and Take of leaves of violets, mallows, pellitory of the beat them to an excellent powder. Of that powder, wall, together, one handful; of flowers of camomile with the syrup of citron, make a small pill, to be and melilot, together, one pugil; the root of marsh. | taken before supper.
WORKS MORA L.
COLOURS OF GOOD AND EVIL.
TO THE LORD MOUNTJOYE.
I send you the last part of the best book of Aristotle of Stagira, who, as your Lordship knoweth, goeth for the best author. But saving the civil respect which is due to a received estimation, the man being a Grecian, and of a hasty wit, having hardly a discerning patience, much less a teaching patience, hath so delivered the matter, as I am glad to do the part of a good house-hen, which without any strangeness will sit upon pheasants’ eggs. And yet perchance, some that shall compare my lines with Aristotle's lines, will muse by what art, or rather by what revelation, I could draw these conceits out of that place. But I, that should know best, do freely acknowledge, that I had my light from him ; for where he gave me not matter to perfect, at the least he gave me occasion to invent. Wherein as I do him right, being myself a man that am as free from envying the dead in contemplation, as from envying the living in action or fortune : so yet, nevertheless, still I say, and I speak it more largely than before, that in perusing the writings of this person so much celebrated, whether it were the impediment of his wit, or that he did it upon glory and affectation to be subtile, as one that if he had seen his own conceits clearly and perspicuously delivered, perhaps would have been out of love with them himself; or else upon policy, to keep himself close, as one that had been a challenger of all the world, and had raised infinite contradiction : to what cause soever it is to be ascribed, I do not find him to deliver and unwrap himself well of that he seemeth to conceive ; nor to be a master of his own knowledge.
Neither do I for my part also, though I have brought in a new manner of handling this argument, to make it pleasant and lightsome, pretend so to have overcome the nature of the subject; but that the full understanding and use of it will be somewhat dark, and best pleasing the taste of such wits as are patient to stay the digesting and soluting unto themselves of that which is sharp and subtile. Which was the cause, joined with the love and honour which I bear to your Lordship, as the person I know to have many virtues, and an excellent order of them, which moved me to dedicate this writing to your Lordship after the ancient manner: choosing both a friend, and one to whom I conceived the argument was agreeable.
OF THE COLOURS OF GOOD AND EVIL.
In deliberatives, the point is, what is good, and | ter. Besides their power to alter the nature of the what is evil; and of good, what is greater, and of subject in appearance, and so to lead to error, they evil, what is less.
are of no less use to quicken and strengthen the So that the persuader's labour is, to make things opinions and persuasions which are true; for reaappear good or evil, and that in higher or lower sons plainly delivered, and always after one manner, degree ; which as it may be performed by true and especially with fine and fastidious minds, enter but solid reasons, so it may be represented also by co heavily and dully: whereas if they be varied, and lours, popularities, and circumstances; which are of have more life and vigour put into them by these such force, as they sway the ordinary judgment forms and insinuations, they cause a stronger appre. either of a weak man, or of a wise man, not fully hension, and many times suddenly win the mind to and considerately attending and pondering the mat a resolution. Lastly, to make a true and safe
judgment, nothing can be of greater use and defence | Sometimes because the nature of some kinds is to be to the mind, than the discovering and reprehension more equal, and more different, and not to have very of these colours, showing in what cases they hold, distant degrees; as hath been noted, in the warmer and in what they deceive : which, as it cannot be climates the people are generally more wise, but in done but out of a very universal knowledge of the the northern climates the wits of chief are greater. nature of things, so being performed, it so cleareth So in many armies, if the matter should be tried by man's judgment and election, as it is the less apt to duel between two champions, the victory should go slide into any error.
on the one side ; and yet if it be tried by the gross, it would go on the other side: for excellencies go
as it were by chance, but kinds go by a more certain A Table of the colours or appearances of Good and nature; as by discipline in war.
Evil, and their degrees, as places of persuasion Lastly; many kinds have much refuse, which and dissuasion, and their several fallacies, and countervail that which they have excellent: and the elenches of them.
therefore generally metal is more precious than
stone; and yet a diamond is more precious than gold. I.
III. Cui cætere partes vel secte secundas unanimiter
deferunt, cum singulæ principatum sibi vindicent, Quod ad veritatem refertur, majus est, quam quod melior reliquis videtur. Nam primas quæque ex ad opinionem. Modus autem et probatio ejus, zelo videtur sumere, secundas autem ex vero et quod ad opinionem pertinet, hæc est : quod quis, merito tribuere.
si clam putaret fore, facturus non esset. So Cicero went about to prove the sect of Acade So the Epicures say of the Stoics' felicity placed mics, which suspended all asseveration, for to be the in virtue, that it is like the felicity of a player, who if best. For, saith he, ask a Stoic which philosophy he were left of his auditory and their applause, is true, he will prefer his own. Then ask him, he would straight be out of heart and countenance ; which approacheth next to the truth, he will confess and therefore they call virtue bonum theatrale : but the Academics. So deal with the Epicure, that will of riches the poet saith, scarce endure the Stoic to be in sight of him; so
“Populus me sibilat; at mihi plaudo.” soon as he hath placed himself, he will place the Academics next him. So if a prince took divers And of pleasure, competitors to a place, and examined them severally,
“ Grata sub imo whom next themselves they would rarest commend,
Gaudia corde premens, vultu simulante pudorem.” it were like the ablest man should have the most The fallax of this colour is somewhat subtile, second voices.
though the answer to the example be ready, for The fallax of this colour happeneth oft in respect virtue is not chosen propter auram popularem; but of envy, for men are accustomed, after themselves contrariwise, maxime omnium teipsum reverere ; so and their own faction, to incline unto them which as a virtuous man will be virtuous in solitudine, and are softest, and are least in their way, in despite and not only in theatro, though percase it will be more derogation of them that hold them hardest to it. So strong by glory and fame, as a heat which is that this colour of meliority and pre-eminence is a doubled by reflexion. But that denieth the supposign of enervation and weakness.
sition, it doth not reprehend the fallax ; whereof the
reprehension is : Allow that virtue, such as is joined II.
with labour and conflict, would not be chosen but
for fame and opinion: yet it followeth not that the Cujus excellentia vel exuperantia melior, id toto
chief motive of the election should not be real and
for itself: for fame may be only causa impulsiva, and Appertaining to this are the forms : "Let us not not causa constituens or efficiens. As if there were two wander in generalities : Let us compare particular horses, and the one would do better without the spur with particular,” &c. This appearance, though it than the other: but again, the other with the spur seem of strength, and rather logical than rhetorical, would far exceed the doing of the former, giving him yet is very oft a fallax.
the spur also : yet the latter will be judged to be the Sometime because some things are in kind very better horse. And the form, as to say, “Tush, the life casual, which if they escape prove excellent; so of this horse is but in the spur," will not serve as to a that the kind is inferior, because it is so subject to wise judgment: for since the ordinary instrument of peril, but that which is excellent being proved is horsemanship is the spur, and that it is no matter superior: as the blossom of March, and the blossom of impediment or burden, the horse is not to be acof May, whereof the French verse goeth :
counted the less of, which will not do well without
the spur ; but rather the other is to be reckoned a “ Burgeon de Mars, enfans de Paris, Si un eschape, il en vaut dix.”
delicacy than a virtue. So glory and honour are the
spurs of virtue ; and although virtue would languish So that the blossom of May is generally better than without them, yet since they be always at hand to the blossom of March ; and yet the best blossom of attend virtue, virtue is not to be said the less chosen March is better than the best blossom of May. I for itself, because it needeth the spur of fame and
reputation : and therefore that position, “nota ejus, what is set down by order and division, doth demonquod propter opinionem et non propter veritatem strate that nothing is left out or omitted, but all is eligitur, hæc est; quod quis, si clam putaret fore, there; whereas, if it be without order, both the mind facturus non esset,” is reprehended.
comprehendeth less than that which is set down;
and besides, it leaveth a suspicion, as if more might IV.
be said than is expressed.
This colour deceiveth, if the mind of him that is Quod rem integram servat, bonum; quod sine receptu to be persuaded, do of itself over-conceive, or pre
est, malum : nam se recipere non posse, impoten- judge of the greatness of any thing; for then the tiæ genus est ; potentia autem bonum.
breaking of it will make it seem less, because he Hereof Æsop framed the fable of the two frogs, maketh it to appear more according to the truth : that consulted together in the time of drought, when and therefore if a man be in sickness or pain, the many plashes, that they had repaired to, were dry, time will seem longer without a clock or hour-glass, what was to be done ; and the one propounded to than with it; for the mind doth value every moment, go down into a deep well, because it was like the and then the hour doth rather sum up the moments, water would not fail there ; but the other answered, than divide the day. So in a dead plain the way “Yea, but if it do fail, how shall we get up again ?" seemeth the longer, because the eye hath preconAnd the reason is, that human actions are so uncer ceived it shorter than the truth, and the frustrating tain and subject to perils, as that seemeth the best of that maketh it seem longer than the truth. course which hath most passages out of it. Apper. Therefore if any man have an over-great opinion of taining to this persuasion, the forms are: You shall any thing, then if another think by breaking it into engage yourself; on the other side, “Tantum, quan- several considerations he shall make it seem greater tum voles, sumes ex fortunâ,” &c. You shall keep to him, he will be deceived; and therefore in such the matter in your own hand.
cases it is not safe to divide, but to extol the entire The reprehension of it is, that proceeding and still in general. Another case wherein this colour resolving in all actions is necessary. For as he deceiveth, is when the matter broken or divided is saith well, Not to resolve, is to resolve; and many not comprehended by the sense or mind at once, in times it breeds as many necessities, and engageth as respect of the distracting or scattering of it; and far in some other sorts, as to resolve. So it is but being entire and not divided, is comprehended : as the covetous man's disease, translated in power; for a hundred pounds in heaps of five pounds will show the covetous man will enjoy nothing, because he more than in one gross heap, so as the heaps be all will have his full store and possibility to enjoy the upon one table to be seen at once, otherwise not: more ; so by this reason a man should execute no as flowers growing scattered in divers beds will show thing, because he should be still indifferent, and at more than if they did grow in one bed, so as all liberty to execute any thing. Besides, necessity those beds be within a plot, that they be objects to and this same jacta est alea, hath many times an view at once, otherwise not: and therefore men, advantage, because it awaketh the powers of the whose living lieth together in one shire, are commind, and strengtheneth endeavour ; “Cæteris pares, monly counted greater landed than those whose livnecessitate certe superiores estis.
ings are dispersed, though it be more, because of
the notice and comprehension. A third case whereV.
in this colour deceiveth, and it is not so properly a
case of reprehension, as it is a counter colour, being Quod ex pluribus constat et divisibilibus est majus, in effect as large as the colour itself; and that is, quam quod ex paucioribus, et magis unum ; nam
“ omnis compositio indigentiæ cujusdam in singulis omnia per partes considerata majora videntur : videtur esse particeps," because if one thing would quare et pluralitas partium magnitudinem pre se
serve the turn, it were ever best, but the defect and fert: fortius autem operatur pluralitas partium imperfections of things hath brought in that help si ordo absit ; nam inducit similitudinem infiniti, to piece them up; as it is said, “ Martha, Martha, et impedit comprehensionem.
attendis ad plurima, unum sufficit.”. So likewise This colour seemeth palpable ; for it is not plu- hereupon Æsop framed the fable of the fox and the rality of parts without majority of parts, that maketh cat; whereas the fox bragged what a number of the total greater; yet nevertheless it often carries shifts and devices he had to get from the hounds, the mind away, yea, it deceiveth the sense; as it and the cat said he had but one, which was to climb a seemeth to the eye a shorter distance of way, if it tree, which in proof was better worth than all the be all dead and continued, than if it have trees or rest; whereof the proverb grew, “Multa novit vulpes, buildings, or any other marks whereby the eye may sed felis unum magnum." And in the moral of this divide it. So when a great monied man hath divided fable it comes likewise to pass, that a good sure his chests, and coins, and bags, he seemeth to him- friend is a better help at a pinch, than all the strataself richer than he was; and therefore a way to gems and policies of a man's own wit. So it falleth amplify any thing is, to break it, and to make ana out to be a common error in negotiating, whereas tomy of it in several parts, and to examine it ac men have many reasons to induce or persuade, they cording to several circumstances. And this maketh strive commonly to utter and use them all at once, the greater show if it be done without order, for which weakeneth them. For it argueth, as was said, confusion maketh things muster more; and besides, I a neediness in every of the reasons by itself, as if one