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often in the gall; and sometimes, though rarely, in And I can hope, my lords, that my midnight studies, vena porta.
to make our countries flourish and outvie European Query, what time the substance of earth in quar- neighbours in mysterious and beneficent arts, have ries asketh to be turned into stones ?
not so ingratefully affected your noble intellects, Water, as it seems, turneth into crystal, as is that you will delay or resist his majesty's desires, seen in divers caves, where the crystal hangs in and my humble petition in this benevolent, yea, magstillicidiis.
nificent affair; since your honourable posterities Try wood, or the stalk of herbs, buried in quick- may be enriched thereby, and my ends are only to silver, whether it will not grow hard and stony. make the world my heir, and the learned fathers of
They speak of a stone engendered in a toad's head. my Solomon's House, the successive and sworn
There was a gentleman, digging in his moat, trustees in the dispensation of this great service, for found an egg turned into stone, the white and the God's glory, my prince's magnificence, this parliayolk keeping their colour, and the shell glistering ment's honour, our country's general good, and the like a stone cut with corners.
propagation of my own memory. Try some things put into the bottom of a well ; And I may assure your lordships, that all my as wood, or some soft substance: but let it not touch proposals in order to this great architype, seemed the water, because it may not putrify.
so rational and feasible to my royal sovereign, our They speak, that the white of an egg, with lying christian Solomon, that I thereby prevailed with long in the sun, will turn stone.
his majesty to call this honourable parliament, to Mud in water turns into shells of fishes, as in confirm and empower me in my own way of mining, horse-mussels, in fresh ponds, old and over-grown. by an act of the same, after his majesty's more And the substance is a wondrous fine substance, weighty affairs were considered in your wisdoms; light and shining.
both which he desires your lordships, and you gen
tlemen that are chosen as the patriots of your reA SPEECH TOUCHING THE RECOVERING spective countries, to take speedy care of: which
done, I shall not then doubt the happy issue of my OF DROWNED MINERAL WORKS,
undertakings in this design, whereby concealed Prepared for the parliament (as Mr. Bushel affirmed) shall be confined to so universal a piety, and brought
treasures, which now seem utterly lost to mankind, by the Viscount of St. Albans, then Lord High into use by the industry of converted penitents, Chancellor of England.*
whose wretched carcasses the impartial laws have, MY LORDS AND GENTLEMEN,
or shall dedicate, as untimely feasts, to the worms The king, my royal master, was lately graciously of the earth, in whose womb those deserted mineral pleased to move some discourse to me concerning riches must ever lie buried as lost abortments, unMr. Sutton's hospital, and such like worthy found less those be made the active midwives to deliver ations of memorable piety: which humbly seconded them. For, my lords, I humbly conceive them to by myself, drew his majesty into a serious consider. be the fittest of all men to effect this great work, ation of the mineral treasures of his own territories, for the ends and causes which I have before exand the practical discoveries of them by way of my pressed. philosophical theory: which he then so well re All which, my lords, I humbly refer to your grave sented, that afterwards, upon a mature digestion of and solid judgments to conclude of, together with my whole design, he commanded me to let your such other assistances to this frame, as your own lordships understand how great an inclination he oraculous wisdom shall intimate, for the magnifying hath to further so hopeful a work, for the honour of our Creator in his inscrutable providence, and his dominions, as the most probable means to relieve admirable works of nature. all the poor thereof, without any other stock or benevolence, than that which divine bounty should
Certain experiments made by the Lord Bacon about confer on their own industries and honest labours,
weight in air and water. in recovering all such drowned mineral works, as A new sovereign of equal weight in the air to have been, or shall be therefore deserted.
the piece in brass, overweigheth in the water nine And, my lords, all that is now desired of his grains: in three sovereigns the difference in the majesty and your lordships, is no more than a gra- water is but twenty-four grains. cious act of this present parliament to authorize The same sovereign overweigheth an equal weight them herein, adding a mercy to a munificence, which of lead, four grains in the water, in brass grains for is, the persons of such strong and able petty felons, gold : in three sovereigns about eleven grains. who, in true penitence for their crimes, shall implore The same sovereign overweigheth an equal weight his majesty's mercy and permission to expiate their of stones in the air, at least sixty-five grains in the offences by their assiduous labours in so innocent water: the grains being for the weight of gold in and hopeful a work.
brass metal. For by this unchargeable way, my lords, have I A glass filled with water weighing, in Troy proposed to erect the academical fabric of this island's weights, thirteen ounces and five drams, the glass Solomon's House, modelled in my New Atlantis. and the water together weigheth severally, viz. the
water nine ounces and a half, and the glass four See Mr. Bee's extract, p. 18, 19.
ounces and a dram.
A bladder weighing two ounces seven drams and, abateth of the weight in the air two drams and fortya half, a pebble laid upon the top of the bladder two grains; the depth observe as above. makes three ounces six drams and a half, the stone In stone and stone, the same weight of seven weighing seven drams.
drams equally in the air, the balance in the water The bladder, as above, blown, and the same weigheth only two drams and twenty-two grains ; fallen, weigheth equal.
and abateth of the weight in the air four drams and A sponge dry weigheth one ounce twenty-six thirty-eight grains; the depth as above. grains : the same sponge being wet, weigheth four In brass and brass, the same weight of seven teen ounces six drams and three quarters: the water drams in each balance, equal in the air, the balance weigheth in several eleven ounces one dram and a in the water weigheth only four drams and twentyhalf, and the sponge three ounces and a half, and two grains; and abateth in the water two drams three quarters of a dram. First time.
and thirty-eight grains; the depth observed. The sponge and water together weigh fifteen The two balances being weighed in air and water, ounces and seven drams: in several, the water the balance in the air overweigheth the other in weigheth eleven ounces and seven drams, and the the water one dram and twenty-eight grains; the sponge three ounces seven drams and a half. Se-depth in the water as aforesaid. cond time.
It is a profitable experiment which showeth the Three sovereigns made equal to a weight in silver weights of several bodies in comparison with water. in the air, differ in the water.
It is of use in lading of ships, and other bottoms, For false weights, one beam long, the other thick. and may help to show what burden in the several
The stick and thread weigh half a dram, and kinds they will bear. twenty grains, being laid in the balance.
The stick tied to reach within half an inch of the Certain sudden thoughts of the Lord Bacon's, set end of the beam, and so much from the tongue,
down by him under the title of EXPERIMENTS FOR
PROFIT. weigheth twenty-eight grains; the difference is twenty-two grains.
Muck of leaves: muck of river, earth, and chalk : The same stick being tied to hang over the end muck of earth closed, both for salt-petre and muck: of the beam an inch and a half, weigheth half a setting of wheat and peas: mending of crops by dram and twenty-four grains, exceeding the weight steeping of seeds : making peas, cherries, and strawof the said stick in the balance by four grains. berries come early : strengthening of earth for often
The same stick being hanged down beneath the returns of radishes, parsnips, turnips, &c.; making thread, as near the tongue as is possible, weigheth great roots of onions, radishes, and other esculent only eight grains.
roots : sowing of seeds of trefoil : setting of woad : Two weights of gold being made equal in the air, setting of tobacco, and taking away the rawns : and weighing severally seven drams; the one balance grafting upon boughs of old trees: making of a being put into the water, and the other hanging in hasty coppice : planting of osiers in wet grounds : the air, the balance in the water weigheth only five making of candles to last long: building of chimdrams and three grains, and abateth of the weight neys, furnaces, and ovens, to give heat with less in the air, one dram and a half, and twenty-seven wood: fixing of logwood: other means to make grains.
yellow and green fixed : conserving of oranges, The same trial being made the second time, and lemons, citrons, pomegranates, &c. all summer : remore truly and exactly betwixt gold and gold, covering of pearl, coral, turcoise colour, by a conweighing severally, as above ; and making a just servatory of snow : sowing of fennel : brewing with and equal weight in the air, the one balance being hay, haws, trefoil, broom, hips, bramble-berries, put into the water the depth of five inches, and the woodbines, wild thyme, instead of hops, thistles: other hanging in the air, the balance in the water multiplying and dressing artichokes. weigheth only four drams, and fifty-five grains, and abateth of the weight in the air two drams and five
Certain experiments of the Lord Bacon's, about the grains.
commixture of liquors only, not solids, without The trial being made betwixt lead and lead, weigh
heat or agitation, but only by simple composition ing severally seven drams in the air, the balance in
and settling. the water weigheth only four drams and forty-one Spirit of wine mingled with common water, algrains, and abateth of the weight in the air two though it be much lighter than oil, yet so as if the drams and nineteen grains; the balance kept the first fall be broken, by means of a sop, or otherwise, same depth in the water as abovesaid.
it stayeth above; and if it be once mingled, it The trial being made betwixt silver and silver, severeth not again, as oil doth. Tried with water weighing severally seven drams in the air, the ba- coloured with saffron. lance in the water weigheth only four drams and Spirit of wine mingled with common water hath twenty-five grains. So it abateth two drams and a kind of clouding, and motion showing no ready thirty-five grains; the same depth in the water commixture. Tried with saffron. observed.
A dram of gold dissolved in aqua regis, with a In iron and iron, weighing severally each balance dram of copper in aqua fortis, commixed, gave a in the air seven drams, the balance in the water green colour, but no visible motion in the parts. weigheth only four drams and eighteen grains; and Note, that the dissolution of the gold was, twelve
parts water to one part body : and of the copper Spirit of wine commixed with milk, a third part was, six parts water to one part body.
spirit of wine, and two parts milk, coagulateth little, Oil of almonds commixed with spirit of wine but mingleth ; and the spirit swims not above. severeth, and the spirit of wine remaineth on the Milk and oil of almonds mingled, in equal portop and the oil in the bottom.
tions, do hardly incorporate, but the oil cometh Gold dissolved, commixed with spirit of wine, a above, the milk being poured in last; and the milk dram of each doth commix, and no other apparent appeareth in some drops or bubbles. alteration.
Milk one ounce, oil of vitriol a scruple, doth coQuicksilver dissolved with gold dissolved, a dram agulate; the milk at the bottom, where the vitriol of each, doth turn to a mouldy liquor, black, and goeth. like smith's water.
Dissolution of gum tragacanth, and oil of sweet Note, the dissolution of the gold was twelve parts almonds, do not commingle, the oil remaining on the water, ut supra, and one part metal : that of water top till they be stirred, and make the mucilage was two parts, and one part metal.
somewhat more liquid. Spirit of wine and quicksilver commixed, a dram Dissolution of gum tragacanth one ounce and a of each, at the first showed a white milky substance half, with half an ounce of spirit of wine, being at the top, but soon after mingled.
commixed by agitation, make the mucilage more thick. Oil of vitriol commixed with oil of cloves, a dram The white of an egg with spirit of wine, doth of each, turneth into a red dark colour; and a sub-bake the egg into clots, as if it began to poch. stance thick almost like pitch : and upon the first One ounce of blood, one ounce of milk, do easily motion gathereth an extreme heat, not to be endured incorporate. by touch.
Spirit of wine doth curdle the blood. Dissolution of gold, and oil of vitriol commixed, One ounce of whey unclarified, one ounce of oil a dram of each, gathereth a great heat at the first, of vitriol, make no apparent alteration. and darkeneth the gold, and maketh a thick yellow. One ounce of blood, one ounce of oil of almonds,
Spirit of wine and oil of vitriol, a dram of each, incorporate not, but the oil swims above. hardly mingle; the oil of vitriol going to the bot Three quarters of an ounce of wax being distom, and the spirit of wine lying above in a milky solved upon the fire, and one ounce of oil of alsubstance. It gathereth also a great heat, and a monds put together and stirred, do not so incorporate, sweetness in the taste.
but that when it is cold the wax gathereth and Oil of vitriol and dissolution of quicksilver, a dram swims upon the top of the oil. of each, maketh an extreme strife, and casteth up a One ounce of oil of almonds cast into an ounce very gross fume, and after casteth down a white of sugar seething, sever presently, the sugar shootkind of curds, or sands; and on the top a slimishing towards the bottom. substance, and gathereth a great heat. Oil of sulphur and oil of cloves commixed a dram
A catalogue of bodies attractive and not attractive, of each, turn into a thick and red-coloured sub together with experimental observations about at
traction. stance; but no such heat as appeared in the commixture with the oil of vitriol.
These following bodies draw: amber, jet, diaOil of petroleum and spirit of wine, a dram of mond, sapphire, carbuncle, iris, the gem opale, ameeach, intermingle otherwise than by agitation, as thyst, bristollina, crystal, clear glass, glass of antiwine and water do; and the petroleum remaineth mony, divers flowers from mines, sulphur mastic, on the top.
hard sealing-wax, the harder rosin, arsenic. Oil of vitriol and petroleum, a dram of each, turn These following bodies do not draw: smaragd, into a mouldy substance, and gathereth some achates, corneolus, pearl, jaspis, chalcedonius, alawarmth ;
there residing a black cloud in the bottom, baster, porphyry, coral, marble, touchstone, hæmaand a monstrous thick oil on the top.
tites, or blood-stone ; smyris, ivory, bones, ebon-tree, Spirit of wine and red-wine vinegar, one ounce of cedar, cypress, pitch, softer rosin, camphire, galbaeach, at the first fall, one of them remaineth above, num, ammoniac, storax, benzoin, loadstone, asphalbut by agitation they mingle.
tum.* Oil of vitriol and oil of almonds, one ounce of These bodies, gold, silver, brass, iron, draw not, each, mingle not; but the oil of almonds remaineth though never so finely polished. above.
In winter, if the air be sharp and clear, sal gemSpirit of wine and vinegar, an ounce of each, meum, roch allum, and lapis specularis, will draw. commixed, do mingle, without any apparent sepa. These following bodies are apt to be drawn, if ration, which might be in respect of the colour. the mass of them be small : chaff, woods, leaves,
Dissolution of iron, and oil of vitriol, a dram of stones, all metals leaved, and in the mine; earth, each, do first put a milky substance, into the bottom, water, oil. and after incorporate into a mouldy substance.
* The drawing of iron excepted.
Grains of youth.
Breakfast preservative against the gout and rheums. Take of nitre four grains, of ambergrease three To take once in the month at least, and for two grains, of orris-powder two grains, of white poppy- days together, one grain of castorei in my ordinary seed the fourth part of a grain, of saffron half a grain, broth. with water of orange-flowers, and a little tragacanth;
The preparation of garlic. make them into small grains, four in number. To be taken at four a-clock, or going to bed.
Take garlic four ounces, boil it upon a soft fire
in claret wine, for half an hour. Take it out and Preserving ointments.
steep it in vinegar; whereto add two drams of cloves, Take of deers suet one ounce, of myrrh six grains, then take it forth, and keep it in a glass for use. of saffron five grains, of bay-salt twelve grains, of Canary wine, of two years old, a spoonful and a half.
The artificial preparation of damask roses for smell. Spread it on the inside of your shirt, and let it dry, Take roses, pull their leaves, then dry them in a and then put it on.
clear day in the hot sun: then their smell will be
as gone. Then cram them into an earthen bottle, A purge familiar for opening the liver.
very dry and sweet, and stop it very close ; they Take rhubarb two drams, agaric trochiscat one will remain in smell and colour both fresher than dram and a half, steep them in claret wine burnt those that are otherwise dried. Note, the first drywith mace; take of wormwood one dram, steep it ing, and close keeping upon it, preventeth all putrewith the rest, and make a mass of pills, with syrup. faction, and the second spirit cometh forth, made acetos, simplex. But drink an opening broth be- of the remaining moisture not dissipated. fore it, with succory, fennel, and smallage roots, and
A restorative drink. a little of an onion.
Take of Indian maiz half a pound, grind it not Wine for the spirits.
too small, but to the fineness of ordinary meal, and Take gold perfectly refined three ounces, quench then bolt and searce it, that all the husky part may it six or seven times in good claret wine ; add of be taken away. Take of eryngium roots three nitre six grains for two draughts : add of saffron ounces, of dates as much, of enula two drams, of mace prepared three grains, of ambergrease four grains, three drams, and brew them with ten shilling beer pass it through an hippocras bag, wherein there is to the quantity of four gallons : and this do, either a dram of cinnamon gross beaten, or, to avoid the by decocting them in a bottle of wort, to be after dimming of the colour, of ginger. Take two spoon- mingled with the beer, being new tapped, or otherfuls of this to a draught of fresh claret wine.
wise infuse it in the new beer, in a bag. Use this
familiarly at meals. The preparing of saffron. Take six grains of saffron, steeped in half parts of
Against the waste of the body by heat. wine and rose water, and a quarter part vinegar : Take sweet pomegranates, and strain them lightly, then dry it in the sun.
not pressing the kernel, into a glass; where put some Wine against adverse melancholy, preserving the
little of the peel of a citron, and two or three cloves,
and three grains of ambergrease, and a pretty deal senses and the reason.
of fine sugar. It is to be drunk every morning whilst Take the roots of buglos well scraped and cleans- pomegranates last. ed from their inner pith, and cut them into small slices; steep them in wine of gold extinguished ut Methusalem water. Against all asperity and torre. supra, and add of nitre three grains, and drink it ut faction of inward parts, and all adustion of the supra, mixed with fresh wine; the roots must not
blood, and generally against the dryness of age. continue steeped above a quarter of an hour; and Take crevises very new, q. s. boil them well in they must be changed thrice.
claret wine; of them take only the shells, and rub
them very clean, especially on the inside, that they | of unripe quinces, balaustia, the whites of eggs boilmay be thoroughly cleansed from the meat. Then ed hard in vinegar. wash them three or four times in fresh claret wine, heated : still changing the wine, till all the fish-taste Astringents, which by their cold and earthy nature be quite taken away. But in the wine wherein
may stay the motion of the humours tending to they are washed, steep some tops of green rose
a flux. mary; then dry the pure shell thoroughly, and bring Sealed earth, sanguis draconis, coral, pearls, the them to an exquisite powder. Of this powder take shell of the fish dactylus. three drams. Take also pearl, and steep them in vinegar twelve hours, and dry off the vinegar; of Astringents, which by the thickness of their subthis powder also three drams. Then put the shell
stance stuff as it were the thin humours, and therepowder and pearl powder together, and add to them
by stay fluxes. of ginger one scruple, and of white poppy-seed half Rice, beans, millet, cauls, dry cheese, fresh goats' a scruple, and steep them in spirit of wine, wherein milk. six grains of saffron have been dissolved, seven hours. Then upon a gentle heat vapour away all Astringents, which by virtue of their glutinous subthe spirit of wine, and dry the powder against the
stance restrain a flux, and strengthen the looser sun without fire. Add to it of nitre one dram, of
parts. ambergrease one scruple and a half; and so keep Karabe,* mastich, spodium, hartshorn, frankinthis powder for use in a clean glass. Then take a cense, dried bulls pistle, gum tragacanth. pottle of milk, and slice in it of fresh cucumbers, the inner pith only, the rind being pared off, four Astringents purgative, which, having by their ounces, and draw forth a water by distillation.
purgative or expulsive power thrust out the Take of claret wine a pint, and quench gold in it
humours, leave behind them astrictive virtue. four times.
Rhubarb, especially that which is toasted against Of the wine, and of the water of milk, take of the fire: myrobalanes, tartar, tamarinds, an Indian each three ounces, of the powder one scruple, and fruit like green damascenes. drink it in the morning; stir up the powder when you drink, and walk upon it.
Astringents which do very much suck and dry up
the humours, and thereby stay fluxes. A catalogue of astringents, openers, and cordials, Rust of iron, crocus martis, ashes of spices. instrumental to health.
Astringents, which by their nature do dull the spirits,
and lay asleep the expulsive virtue, and take away Red rose, black-berry, myrtle, plantane, flower of
the acrimony of all humours. pomegranate, mint, aloes well washed, myrobalanes, Laudanum, mithridate, diascordium, diacodium. sloes, agrestia fraga, mastich, myrrh, saffron, leaves of rosemary, rhubarb received by infusion, cloves, Astringents, which, by cherishing the strength of the service-berries, corna, wormwood, bole armeniac,
parts, do comfort and confirm their retentive sealed earth, cinquefoil, tincture of steel, sanguis
power. draconis, coral, amber, quinces, spikenard, galls, A stomacher of scarlet cloth: whelps, or young alum, blood-stone, mummy, amomum, galangal, healthy boys, applied to the stomach : hippocratic cypress, ivy, psyllum, houseleek, sallow, mullein, wines, so they be made of austere materials. vine, oak-leaves, lignum aloes, red sanders, mulberry, medlars, flowers of peach-trees, pomegranates, pears, palmule, pith of kernels, purslain, acacia, laudanum, Succory, endive, betony, liverwort, petroselinum, tragacanth, thus olibani, comfrey, shepherd's purse, smallage, asparagus, roots of grass, dodder, tamapolygonium.
risk, juncus odoratus, lacca, cupparus, wormwood, Astringents, both hot and cold, which corroborate the ireos, elder, hyssop, aristolochia, gentian, costus, fen
chamæpitys, fumaria, scurvy-grass, eringo, nettle, parts, and which confirm and refresh such of them nel root, maiden-hair, harts-tongue, daffodilly, asarum, as are loose or languishing.
sarsaparilla, sassafras, acorns, abrotonum, aloes, agaRosemary, mint, especially with vinegar, cloves, ric, rhubarb infused, onions, garlic, bother, squilla, cinnamon, cardamom, lign-aloes, rose, myrtle, red sowbread, Indian nard, Celtic nard, bark of laurel-tree, sanders, cotonea, red wine, chalybeat wine, five- bitter almonds, holy thistle, camomile, gun-powder, finger grass, plantane, apples of cypress, berberries, sows (millepedes), ammoniac, man's urine, rue, park fraga, service-berries, cornels, ribes, sour pears, leaves (vitex), centaury, lupines, chamædrys, costum, rambesia.
ammios, bistort, camphire, daucus seed, Indian balAstringents styptic, which by their styptic virtue
sam, scordium, sweet cane, galingal, agrimony. may stay fluxes. Sloes, acacia, rind of pomegranates infused, at Flowers of basil royal, flores caryophyllati, flowers least three hours, the sty ptic virtue not coming forth of buglos and borage, rind of citron, orange flowers, in lesser time. Alum, galls, juice of sallow, syrup
* Perhaps he meant the fruit of Karobe.