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pastoral staff, like a sheep-hook : neither of them of larging of the bounds of human empire, to the metal, but the crosier of balm-wood, the pastoral effecting of all things possible. staff of cedar. Horsemen he had none, neither be “ The preparations and instruments are these. fore nor behind his chariot : as it seemeth, to avoid We have large and deep caves of several depths : | all tumult and trouble. Behind his chariot went the deepest are sunk six hundred fathom; and some all the officers and principals of the companies of of them are digged and made under great hills and the city. He sat alone, upon cushions of a kind of mountains : so that if you reckon together the depth excellent plush, blue; and under his foot curious of the hill and the depth of the cave, they are, some carpets of silk of divers colours, like the Persian, of them, above three miles deep. For we find that but far finer. He held up his bare hand as he went, the depth of a hill, and the depth of a cave from as blessing the people, but in silence. The street the flat, is the same thing ; both remote alike from was wonderfully well kept; so that there was never the sun and heaven's beams, and from the open air. any army had their men stand in better battle-array, These caves we call the lower region. And we use than the people stood. The windows likewise were them for all coagulations, indurations, refrigerations, not crowded, but every one stood in them as if they and conservations of bodies. We use them likewise had been placed. When the show was past, the Jew for the imitation of natural mines: and the producsaid to me; “ I shall not be able to attend you as I ing also of new artificial metals, by compositions would, in regard of some charge the city hath laid and materials which we use and lay there for many upon me, for the entertaining of this great person.” years. We use them also sometimes, which may Three days after the Jew came to me again, and seem strange, for curing of some diseases, and for said ; “ Ye are happy men; for the father of prolongation of life, in some hermits that choose to Solomon's House taketh knowledge of your being live there, well accommodated of all things neceshere, and commanded me to tell you, that he will sary, and indeed live very long; by whom also we admit all your company to his presence, and have learn many things. private conference with one of you that ye shall “ We have burials in several earths, where we choose : and for this hath appointed the next day put divers cements, as the Chineses do their porcelafter tomorrow. And because he meaneth to give lane. But we have them in greater variety, and you his blessing, he hath appointed it in the fore- some of them more fine. We have also great vanoon." We came at our day and hour, and I was riety of composts, and soils, for the making of the chosen by my fellows for the private access. We earth fruitful. found him in a fair chamber, richly hanged, and “ We have high towers; the highest about half carpeted under foot, without any degrees to the state; a mile in height; and some of them likewise set he was set upon a low throne richly adorned, and a upon high mountains ; so that the vantage of the rich cloth of state over his head, of blue sattin em hill with the tower, is in the highest of them three broidered. He was alone, save that he had two miles at least. And these places we call the upper pages of honour, on either hand one, finely attired region; accounting the air between the high places in white. His under-garments were the like that and the low, as a middle region. We use these we saw him wear in the chariot; but instead of his towers, according to their several heights and situagown, he had on him a mantle with a cape, of the tions, for insolation, refrigeration, conservation, and same fine black, fastened about him.

When we

for the view of divers meteors; as winds, rain, snow, came in, as we were taught, we bowed low at our hail, and some of the fiery meteors also. first entrance; and when we were come near his them, in some places, are dwellings of hermits, chair, he stood up, holding forth his hand ungloved, whom we visit sometimes, and instruct what to and in posture of blessing; and we every one of us observe. stooped down, and kissed the hem of his tippet. “ We have great lakes both salt and fresh, whereThat done, the rest departed, and I remained. Then of we have use for the fish and fowl. We use them he warned the pages forth of the room, and caused also for burials of some natural bodies: for we find me to sit down beside him, and spake to me thus in a difference in things buried in earth, or in air bethe Spanish tongue :

low the earth; and things buried in water. We

have also pools, of which some do strain fresh water “ God bless thee, my son; I will give thee the out of salt; and others by art do turn fresh water greatest jewel I have. For I will impart unto thee, into salt. We have also some rocks in the midst of for the love of God and men, a relation of the true the sea : and some bays upon the shore for some state of Solomon's House. Son, to make you know works, wherein is required the air and vapour of the the true state of Solomon's House, I will keep this We have likewise violent streams and cataorder. First, I will set forth unto you the end of racts, which serve is for many motions: and likeour foundation.

Secondly, the preparations and wise engines for multiplying and enforcing of winds, instruments we have for our works. Thirdly, the to set also on going divers motions. several employments and functions whereto our We have also a number of artificial wells and fellows are assigned. And, fourthly, the ordinances fountains, made in imitation of the natural sources and rites which we observe.

and baths; as tincted upon vitriol, sulphur, steel,

brass, lead, nitre, and other minerals. And again, “ The end of our foundation is the knowledge of we have little wells for infusions of many things, causes, and secret motions of things; and the en- | where the waters take the virtue quicker and better

And upon

sea.

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than in vessels or basons. And amongst them we we know beforehand, of what matter and commixhave a water, which we call water of paradise, being, ture, what kind of those creatures will arise. by that we do to it, made very sovereign for health " We have also particular pools, where we make and prolongation of life.

trials upon fishes, as we have said before of beasts “ We have also great and spacious houses, where and birds. we imitate and demonstrate meteors; as snow, hail, “ We have also places for breed and generation rain, some artificial rains of bodies, and not of water, of those kinds of worms, and flies, which are of thunders, lightnings; also generations of bodies in special use; such as are with you your silk-worms air; as frogs, flies, and divers others.

and bees. “ We have also certain chambers, which we call “ I will not hold you long with recounting of our chambers of health, where we qualify the air as we brew-houses, bake-houses, and kitchens, where are think good and proper for the cure of divers dis-made divers drinks, breads, and meats, rare and of eases, and preservation of health.

special effects. Wines we have of grapes; and “ We have also fair and large baths, of several drinks of other juice, of fruits, of grains, and of roots : mixtures, for the cure of diseases, and the restoring and of mixtures with honey, sugar, manna, and of man's body from arefaction : and others, for the fruits dried and decocted. Also of the tears or confirming of it in strength of sinews, vital parts, wounding of trees, and of the pulp of canes. And and the very juice and substance of the body. these drinks are of several ages, some to the age or

“ We have also large and various orchards and last of forty years. We have drinks also brewed gardens, wherein we do not so much respect beauty, with several herbs, and roots, and spices; yea, with as variety of ground and soil, proper for divers trees several fleshes, and white meats; whereof some of and herbs: and some very spacious, where trees and the drinks are such as they are in effect meat and berries are set, whereof we make divers kinds of drink both : so that divers, especially in age, do drinks, besides the vineyards. In these we prac- desire to live with them, with little or no meat or tise likewise all conclusions of grafting and inocu- bread. And above all, we strive to have drinks of lating, as well of wild trees as fruit trees, which extreme thin parts, to insinuate into the body, and produceth many effects. And we make, by art, in the yet without all biting, sharpness, or fretting; insosame orchards and gardens, trees and flowers to much as some of them put upon the back of your come earlier or later than their seasons; and to hand, will, with a little stay, pass through to the come up and bear more speedily than by their na palm, and yet taste mild to the mouth. We have tural course they do. We make them also by art also waters which we ripen in that fashion as they greater much than their nature ; and their fruit become nourishing ; so that they are indeed excelgreater and sweeter, and of differing taste, smell, lent drink; and many will use no other. Breads colour, and figure, from their nature. And many of we have of several grains, roots, and kernels : yea, them we so order, as they become of medicinal use. and some of flesh, and fish, dried ; with divers kinds

“ We have also means to make divers plants rise of leavenings and seasonings : so that some do exby mixtures of earths without seeds; and likewise tremely move appetites; some do nourish so, as dito make divers new plants, differing from the vul vers do live on them, without any other meat; who live gar; and to make one tree or plant turn into an very long. So for meats, we have some of them so other.

beaten, and made tender, and mortified, yet without “ We have also parks and enclosures of all sorts all corrupting, as a weak heat of the stomach will of beasts and birds, which we use not only for view turn them into good chylus, as well as a strong or rareness, but likewise for dissections and trials; heat would meat otherwise prepared. We have that thereby we may take light what may be some meats also, and breads and drinks, which taken wrought upon the body of man. Wherein we find by men enable them to fast long after: and some many strange effects; as continuing life in them, other, that used make the very flesh of men's bodies though divers parts, which you account vital, be sensibly more hard and tough, and their strength far perished, and taken forth ; resuscitating of some greater than otherwise it would be. that seem dead in appearance ; and the like. We “ We have dispensatories, or shops of medicines ; try also all poisons and other medicines upon them, wherein you may easily think, if we have such vaas well of chirurgery as physic. By art likewise, riety of plants and living creatures more than you we make them greater or taller than their kind is; have in Europe, (for we know what you have,) the and contrariwise dwarf them, and stay their growth: simples, drugs, and ingredients of medicines must we make them more fruitful and bearing than their likewise be in so much the greater variety. We kind is; and contrariwise barren, and not genera- have them likewise of divers ages, and long fermenttive. Also we make them differ in colour, shape, ations. And for their preparations, we have not activity, many ways. We find means to make com- only all manner of exquisite distillations and separamixtures and copulations of divers kinds, which have tions, and especially by gentle heats and percolaproduced many new kinds, and them not barren, as tions through divers strainers, yea, and substances; the general opinion is. We make a number of kinds but also exact forms of composition whereby they of serpents, worms, flies, fishes, of putrefaction; incorporate almost as they were natural simples. whereof some are advanced in effect to be perfect “ We have also divers mechanical arts, which creatures, like beasts, or birds; and have sexes, and you have not: and stuffs made by them; as papers, do propagate. Neither do we this by chance, but | linen, silks, tissues; dainty works of feathers of

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wonderful lustre ; excellent dyes, and many others: /ments of music likewise to you unknown, some and shops likewise as well for such as are not sweeter than any you have; together with bells and brought into vulgar use amongst us, as for those rings that are dainty and sweet.

We represent that are.

For you must know, that of the things small sounds as great and deep; likewise great before recited, many of them are grown into use sounds extenuate and sharp ; we make divers throughout the kingdom; but yet, if they did flow tremblings and warblings of sounds, which in their from our invention, we have of them also for pat original are entire. We represent and imitate all terns and principals.

articulate sounds and letters, and the voices and “ We have also furnaces of great diversities, and notes of beasts and birds. We have certain helps, that keep great diversity of heats ; fierce and quick; which set to the ear do farther the hearing greatly. strong and constant; soft and mild; blown, quiet, We have also divers strange and artificial echos, redry, moist; and the like. But above all, we have flecting the voice many times, and as it were tossing heats in imitation of the sun's and heavenly bodies' it: and some that give back the voice louder than heats, that pass divers inequalities, and, as it were, it came; some shriller, and some deeper; yea, some orbs, progresses, and returns, whereby we produce rendering the voice differing in the letters or articuadmirable effects. Besides, we have heats of dungs, late sound from that they receive. We have also and of bellies and maws of living creatures, and of means to convey sounds in trunks and pipes, in their bloods and bodies; and of hays and herbs laid strange lines and distances. up moist; of lime unquenched; and such like. In “ We have also perfume-houses; wherewith we struments also which generate heat only by motion. join also practices of taste. We multiply smells, And farther, places for strong insolations: and again, which may seem strange. We imitate smells, places under the earth, which, by nature or art, making all smells to breathe out of other mixtures yield heat. These divers heats we use, as the na than those that give them. We make divers imiture of the operation which we intend requireth. tations of taste likewise, so that they will deceive

“ We have also perspective houses, where we any man's taste. And in this house we contain also make demonstrations of all lights and radiations ; a confiture-house ; where we make all sweat-meats, and of all colours; and out of things uncoloured and dry and moist ; and divers pleasant wines, milks, transparent, we can represent unto you all several broths, and salads, in far greater variety than you colours : not in rainbows, as it is in gems and have. prisms, but of themselves single. We represent

“ We have also engine-houses, where are prealso all multiplications of light, which we carry to pared engines and instruments for all sorts of mogreat distance; and make so sharp, as to discern tions. There we imitate and practise to make small points and lines : also all colorations of light : swifter motions than any you have, either out of all delusions and deceits of the sight, in figures, your muskets, or any engine that you have; and to magnitudes, motions, colours : all demonstrations of make them, and multiply them more easily, and shadows. We find also divers means yet unknown with small force, by wheels and other means : and to you, of producing of light originally from divers to make them stronger, and more violent than yours bodies. We procure means of seeing objects afar are ; exceeding your greatest cannons and basilisks. off; as in the heaven and remote places; and repre-We represent also ordnance and instruments of war, sent things near as far off; and things afar off as and engines of all kinds : and likewise new mixtures near; making feigned distances. We have also and compositions of gun-powder, wild-fires burning helps for the sight, far above spectacles and glasses in water, and unquenchable. Also fire-works of all

We have also glasses and means, to see variety both for pleasure and use. We imitate also small and minute bodies perfectly and distinctly; as flights of birds ; we have some degrees of flying in the shapes and colours of small flies and worms, the air; we have ships and boats for going under grains, and flaws in gems, which cannot otherwise water, and brooking of seas; also swimming-girdles be seen; observations in urine and blood, not other and supporters. We have divers curious clocks, wise to be seen. We make artificial rainbows, and other like motions of return, and some perpehalos, and circles about light. We represent also all tual motions. We imitate also motions of living manner of reflections, refractions, and multiplica- creatures, by images of men, beasts, birds, fishes, tions of visual beams of objects.

and serpents; we have also a great number of other “ We have also precious stones of all kinds, various motions, strange for equality, fineness, and many of them of great beauty, and to you unknown; subtilty. crystals likewise; and glasses of divers kinds; and “ We have also a mathematical house, where are amongst them some of metals vitrificated, and represented all instruments, as well of geometry as other materials, besides those of which you make astronomy, exquisitely made. glass. Also a number of fossils, and imperfect • We have also houses of deceits of the senses; minerals, which you have not. Likewise loadstones where we represent all manner of feats of juggling, of prodigious virtue ; and other rare stones, both false apparitions, impostures, and illusions; and their natural and artificial.

fallacies. And surely you will easily believe, that “ We have also sound-houses, where we practise we that have so many things truly natural, which and demonstrate all sounds, and their generation. induce admiration, could in a world of particulars We have harmonies which you have not, of quarter- deceive the senses, if we would disguise those things, sounds, and lesser slides of sounds. Divers instru- and labour to make them seem more miraculous.

in use.

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But we do hate all impostures and lies: insomuch we think fit to keep secret : though some of those as we have severely forbidden it to all our fellows, we do reveal sometimes to the state, and some not. under pain of ignominy and fines, that they do not “For our ordinances and rites: we have two very show any natural work or thing, adorned or swell-long and fair galleries : in one of these we place ing; but only pure as it is, and without all affecta- patterns and samples of all manner of the more rare tion of strangeness.

and excellent inventions; in the other we place the “ These are, my son, the riches of Solomon's statues of all principal inventors. There we have House.

the statue of your Columbus, that discovered the

West Indies: also the inventor of ships : your monk " For the several employments and offices of our that was the inventor of ordnance, and of gunpowfellows; we have twelve that sail into foreign der: the inventor of music: the inventor of letters : countries, under the names of other nations, for our the inventor of printing : the inventor of observaown we conceal, who bring us the books, and ab- tions of astronomy: the inventor of works in metal: stracts, and patterns of experiments of all other the inventor of glass: the inventor of silk of the parts. These we call merchants of light.

worm : the inventor of wine : the inventor of corn “ We have three that collect the experiments and bread : the inventor of sugars: and all these which are in all books. These we call depredators. by more certain tradition than you have. Then

“We have three that collect the experiments of have we divers inventors of our own of excellent all mechanical arts; and also of liberal sciences; works; which since you have not seen, it were too and also of practices which are not brought into arts. long to make descriptions of them; and besides, in These we call mystery-men.

the right understanding of those descriptions, you “ We have three that try new experiments, such might easily err. For upon every invention of value, as themselves think good. These we call pioneers we erect a statue to the inventor, and give him a or miners.

liberal and honourable reward. These statues are, We have three that draw the experiments of some of brass; some of marble and touchstone; the former four into titles, and tables, to give the some of cedar, and other special woods gilt and better light for the drawing of observations and adorned; some of iron ; some of silver; some of axioms out of them. These we call compilers. gold.

• We have three that bend themselves, looking “We have certain hymns and services, which we into the experiments of their fellows, and cast about say daily, of laud and thanks to God for his marvelhow to draw out of them things of use and practice lous works : and forms of prayers, imploring his for man's life and knowledge, as well for works, as aid and blessing for the illumination of our labours; for plain demonstration of causes, means of natural and the turning of them into good and holy uses. divinations, and the easy and clear discovery of the Lastly, we have circuits or visits of divers prinvirtues and parts of bodies. These we call dowry- cipal cities of the kingdom ; where, as it cometh to men or benefactors.

pass, we do publish such new profitable inventions “ Then after divers meetings and consults of our as we think good. And we do also declare natural whole number, to consider of the former labours divinations of diseases, plagues, swarms of hurtful and collections, we have three that take care, out of creatures, scarcity, tempests, earthquakes, great inthem, to direct new experiments, of a higher light, undations, comets, temperature of the year, and dimore penetrating into nature than the former. These vers other things; and we give counsel thereupon we call lamps.

what the people shall do for the prevention and “ We have three others that do execute the ex- remedy of them.” periments so directed, and report them. These we call inoculators.

And when he had said this, he stood up; and I, “ Lastly, we have three that raise the former as I had been taught, kneeled down; and he laid discoveries by experiments into greater observa- his right hand upon my head and said : “ God bless tions, axioms, and aphorisms. These we call inter- thee, my son, and God bless this relation which I preters of nature.

have made. I give thee leave to publish it for the " We have also, as you must think, novices and good of other nations; for we here are in God's apprentices, that the succession of the former embosom, a land unknown." And so he left me; havployed men do not fail : besides a great number of ing assigned a value of about two thousand ducats, servants, and attendants, men and women. And this for a bounty to me and my fellows. For they give we do also: we have consultations, which of the in- great largesses where they come upon all occasions, ventions and experiences which we have discovered shall be published, and which not: and take all an

[The rest was not perfected.] oath of secrecy, for the concealing of those which

MR. BACON

IN PRAISE OF KNOWLEDGE.

SILENCE were the best celebration of that which I causes, they can reduce them to their principles. If mean to commend; for who would not use silence, any instance of experience stand against them, they where silence is not made ? and what crier can make can range it in order by some distinctions. But all silence in such a noise and tumult of vain and popu- this is but a web of the wit, it can work nothing. I lar opinions ? My praise shall be dedicated to the do not doubt but that common notions which we call mind itself. The mind is the man, and the know- reason, and the knitting of them together, which we ledge of the mind. A man is but what he knoweth. call logic, are the art of reason and studies. But The mind itself is but an accident to knowledge; for they rather cast obscurity, than gain light to the knowledge is a double of that which is. The truth contemplation of nature. All the philosophy of of being, and the truth of knowing, is all one. And nature which is now received, is either the philosothe pleasures of the affections greater than the phy of the Grecians, or that other of the alchemists. pleasures of the senses. And are not the pleasures That of the Grecians hath the foundations in words, of the intellect greater than the pleasures of the in ostentation, in confutation, in sects, in schools, in affections ? Is it not a true and only natural plea- disputations. The Grecians were, as one of themsure, whereof there is no satiety? Is it not know- selves saith, “ you Grecians, ever children.” They ledge that doth alone clear the mind of all pertur- knew little antiquity ; they knew, except fables, not bations ? How many things are there which we much above five hundred years before themselves. imagine not? How many things do we esteem and They knew but a small portion of the world. That value otherwise than they are ? This ill-propor- of the alchemists hath the foundation in imposture, tioned estimation, these vain imaginations, these be in auricular traditions and obscurity. It was catchthe clouds of error that turn into the storms of per- ing hold of religion, but the principle of it is, “ Poturbation. Is there any such happiness as for a pulus vult decipi.” So that I know no great differman's mind to be raised above the confusion of ence between these great philosophers, but that the things; where he may have the prospect of the one is a loud crying folly, and the other is a whisorder of nature, and the error of men ? Is this but pering folly. The one is gathered out of a few a vein only of delight, and not of discovery? of con- vulgar observations, and the other out of a few tentment, and not of benefit? Shall we not as well experiments of a furnace. The one never faileth discern the riches of nature's warehouse, as the to multiply words, and the other ever faileth to benefit of her shop? Is truth ever barren? Shall multiply gold. Who would not smile at Aristotle, he not be able thereby to produce worthy effects, when he admireth the eternity and invariableness and to endow the life of man with infinite commo of the heavens, as there were not the like in the dities ? But shall I make this garland to be put bowels of the earth ? Those be the confines and upon a wrong head? Would any body believe me, borders of these two kingdoms, where the continual if I should verify this, upon the knowledge that is alteration and incursion are. The superficies and now in use ? Are we the richer by one poor inven- upper parts of the earth are full of varieties. The tion, by reason of all the learning that hath been superficies and lower parts of the heavens, which we these many hundred years ? The industry of arti- call the middle region of the air, is full of variety. ficers maketh some small improvement of things There is much spirit in the one part, that cannot be invented; and chance sometimes in experimenting brought into mass. There is much massy body in the maketh us to stumble upon somewhat which is new: other place, that cannot be refined to spirit. The but all the disputation of the learned never brought common air is as the waste ground between the borto light one effect of nature before unknown. When ders. Who would not smile at the astronomers, I things are known and found out, then they can mean not these few carmen which drive the earth descant upon them, they can knit them into certain about, but the ancient astronomers, which feign the

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