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sideration how to make some additaments to the an ounce and a half of brimstone, an ounce of lead ; coarser materials, to raise them to the whiteness and calcine them, and see what body they make; and if crystalline splendour of the finest.
they incorporate, make a plate of it burnished. For the second, we see pebbles, and some other Take of copper an ounce and a half, of tin an stones, will cut as fine as crystal, which if they will ounce, and melt them together, and make a plate of melt, may be a mixture for glass, and may make it them burnished. more tough and more crystalline. Besides, we see Take of copper an ounce and a half, of tin an metals will vitrify; and perhaps some portion of the ounce, of glass-metal half an ounce; stir them well glass of metal vitrified, mixed in the pot of ordinary in the boiling, and if they incorporate, make a plate glass metal, will make the whole mass more tough. of them burnished.
For the third, it were good to have of coloured Take of copper a pound and a half, tin four window-glass, such as is coloured in the pot, and not ounces, brass two ounces; make a plate of them by colours
burnished. It is to be known of what stuff galletyle is made, Take of silver two ounces, tin half an ounce; and how the colours in it are varied; and thereupon make a little say-cup of it, and burnish it. to consider how to make the mixture of glass-metal To inquire of the materials of every of the kind of and them, whereof I have seen the example. glasses, coarser and finer, and of the proportions.
Inquire what be the stones that do easiliest melt. Take an equal quantity of glass-metal, of stone Of them take half a pound, and of iron a pound and calcined, and bring a pattern. half, and an ounce of brimstone, and see whether Take an ounce of vitrified metal, and a pound of they will incorporate, being whole, with a strong ordinary glass-metal, and see whether they will infire. If not, try the same quantity calcined: and if corporate, and bring a pattern. they will incorporate, make a plate of them, and Bring examples of all coloured glasses, and learn burnish it as they do iron.
the ingredients whereby they are coloured. Take a pound and a half of brass, and half a Inquire of the substance of galletyle. pound of iron; two ounces of the calaminar stone,
ARTICLES OF QUESTIONS
MIN E R A L S.
THE LORD BACON'S QUESTIONS, WITH DR. MEVEREL'S SOLUTIONS.
So of lead : lead with copper: lead with brass : Concerning the compounding, incorporating, or union
lead with iron : lead with tin. Plin. xxxiv. 9. of metals or minerals. Which subject is the first
So of copper : copper with brass : copper with letter of his Lordship's Alphabet.
iron : coppent with tin. With what metals gold will incorporate by simple So of brass : brass with iron : brass with tin. colliquefaction, and with what not ? And in what So of iron : iron with tin. quantity it will incorporate ; and what kind of body What be the compound metals that are common the compound makes ?
and known ? And what are the proportions of their Gold with silver, which was the ancient electrum: mixtures ? As, gold with quicksilver: gold with lead: gold with Latten of brass, and the calaminar stone. copper: gold with brass: gold with iron : gold Pewter of tin and lead. with tin.
Bell-metal of, &c. and the counterfeit plate, which So likewise of silver : silver with quicksilver : they call alchemy. silver with lead : silver with copper: silver with The decomposites of three metals or more, are brass : silver with iron: Plinius secund. lib. xxxiii. too long to inquire of, except there be some com9. “ Miscuit denario triumvir Antonius ferrum," positions of them already observed. silver with tin.
It is also to be observed, whether any two metals, So likewise of quicksilver: quicksilver with lead: which will not mingle of themselves, will mingle quicksilver with copper : quicksilver with brass : with the help of another; and what. quicksilver with iron : quicksilver with tin.
What compounds will be made of metal with stone
and other fossils; as latten is made with brass and wise tried by incorporating of their dissolutions. the calaminar stone; as all the metals incorporate What metals being dissolved in strong waters will with vitriol; all with iron powdered; all with flint, &c. incorporate well together, and what not? Which
Some few of these would be inquired of, to dis- is to be inquired particularly, as it was in colliqueclose the nature of the rest.
factions. Whether metals or other fossils will incorporate There is to be observed in those dissolutions which with molten glass, and what body it makes ? will not easily incorporate, what the effects are: as
The quantity in the mixture would be well con- the bullition; the precipitation to the bottom ; the sidered ; for some small quantity perhaps will in- ejaculation towards the top; the suspension in the corporate, as in the allays of gold and silver coin. midstand the like.
Upon the compound body, three things are chiefly Note, that the dissents of the menstrual or strong to be observed: the colour; the fragility or pliant- waters may hinder the incorporation, as well as the ness; the volatility or fixation, compared with the dissents of the metals themselves; therefore where simple bodies.
the menstrua are the same, and yet the incorporation For present use or profit, this is the rule : con followeth not, you may conclude the dissent is in the sider the price of the two simple bodies; consider metals ; but where the menstrua are several, not so again the dignity of the one above the other in use; certain. then see if you can make a compound, that will save more in price, than it will lose in dignity of the use.
Dr. Meverel's answer to the foregoing questions, conAs for example ; consider the price of brass ord
cerning the compounding, incorporating, or union nance; consider again the price of iron ordnance,
of metals and minerals. and then consider wherein the brass ordnance doth Gold will incorporate with silver in any proporexcel the iron ordnance in use ; then if you can tion. Plin. lib. xxxiii. cap. 4.—"Omni auro inest make a compound of brass and iron that will be near argentum vario pondere; alibi dena, alibi nona, alibi as good in use, and much cheaper in price, then octava parte_Ubicunque quinta argenti portio inthere is profit both to the private and the common- venitur, electrum vocatur.” The body remains fixt, wealth. So of gold and silver, the price is double solid, and coloured, according to the proportion of of twelve: the dignity of gold above silver is not the two metals. much, the splendour is alike, and more pleasing to Gold with quicksilver easily mixeth, but the prosome eyes, as in cloth of silver, silvered rapiers, &c. duct is imperfectly fixed; and so are all other metals The main dignity is, that gold bears the fire, which incorporate with mercury. silver doth not: but that is an excellency in nature, Gold incorporates with lead in any proportion. but it is nothing at all in use ; for any dignity in Gold incorporates with copper in any proportion, use I know none, but that silvering will sully and the common allay. canker more than gilding; which if it might be cor Gold incorporates with brass in any proportion. rected with a little mixture of gold, there is profit : And what is said of copper is true of brass, in the and I do somewhat marvel that the latter ages have union of other metals. lost the ancient electrum, which was a mixture of Gold will not incorporate with iron. silver with gold : whereof I conceive there may be Gold incorporates with tin, the ancient allay, much use, both in coin, plate, and gilding.
Isa. i. 25. It is to be noted, that there is in the version of What was said of gold and quicksilver, may be metals impossibility, or at least great difficulty, as said of quicksilver and the rest of metals. in making of gold, silver, copper. On the other Silver with lead in any proportion. side, in the adulterating or counterfeiting of metals, Silver incorporates with copper. Pliny mentions there is deceit and villany. But it should seem there such a mixture for triumphales statuæ, lib. xxxiii. is a middle way, and that is by new compounds, if | 9. “ Miscentur argento, tertia pars æris Cyprii the ways of incorporating were well known. tenuissimi, quod coronarium vocant, et sulphuris vivi
What incorporation or imbibition metals will re quantum argenti.” The same is true of brass. ceive from vegetables, without being dissolved in their Silver incorporates not with iron. Wherefore I substance: as when the armourers make their steel wonder at that which Pliny hath, lib. xxxiii. 9. more tough and pliant, by aspersion of water or “Miscuit denario triumvir Antonius ferrum." And juice of herbs; when gold being grown somewhat what is said of this is true of the rest ; for iron inchurlish by recovering, is made more pliant by throw- corporateth with none of them. ing in shreds of tanned leather, or by leather oiled. Silver mixes with tin. Note, that in these and like shows of imbibition, Lead incorporates with copper.
Such a mixture it were good to try by the weights, whether the was the pot metal whereof Pliny speaks, lib. xxxiv. weight be increased, or no; for if it be not, it is to 9. “ Ternis aut quaternis libris plumbi argentarii be doubted that there is no imbibition of substance, in centenas æris additis." but only that the application of that other body doth Lead incorporates with tin. The mixture of dispose and invite the metal to another posture of these two in equal proportions, is that which was parts, than of itself it would have taken.
anciently called “plumbum argentarium,” Plin. lib. After the incorporation of metals by simple colli- xxxiv. 17. quefaction, for the better discovery of the nature Copper incorporates with tin. Of such a mixand consents and dissents of metals, it would be like ture were the mirrors of the Romans. Plin. “ At.
que ut omnia de speculis peragantur hoc loco, op- according to the nature of the metals. Note again, tima apud majores erant Brundusina, stanno et ære that if you think that multiplying of the additaments mistis.” Lib. xxxiii. 9.
in the same proportion that you multiply the ore,
the work will follow, you may be deceived: for Compound metals now in use.
quantity in the passive will add more resistance, 1. Fine tin. The mixture is thus: pure tin a than the same quantity in the active will add force. thousand pounds, temper fifty pounds, glass of tin 2. For extracting, you are to inquire what metals three pounds.
contain others, and likewise what not; as lead, sil2. Coarse pewter is made of fine tin and lead. ver; copper, silver, &c. Temper is thus made: the dross of pure tin, four Note, although the charge of extraction should pounds and a half; copper, half a pound.
exceed the worth, yet that is not the matter : for at 3. Brass is made of copper and calaminaris. least it will discover nature and possibility, the other
4. Bell-metal. Copper, a thousand pounds; tin may be thought on afterwards. from three hundred to two hundred pounds; brass, We are likewise to inquire, what the differences a hundred and fifty pounds.
are of those metals which contain more or less other 5. Pot-metal, copper and lead.
metals, and how that agrees with the poorness or 6. White alchemy is made of pan-brass one richness of the metals or ore in themselves. As the pound, and arsenicum three ounces.
lead that contains most silver is accounted to be 7. Red alchemy is made of copper and auri more brittle, and yet otherwise poorer in itself. pigment.
3. For principiation, I cannot affirm whether There be divers imperfect minerals, which will there be any such thing or not; and I think the incorporate with the metals: being indeed metals chemists make too much ado about it: but howsoinwardly, but clothed with earths and stones : as ever it be, be it solution or extraction, or a kind of pyritis, calaminaris, misy, chalcitis, sory, vitriolum. conversion by the fire ; it is diligently to be inquired
Metals incorporate not with glass, except they be what salts, sulphur, vitriol, mercury, or the like brought into the form of glass.
simple bodies are to be found in the several metals, Metals dissolved. The dissolution of gold and and in what quantity. silver disagree, so that in their mixture there is great ebullition, darkness, and in the end a precipi- Dr. Meverels unswers to the foregoing questions, tation of black powder.
touching the separations of metals and minerals. The mixture of gold and mercury agree.
1. For the means of separating. After that the Gold agrees with iron. In a word, the dissolution ore is washed, or cleansed from the earth, there is of mercury and iron agree with all the rest. nothing simply necessary, save only a wind furnace
Silver and copper disagree, and so do silver and well framed, narrow above and at the hearth, in lead. Silver and tin agree.
shape oval, sufficiently fed with charcoal and ore,
in convenient proportions. The second letter of the cross-row, touching the
For additions in this first separation, I have obseparation of metals and minerals.
served none; the dross the mineral brings being Separation is of three sorts; the first is, the sufficient. The refiners of iron observe, that. that separating of the pure metal from the ore or dross, iron-stone is hardest to melt which is fullest of which we call refining. The second is, the draw- metal, and that easiest which hath most dross. ing one metal or mineral out of another, which we But in lead and tin the contrary is noted. Yet in call extracting The third is, the separating of any melting of metals, when they have been calcined metal into its original or materia prima, or element, formerly by fire, or strong waters, there is good use or call them what you will; which work we will of additaments, as of borax, tartar, armoniac, and call principiation.
salt-petre. 1. For refining, we are to inquire of it according 2. In extracting of metals. Note, that lead and to the several metals; as gold, silver, &c. Inci tin contain silver. Lead and silver contain gold. dentally we are to inquire of the first stone, or ore, Iron contains brass. Silver is best separated from or spar, or marcasite of metals severally, and what lead by the test. So gold from silver. Yet the kind of bodies they are, and of the degrees of rich- best way for that is aqua regia.
Also we are to inquire of the means of sepa 3. For principiation. I can truly and boldly afrating, whether by fire, parting waters, or otherwise. firm, that there are no such principals as sal, sulAlso for the manner of refining, you are to see how phur, and mercury, which can be separated from any you can multiply the heat, or hasten the opening, perfect metals. For every part so separated, may and so save the charge in the fining.
easily be reduced into perfect metal without substiThe means of this in three manners; that is to tution of that, or those principles which chemists say, in the blast of the fire ; in the manner of the imagine to be wanting. As suppose you take the furnace, to multiply heat by union and reflexion; salt of lead; this salt, or as some name it, sulphur, and by some additament, or medicines which will may be turned into perfect lead, by melting it with help the bodies to open them the soone .
the like quantity of lead which contains principles Note, the quickening of the blast, and the multi-only for itself. plying of the heat in the furnace, may be the same I acknowledge that there is quicksilver and brimfor all metals; but the additaments must be several, / stone found in the imperfect minerals : but those
are nature's remote materials, and not the chemist's For sprouting or branching, though it be a thing principles. As if you dissolve antimony by aqua but transitory, and a kind of toy or pleasure, yet regia, there will be real brimstone swimming upon there is a more serious use of it: for that it discothe water : as appears by the colour of the fire when vereth the delicate motions of spirits, when they put it is burnt, and by the smell.
forth and cannot get forth, like unto that which is
in vegetables. The third letter of the cross-row, touching the vari
For induration, or mollification; it is to be ination of metals into several shapes, bodies, or na
quired what will make metals harder and harder, tures, the particulars whereof follow,
and what will make them softer and softer. And Tincture: turning to rust: calcination : sublima- this inquiry tendeth to two ends: first, for use ; as tion: precipitation : amalgamatizing, or turning into to make iron soft by the fire makes it malleable. a soft body : vitrification : opening or dissolving into Secondly, because induration is a degree towards liquor: sproutings, or branchings, or arborescents : fixation, and mollification towards volatility; and induration and mollification : making tough or brit- therefore the inquiry of them will give light towards tle : volatility and fixation : transmutation, or version. the other.
For tincture : it is to be inquired how metal may For tough and brittle, they are much of the same be tinged through and through, and with what, and kind, but yet worthy of an inquiry apart, espeinto what colours; as tinging silver yellow, tinging cially to join hardness with toughness, as making copper white, and tinging red, green, blue; espe- glass malleable, &c. and making blades strong to cially with keeping the lustre.
resist and pierce, and yet not easy to break. Item, tincture of glasses.
For volatility and fixation. It is a principal Item, tincture of marble, flint, or other stone. branch to be inquired: the utmost degree of fix
For turning into rust, two things are chiefly to be ation is that whereon no fire will work, nor strong inquired; by what corrosives it is done, and into water joined with fire, if there be any such fixawhat colours it turns; as lead into white, which tion possible. The next is when fire simply will they call ceruss; iron into yellow, which they call not work without strong waters. The next is by crocus martis; quicksilver into vermilion ; brass the test. The next is when it will endure fire into green, which they call verdigrease.
not blown, or such a strength of fire. The next is For calcination ; how every metal is calcined, and when it will not endure, but yet is malleable. The into what kind of body, and what is the exquisitest next is when it is not malleable, but yet is not fluent, way of calcination.
but stupified. So of volatility, the utmost degree is For sublimation; to inquire the manner of sub- when it will fly away without returning. The next liming, and what metals endure subliming, and what is when it will fly up, but with ease return. The body the sublimate makes.
next is when it will fly upwards over the helm For precipitation likewise ; by what strong water by a kind of exsufflation without vapouring. The every metal will precipitate, and with what addita. next is when it will melt though not rise. The ments, and in what time, and into what body. next is when it will soften though not melt. Of all
So for amalgama; what metals will endure it, these diligent inquiry is to be made in several what are the means to do it, and what is the man- metals, especially of the more extreme degrees. ner of the body.
For transmutation or version. If it be real and For vitrification likewise; what metals will en true, it is the farthest part of art, and would be well dure it, what are the means to do it, into what co-distinguished from extraction, from restitution, and lour it turns; and farther, where the whole metal from adulteration. I hear much of turning iron into is turned into glass, and where the metal doth but copper; I hear also of the growth of lead in weight, hang in the glassy parts; also what weight the vi- which cannot be without a conversion of some trified body bears, compared with the crude body ; body into lead: but whatsoever is of this kind, and also because vitrification is accounted a kind of well expressed, is diligently to be inquired and set death of metals, what vitrification will admit of down. turning back again, and what not.
For dissolution into liquor, we are to inquire Dr. Meverels answers to the foregoing questions, what is the proper menstruum to dissolve any metal,
concerning the variation of metals and minerals. and in the negative, what will touch upon the one 1. For tinctures, there are none that I know, but and not upon the other, and what several menstrua that rich variety which springs from mixture of mewill dissolve any metal, and which most exactly. tals with metals, or imperfect minerals. Item, the process or motion of the dissolution, the 2. The imperfect metals are subject to rust, all of manner of rising, boiling, vapouring more violent, them except mercury, which is made into vermilion or more gentle, causing much heat or less. Item, by solution, or calcination. The rest are rusted by the quantity or charge that the strong water will any salt, sour, or acid water. Lead into a white bear, and then give over. Item, the colour into body called cerussa. Iron into a pale red called which the liquor will turn. Above all, it is to be ferrugo. Copper is turned into green, named ærugo, inquired, whether there be any menstruum to dis
Tin into white: but this is not in use, solve any metal that is not fretting, or corroding ; neither hath it obtained a name. and openeth the body by sympathy, and not by The Scriptures mention the rust of gold, but that mordacity or violent penetration.
is in regard of the allay.
3. Calcination. All metals may be calcined by knowledge except the two utmost, which never were strong waters, or by admixtion of salt, sulphur, and observed. mercury. The imperfect metals may be calcined by 12. The question of transmutation is very doubtcontinuance of simple fire ; iron thus calcined is ful. Wherefore I refer your honour to the fourth called crocus martis.
tome of “ Theatrum Chymicum :" and there, to that And this is their best way.
Gold and silver are tract which is entitled “Disquisitio Heliana ;" where best calcined by mercury. Their colour is grey. you shall find full satisfaction. Lead calcined is very red. Copper dusky red. 4. Metals are sublimed by joining them with
The fourth letter of the cross-row, touching
restitution. mercury or salts. As silver with mercury, gold with sal armoniac, mercury with vitriol.
First, therefore, it is to be inquired in the nega5. Precipitation is, when any metal being dis- tive, what bodies will never return, either by their solved into a strong water, is beaten down into a extreme fixings, as in some vitrifications, or by expowder by salt water. The chiefest in this kind is treme volatility. oil of tartar.
It is also to be inquired of the two means of re6. Amalgamation is the joining or mixing of duction ; and first by the fire, which is but by conmercury with any other of the metals. The manner gregation of homogeneal parts. is this in gold, the rest are answerable : take six The second is, by drawing them down by some parts of mercury, make them hot in a crucible, and body that hath consent with them. As iron drawpour them to one part of gold made red hot in an eth down copper in water; gold draweth quicksilother crucible, stir these well together that they may ver in vapour ; whatsoever is of this kind, is very incorporate; which done, cast the mass into cold diligently to be inquired. water and wash it. This is called the amalgama of Also it is to be inquired what time, or age, will gold.
reduce without help of fire or body. 7. For vitrification. All the imperfect metals Also it is to be inquired what gives impediment may be turned by strong fire into glass, except mer to union or restitution, which is sometimes called cury; iron into green; lead into yellow; brass into mortification; as when quicksilver is mortified with blue; tin into pale yellow. For gold and silver I turpentine, spittle, or butter. have not known them vitrified, except joined with Lastly, it is to be inquired, how the metal reantimony. These glassy bodies may be reduced into stored, differeth in any thing from the metal rare : as the form of mineral bodies.
whether it become not more churlish, altered in co8. Dissolution. All metals without exception lour, or the like. may be dissolved. (1.) Iron may be dissolved by any tart, salt, or
Dr. Meverel's answers touching the restitutions of vitriolated water; yea, by common water, if it be
metals and minerals. first calcined with sulphur. It dissolves in aqua Reduction is chiefly effected by fire, wherein if fortis with great ebullition and heat, into a red li- they stand and nele, the imperfect metals vapour quor, so red as blood.
away, and so do all manner of salts which separated (2.) Lead is fittest dissolved in vinegar, into a them in minimas partes before. pale yellow, making the vinegar very sweet.
Reduction is singularly holpen, by joining store (3.) Tin is best dissolved with distilled salt water. of metal of the same nature with it in the melting. It retains the colour of the menstruum.
Metals reduced are somewhat churlish, but not (4.) Copper dissolves as iron doth, in the same altered in colour. liquor, into a blue. (5.) Silver hath its proper menstruum, which is THE LORD VERULAM’S INQUISITION
The colour is green, with great heat and ebullition.
Concerning the versions, transmutations, multiplica (6.) Gold is dissolved with aqua regia, into a yel
tions, and effections of bodies. low liquor, with little heat or ebullition.
Earth by fire is turned into brick, which is of (7.) Mercury is dissolved with much heat and the nature of a stone, and serveth for building, as boiling, into the same liquors which gold and silver stone doth; and the like of tile. Qu. the manner. are. It alters not the colour of the menstruum. Naphtha, which was the bituminous mortar used
Note. Strong waters may be charged with half in the walls of Babylon, grows to an entire and very their weight of fixed metals, and equal of mercury; hard matter like a stone. if the workman be skilful.
In clay countries, where there is pebble and gra9. Sprouting. This is an accident of dissolution. vel, you shall find great stones, where you may see For if the menstruum be overcharged, then within the pebbles or gravel, and between them a substance short time the metals will shoot into certain of stone as hard or harder than the pebble itself. crystals.
There are some springs of water, wherein if you 10. For induration, or mollification, they depend put wood, it will turn into the nature of stone: so as upon the quantity of fixed mercury and sulphur. that within the water shall be stone, and that above I have observed little of them, neither of toughness the water continue wood. nor brittleness.
The slime about the reins and bladder in man's 11. The degrees of fixation and volatility I ac- body turn into stone: and stone is likewise found