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the like written of Greenland, and divers other the bending or inclining in the heliotropium and calencold countries.*
dula. Qu. The trees in the cold countries are such as are The sun-beams do ripen all fruits, and addeth to fuller of rosin, pitch, tar, which are matters apt for them a sweetness or fatness; and yet some sultry fire, and the woods themselves more combustible | hot days overcast, are noted to ripen more than than those in much hotter countries; as for example, bright days. fir, pine-apple, juniper: Qu. whether their trees of The sun-beams are thought to mend distilled the same kind that ours are, as oak and ash, bear waters, the glasses being well stopped, and to make not, in the more cold countries, a wood more brittle them the more virtuous and fragrant. and ready to take fire than the same kinds with The sun-beams do turn wine into vinegar; but us ?
Qu, whether they would not sweeten verjuice ? The sun-beams heat manifestly by reflexion, as The sun-beams do pall any wine or beer that is in countries pent in with hills, upon walls or build- set in them. ings, upon pavements, upon gravel more than earth, The sun-beams do take away the lustre of any upon arable more than grass, upon rivers if they be silks or arras. not very open, &c.
There is almost no mine but lieth some depth in The uniting or collection of the sun-beams multi- the earth; gold is conceived to lie highest, and in plieth heat, as in burning-glasses, which are made the hottest countries, yet Thracia and Hungary are thinner in the middle than on the sides, as I take it, cold, and the hills of Scotland have yielded gold, contrary to spectacles; and the operation of them is, but in small grains or quantity. as I remember, first to place them between the sun If you set a root of a tree too deep in the and the body to be fired, and then to draw them up-ground, that root will perish, and the stock will put ward towards the sun, which it is true maketh the forth a new root nearer the superficies of the earth. angle of the cone sharper. But then I take it if Some trees and plants prosper best in the shade : the glass had been first placed at the same distance, as the bayes, strawberries, some wood-flowers. to which it is after drawn, it would not have had Almost all flies love the sun-beams, so do snakes; that force, and yet that had been all one to the toads and worms the contrary. sharpness of the angle. Qu.
The sun-beams tanneth the skin of man; and in So in that the sun's beams are hotter perpendi. some places turneth it to black. cularly than obliquely, it may be imputed to the The sun-beams are hardly endured by many, but union of the beams, which in case of perpen cause head-ache, faintness, and with many they cause dicularity reflect into the very same lines with the rheums; yet to aged men they are comfortable. direct; and the farther from perpendicularity the The sun causes pestilence, which with us rages more obtuse the angle, and the greater distance be about autumn: but it is reported in Barbary they tween the direct beam and the reflected beam. break up about June, and rage most in the winter.
The sun-beams raise vapours out of the earth, The heat of the sun, and of fire, and living and when they withdraw they fall back in dews. creatures, agree in some things which pertain to
The sun-beams do many times scatter the mists vivification; as the back of a chimney will set forwhich are in the mornings.
ward an apricot-tree as well as the sun; the fire will The sun-beams cause the divers returns of the raise a dead butterfly as well as the sun; and so will herbs, plants, and fruits of the earth; for we see in the heat of a living creature. The heat of the sun lemon-trees and the like, that there is coming on at in sand will hatch an egg. Qu. once fruit ripe, fruit unripe, and blossoms; which The heat of the sun in the hottest countries may show that the plant worketh to put forth con-nothing so violent as that of fire, no not scarcely so tinually, were it not for the variations of the accesses hot to the sense as that of a living creature. and recesses of the sun, which call forth and put The sun, a fountain of light as well as heat. back.
The other celestial bodies manifest in light, and yet The excessive heat of the sun doth wither and non constat whether all borrowed, as in the moon; destroy vegetables, as well as the cold doth nip and but obscure in heat. blast them.
The southern and western wind with us is the The heat or beams of the sun doth take away warmest, whereof the one bloweth from the sun, the the smell of flowers, specially such as are of a milder other from the sea ; the northern and eastern the odour.
more cold. Qu, whether in the coast of Florida, or The beams of the sun do disclose summer flowers, at Brasil, the east wind be not the warmest, and the as the pimpernel, marigold, and almost all flowers west the coldest; and so beyond the antarctic tropic, else, for they close commonly morning and evening, the southern wind the coldest. or in overcast weather, and open in the brightness The air useth to be extreme hot before thunders. of the sun; which is but imputed to dryness and The sea and air ambient appeareth to be hotter moisture, which doth make the beams heavy or than that at land; for in the northern voyages two erect; and not to any other propriety in the sun or three degrees farther at the open sea, they find beams; so they report not only a closing but a less ice than two or three degrees more south near
land: but Qu. for that may be by reason of the * No doubt but infinite power of the heat of the sun in cold shores and shallows. countries, though it be not to the analogy of men, and fruits, &c,
The snows dissolve fastest upon the sea-coasts,
yet the winds are counted the bitterest from the sea, Paracelsus reporteth, that if a glass of wine be set and such as trees will bend from. Qu.
upon a terras in a bitter frost, it will leave some The streams or clouds of brightness which appear liquor unfrozen in the centre of the glass, which in the firmament, being such through which the excelleth spiritus vini drawn by fire. stars may be seen, and shoot not, but rest, are signs Cold in Muscovy, and the like countries, causes of heat.
those parts which are voidest of blood, as the nose, The pillars of light, which are so upright, and do the ears, the toes, the fingers, to mortify and rot; commonly shoot and vary, are signs of cold; but especially if you come suddenly to fire, after you both these are signs of drought.
have been in the air abroad, they are The air when it is moved is to the sense colder; moulder and dissolve. They use for remedy, as is as in winds, fannings, ventilabra.
said, washing in snow water. The air in things fibrous, as fleeces, furs, &c. If a man come out of a bitter cold suddenly to warm; and those stuffs to the feeling warm. the fire, he is ready to swoon, or be overcome.
The water to man's body seemeth colder than the So contrariwise at Nova Zembla, when they air; and so in summer, in swimming it seemeth at opened their doors at times to go forth, he that the first going in; and yet after one hath been in a opened the door was in danger to be overcome. while, at the cometh forth again, the air seemeth The quantity of fish in the cold countries, Norcolder than the water.
way, &c. very abundant, The snow more cold to the sense than water, and The quantity of fowl and eggs laid in the cliffs the ice than snow; and they have in Italy means to | in great abundance. keep snow and ice for the cooling of their drinks: In Nova Zembla they found no beasts but bears Qu. whether it be so in froth in respect of the and foxes, whereof the bears gave over to be seen liquor ?
about September, and the foxes began. Baths of hot water feel hottest at the first going Meat will keep from putrifying longer in frosty in.
weather, than at other times. The frost dew which we see in hoar frost, and in In Iceland they keep fish, by exposing it to the the rimes upon trees or the like, accounted more cold, from putrifying without salt. mortifying cold than snow; for snow cherisheth the The nature of man endureth the colds in the ground, and any thing sowed in it; the other biteth countries of Scricfinnia, Biarmia, Lappia, Iceland, and killeth.
Greenland ; and that not by perpetual keeping in Stone and metal exceeding cold to the feeling stoves in the winter time, as they do in Russia : but more than wood : yea, more than jet or amber, or contrariwise, their chief fairs and intercourse is horn, which are no less smooth.
written to be in the winter, because the ice evens The snow is ever in the winter season, but the and levelleth the passages of waters, plashes, &c. hail, which is more of the nature of ice, is ever in A thaw after a frost doth greatly rot and mellow the summer season ; whereupon it is conceived, that the ground. as the hollows of the earth are warmest in the Extreme cold hurteth the eyes, and causeth blindwinter, so that region of the air is coldest in the ness in many beasts, as is reported. summer; as if they were a fugue of the nature of The cold maketh any solid substance, as wood, either from the contrary, and a collecting itself to stone, metal, put to the flesh, to cleave to it, and to an union, and so to a farther strength.
pull the flesh after it, and so put to any cloth that So in the shades under trees, in the summer, is moist. which stand in an open field, the shade noted to be Cold maketh the pilage of beasts more thick and colder than in a wood.
long, as foxes of Muscovy, sables, &c. Cold effecteth congelation in liquors, so as they Cold make the pilage of most beasts incline to do consist and hold together, which before did run. grayness or whiteness, as foxes, bears, and so the
Cold breaketh glasses, if they be close stopped, plumage of fowls; and maketh also the crests of in frost, when the liquor freezeth within.
cocks and their feet white, as is reported. Cold in extreme maketh metals, that are dry and Extreme cold will make nails leap out of the brittle, cleft and crack, Æraque dissiliunt ; so of walls, and out of locks, and the like. pots of earth and glass.
Extreme cold maketh leather to be stiff like horn. Cold maketh bones of living creatures more In frosty weather the stars appear clearest and fragile.
most sparkling. Cold maketh living creatures to swell in the In the change from frost to open weather, or from joints, and the blood to clot, and turn more blue. open weather to frosts, commonly great mists.
Bitter frosts do make all drinks to taste more In extreme colds any thing never so little which dead and flat.
arresteth the air maketh it to congeal; as we see in Cold maketh the arteries and flesh more asper cobwebs in windows, which is one of the least and and rough.
weakest threads that is, and yet drops gather about Cold causes rheums and distillations by compress- it like chains of pearl. ing the brain, and laxes by like reason.
So in frosts, the inside of glass windows gathereth Cold increases appetite in the stomach, and will a dew; Qu, if not more without. ingness to stir.
Qu. Whether the sweating of marble and stones Cold maketh the fire to scald and sparkle. be in frost, or towards rain.
Oil in time of frost gathereth to a substance, as There is nothing in our region, which, by apof tallow; and it is said to sparkle some time, so as proach of a matter hot, will not take heat by tranit giveth a light in the dark.
sition or excitation. The countries which lie covered with snow, have There is nothing hot here with us but is in a a hastier maturation of all grain than in other kind of consumption, if it carry heat in itself; for countries, all being within three months, or there all fired things are ready to consume; chafed things abouts.
are ready to fire; and the heat of men's bodies Qu. It is said, that compositions of honey, as
needeth aliment to restore. mead, do ripen, and are most pleasant in the great The transition of heat is without any imparting colds.
of substance, and yet remaineth after the body heated The frosts with us are casual, and not tied to any is withdrawn: for it is not like smells, for they months, so as they are not merely caused by the leave some airs or parts ; not like light, for that recess of the sun, but mixed with some inferior abideth not when the first body is removed; not
In the inland of the northern countries, as unlike to the motion of the loadstone, which is in Russia, the weather for the three or four months lent without adhesion of substance, for if the iron of November, December, January, February, is con be filed where it was rubbed, yet it will draw or stant, viz. clear and perpetual frost, without snows turn. or rains.
INQUISITIONS TOUCHING THE COMPOUNDING OF METALS.
To make proof of the incorporation of iron with To make proof of the incorporating of iron and flint, or other stone. For if it can be incorporated brass. For the cheapness of the iron in comparison without over-great charge, or other incommodity, of the brass, if the uses may be served, doth promise the cheapness of the flint or stone doth make the profit. The doubt will be touching their incorcompound stuff profitable for divers uses. The porating; for that it is approved, that iron will not doubts may be three in number.
incorporate, neither with brass nor other metals, of First, Whether they will incorporate at all, other itself, by simple fire: so as the inquiry must be upon wise than to a body that will not hold well together, the calcination, and the additament, and the charge but become brittle and uneven ?
of them. Secondly, Although it should incorporate well, The uses will be for such things as are now made yet whether the stuff will not be so stubborn as it of brass, and might be as well served by the comwill not work well with a hammer, whereby the pound stuff; wherein the doubts will be chiefly of charge in working will overthrow the cheapness of the toughness, and of the beauty. the material ?
First, therefore, if brass ordnance could be made Thirdly, Whether they will incorporate, except of the compound stuff, in respect of the cheapness the iron and stone be first calcined into powder ? of the iron, it would be of great use. And if not, whether the charge of the calcination The vantage which brass ordnance hath over iron, will not eat out the cheapness of the material ? is chiefly, as I suppose, because it will hold the
The uses are most probable to be; first for the blow, though it be driven far thinner than the iron implements of the kitchen ; as spits, ranges, cob can be; whereby it saveth both in the quantity of irons, pots, &c.; then for the wars, as ordnance, the material, and in the charge and commodity of portcullises, grates, chains, &c.
mounting and carriage, in regard, by reason of the Note ; the finer works of iron are not so probable thinness, it beareth much less weight: there may to be served with such a stuff; as locks, clocks, be also somewhat in being not so easily over-heated. small chains, &c. because the stuff is not like to be Secondly, for the beauty. Those things wherein tough enough.
the beauty or lustre are esteemed, are andirons, and For the better use, in comparison of iron, it is all manner of images, and statues, and columns, and like the stuff will be far lighter : for the weight of tombs, and the like. So as the doubt will be double iron to flint is double and a third part; and, second for the beauty; the one, whether the colour will ly, it is like to rust not so easily, but to be more please so well, because it will not be so like gold as clean.
brass ? The other, whether it will polish so well ? The ways of trial are two: first, by the iron and wherein for the latter it is probable it will; for steel stone of themselves, wherein it must be inquired, glosses are more resplendent than the like plates of what are the stones that do easiliest melt. Second brass would be; and so is the glittering of a blade. ly, with an additament, wherein brimstone is ap- And besides, I take it, andiron brass, which they proved to help to the melting of iron or steel. But call white brass, hath some mixture of tin to help then it must be considered, whether the charge of the lustre. And for the golden colour, it may be the additament will not destroy the profit.
by some small mixture of orpiment, such as they use It must be known also, what proportion of the to brass in the yellow alchemy; it will easily restone the iron will receive to incorporate well with cover that which the iron loseth. Of this the eye it, and that with once melting; for if either the pro- must be the judge upon proof made. portion be too small, or that it cannot be received But now for pans, pots, curfews, counters, and the but piecemeal by several meltings, the work cannot like, the beauty will not be so much respected, so as be of value.
the compound stuff is like to pass.
For the better use of the compounded stuff, it will | into coin. It may be also questioned, whether the be sweeter and cleaner than brass alone, which compound stuff will receive gilding as well as silver, yieldeth a smell or soiliness; and therefore may be and with equal lustre? It is to be noted, that the better for the vessels of the kitchen and brewing. common allay of silver coin is brass, which doth It will also be harder than brass, where hardness discolour more, and is not so neat as tin. may be required.
The drownings of metals within other metals, in For the trial, the doubts will be two: first, the such sort as they can never rise again, is a thing of over-weight of brass towards iron, which will make great profit. For if a quantity of silver can be so iron float on the top in the melting. This perhaps buried in gold, as it will never be reduced again, will be holpen with the calaminar stone, which con neither by fire, nor parting waters, nor other ways: senteth so well with brass, and, as I take it, is lighter and also that it serve all uses as well as pure gold, than iron. The other doubt will be the stiffness it is in effect all one as if so much silver were turned and dryness of iron to melt; which must be holpen into gold ; only the weight will discover it; yet that either by moistening the iron, or opening it. For taketh off but half of the profit; for gold is not fully the first, perhaps some mixture of lead will help. double weight to silver, but gold is twelve times Which is as much more liquid than brass, as iron is price to silver. less liquid. The opening may be holpen by some The burial must be by one of these two ways, mixture of sulphur: so as the trials would be with either by the smallness of the proportion, as perhaps brass, iron, calaminar stone, and sulphur ; and then fifty to one, which will be but six-pence gains in again with the same composition, and an addition fifty shillings; or it must be holpen by somewhat of some lead; and in all this the charge must be which may fix the silver, never to be restored or considered, whether it eat not out the profit of the vapoured away, when it is incorporated into such a cheapness of iron ?
mass of gold; for the less quantity is ever the There be two proofs to be made of incorporation harder to sever: and for this purpose iron is the of metals for magnificence and delicacy.
likest, or coppel stuff, upon which the fire hath no for the eye, and the other for the ear. Statue-metal, power of consumption. and bell-metal, and trumpet-metal, and string-metal; The making of gold seemeth a thing scarcely in all these, though the mixture of brass or copper possible; because gold is the heaviest of metals, and should be dearer than the brass itself, yet the plea- to add matter is impossible: and again, to drive sure will advance the price to profit.
metals into a narrower room than their natural exFirst therefore for statue-metal, see Pliny's mix- tent beareth, is a condensation hardly to be extures, which are almost forgotten, and consider the pected. But to make silver seemeth more easy, charge.
because both quicksilver and lead are weightier than Try likewise the mixture of tin in large proportion silver; so as there needeth only fixing, and not conwith copper, and observe the colour and beauty, it densing. The degree unto this that is already being polished. But chiefly let proof be made of the known, is infusing of quicksilver in a parchment, or incorporating of copper or brass with glass-metal, otherwise, in the midst of molten lead when it coolfor that is cheap, and is like to add a great glory eth; for this stupifieth the quicksilver that it runand shining
neth no more. This trial is to be advanced three For bell-metal. First, it is to be known what is ways. First, by iterating the melting of the lead, the composition which is now in use. Secondly, it to see whether it will not make the quicksilver is probable that it is the dryness of the metal that harder and harder. Secondly, to put realgar hot into doth help the clearness of the sound, and the moist- the midst of the quicksilver, whereby it may be conness that dulleth it; and therefore the mixtures that densed, as well from within as without. Thirdly, are probable, are steel, tin, glass-metal.
to try it in the midst of molten iron, or molten steel, For string-metal, or trumpet-metal, it is the same which is a body more likely to fix the quicksilver reason; save that glass-metal may not be used, be than lead. It may be also tried, by incorporating cause it will make it too brittle; and, trial
be powder of steel, or coppel dust, by pouncing into the made with mixture of silver, it being but a delicacy, quicksilver, and so to proceed to the stupifying. with iron or brass.
Upon glass four things would be put in proof. To make proof of the incorporation of silver and The first, means to make the glass more crystalline. tin in equal quantity, or with two parts silver and The second, to make it more strong for falls, and for one part tin, and to observe whether it be of equal fire, though it come not to the degree to be malleable. beauty and lustre with pure silver; and also whether The third, to make it coloured by tinctures, comit yield no soiliness more than silver ? And again, parable to or exceeding precious stones. The fourth, whether it will endure the ordinary fire which be to make a compound body of glass and galletyle ; longeth to chafing-dishes, posnets, and such other that is, to have the colour milky like a chalcedon, silver vessels ? And if it do not endure the fire, yet being a stuff between a porcelane and a glass. whether by some mixture of iron it may not be made For the first, it is good first to know exactly the more fixed ? For if it be in beauty and all the uses several materials whereof the glass in use is made ; aforesaid equal to silver, it were a thing of singular window-glass, Normandy and Burgundy, ale-house profit to the state, and to all particular persons, to glass, English drinking-glass : and then thereupon change silver plate or vessel into the compound stuff, to consider what the reason is of the coarseness being a kind of silver electre, and to turn the rest or clearness; and from thence to rise to a con