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upon improbabilities, until there hath passed a due feared, it were good those public places were perexamination. This is the sympathy of individuals; fumed, before the assemblies. for as there is a sympathy of species, so it may be 916. The empoisonment of particular persons by there is a sympathy of individuals : that is, that in odours, hath been reported to be in perfumed gloves, things, or the parts of things that have been once or the like: and it is like, they mingle the poison contiguous or entire, there should remain a trans- that is deadly, with some smells that are sweet, mission of virtue from the one to the other : as be- which also maketh it the sooner received. Plagues tween the weapon and the wound. Whereupon is also have been raised by anointings of the chinks of blazed abroad the operation of unguentum teli : and doors, and the like; not so much by the touch, as so of a piece of lard, or stick of elder, &c. that if for that it is common for men, when they find any part of it be consumed or putrified, it will work thing wet upon their fingers, to put them to their upon the other part severed. Now we will pursue which men therefore should take heed how the instances themselves.

they do. The best is, that these compositions of in

fectious airs cannot be made without danger of death Experiments in consort touching emission of spirits to them that make them. But then again, they may in vapour or exhalation, odour-like.

have some antidotes to save themselves; so that 912. The plague is many times taken without men ought not to be secure of it. manifest sense, as hath been said. And they report, 917. There have been in divers countries great that where it is found, it hath a scent of the smell of plagues by the putrefaction of great swarms of grassa mellow apple; and, as some say, of May-flowers: hoppers and locusts, when they have been dead and and it is also received, that smells of flowers that cast upon heaps. are mellow and luscious, are ill for the plague; as 918. It happeneth often in mines, that there are white lilies, cowslips, and hyacinths.

damps which kill, either by suffocation, or by the 913. The plague is not easily received by such poisonous nature of the mineral: and those that deal as continually are about them that have the plague; much in refining, or other works about metals and as keepers of the sick, and physicians ; nor again minerals, have their brains hurt and stupified by by such as take antidotes, either inward, as mithri- the metalline vapours. Amongst which it is noted, date, juniper-berries, rue, leaf and seed, &c. or out that the spirits of quicksilver either fly to the skull, ward, as angelica, zedoary, and the like, in the teeth, or bones; insomuch as gilders use to have a mouth; tar, galbanum, and the like in perfume ; nor piece of gold in their mouth, to draw the spirits of again by old people, and such as are of a dry and the quicksilver ; which gold afterwards they find to cold complexion. On the other side, the plague be whitened. There are also certain lakes and pits, taketh soonest hold of those that come out of a such as that of Avernus, that poison birds, as is fresh air, and of those that are fasting, and of child said, which fly over them, or men that stay too long dren; and it is likewise noted to go in a blood, more about them. than to a stranger.

919. The vapour of charcoal, or sea-coal, in a 914. The most pernicious infection, next the close room, hath killed many; and it is the more plague, is the smell of the jail, when prisoners have dangerous, because it cometh without any ill smell, been long, and close, and nastily kept; whereof we but stealeth on by little and little, inducing only a have had in our time experience twice or thrice; faintness, without any manifest strangling. When when both the judges that set upon the jail, and the Dutchmen wintered at Nova Zembla, and that numbers of those that attended the business or were they could gather no more sticks, they fell to make present, sickened upon it, and died. Therefore it fire of some sea-coal they had, wherewith, at first, were good wisdom, that in such cases the jail were they were much refreshed; but a little after they aired before they be brought forth.

had set about the fire, there grew a general silence 915. Out of question, if such foul smells be made and lothness to speak amongst them; and immeby art, and by the hand, they consist chiefly of diately after, one of the weakest of the company fell man's flesh or sweat putrified; for they are not down in a swoon ; whereupon they doubting what it those stinks which the nostrils straight abhor and was, opened their door to let in air, and so saved expel, that are most pernicious; but such airs as themselves. The effect, no doubt, is wrought by have some similitude with man's body; and so in the inspissation of the air; and so of the breath and sinuate themselves, and betray the spirits. There spirits. The like ensueth in rooms newly plaistermay be great danger in using such compositions, in ed, if a fire be made in them; whereof no less man great meetings of people within houses; as in than the emperor Jovinianus died. churches, at arraignments, at plays and solemnities, 920. Vide the experiment 803, touching the inand the like: for poisoning of air is no less dan- fectious nature of the air, upon the first showers, gerous than poisoning of water, which hath been after a long drought. used by the Turks in the wars, and was used by 921. It hath come to pass, that some apothecaries, Emmanuel Comnenus towards the christians, when upon stamping of colloquintida, have been put into they passed through his country to the Holy Land. a great scouring by the vapour only. And these impoisonments of air are the more dan 922. It hath been a practice to burn a pepper they gerous in meetings of people, because the much call Guinea-pepper, which hath such a strong spirit, breath of people doth farther the reception of the that it provoketh a continual sneezing in those that infection; and therefore, where any such thing is | are in the room.

923. It is an ancient tradition, that blear-eyes there be divers things that breathe better of theminfect sound eyes ; and that a menstruous woman, selves, than when they come to the fire; as nigella looking upon a glass, doth rust it: nay, they have romana, the seed of melanthium, amomum, &c. an opinion which seemeth fabulous, that menstruous 930. There be two things which, inwardly used, women going over a field or garden, do corn and do cool and condense the spirits; and I wish the herbs good by killing the worms.

same to be tried outwardly in vapours. The one is 924. The tradition is no less ancient, that the nitre, which I would have dissolved in Malmsey, or basilisk killeth by aspect; and that the wolf, if he Greek wine, and so the smell of the wine taken ; or see a man first, by aspect striketh a man hoarse. if you would have it more forcible, pour of it upon a

925. Perfumes convenient do dry and strengthen firepan, well heated, as they do rose-water and the brain, and stay rheums and defluxions, as we vinegar. The other is the distilled water of wild find in fume of rosemary dried, and lignum aloes; poppy, which I wish to be mingled, at half, with and calamus taken at the mouth and nostrils: and rose-water, and so taken with some mixture of a no doubt there be other perfumes that do moisten few cloves in a perfuming-pan. The like would be and refresh, and are fit to be used in burning agues, done with the distilled water of saffron flowers. consumptions, and too much wakefulness; such as 931. Smells of musk, and amber, and civet, are are rose-water, vinegar, lemon-peels, violets, the thought to farther venereous appetite ; which they leaves of vines sprinkled with a little rose-water, &c. may do by the refreshing and calling forth of the

926. They do use in sudden faintings and swoon- spirits. ings to put a handkerchief with rose-water or a 932. Incense and nidorous smells, such as were little vinegar to the nose; which gathereth together of sacrifices, were thought to intoxicate the brain, again the spirits, which are upon point to resolve and to dispose men to devotion : which they may do and fall away.

by a kind of sadness, and contristation of the spirits : 927. Tobacco comforteth the spirits, and dis- and partly also by heating and exalting them. We chargeth weariness, which it worketh partly by see that amongst the Jews the principal perfume of opening, but chiefly by the opiate virtne, which the sanctuary was forbidden all common uses. condenseth the spirits. It were good therefore to 933. There be some perfumes prescribed by the try the taking of fumes by pipes, as they do in writers of natural magic, which procure pleasant tobacco, of other things; as well to dry and comfort, dreams: and some others, as they say, that procure as for other intentions. I wish trial be made of the prophetical dreams; as the seeds of flax, flea-wort, &c. drying fume of rosemary, and lignum aloes, before 934. It is certain, that odours do, in a small dementioned, in pipe ; and so of nutmeg, and folium gree, nourish ; especially the odour of wine : and indum, &c.

we see men an hungered do love to smell hot bread. 928. The following of the plough hath been ap- It is related that Democritus, when he lay a dying, proved for refreshing the spirits and procuring heard a woman in the house complain, that she appetite; but to do it in the ploughing for wheat or should be kept from being at a feast and solemnity, rye, is not so good, because the earth has spent her which she much desired to see, because there would sweet breath in vegetables put forth in summer. It be a corpse in the house; whereupon he caused is better therefore to do it when you sow barley. loaves of new bread to be sent for, and opened them, But because ploughing is tied to seasons, it is best and poured a little wine into them; and so kept to take the air of the earth new turned up, by dig. himself alive with the odour of them, till the feast ging with the spade, or standing by him that dig- was past. I knew a gentleman that would fast, geth. Gentlewomen may do themselves much good sometimes three or four, yea, five days, without meat, by kneeling upon a cushion, and weeding. And bread, or drink; but the same man used to have these things you may practise in the best seasons; continually a great wisp of herbs that he smelled on: which is ever the early spring, before the earth put- and amongst those herbs, some esculent herbs of teth forth the vegetables, and in the sweetest earth strong scent; as onions, garlic, leeks, and the like. you can choose.

It would be done also when the 935. They do use, for the accident of the mother, dew is a little off the ground, lest the vapour be too to burn feathers and other things of ill odour : and moist. I knew a great man that lived long, who by those ill smells the rising of the mother is put had a clean clod of earth brought to him every down. morning as he sat in his bed; and he would hold 936. There be airs which the physicians advise his head over it a good pretty while. I commend their patients to remove unto, in consumptions or also, sometimes, in digging of new earth, to pour in upon recovery of long sicknesses: which, commonly, some Malmsey or Greek wine, that the vapour of are plain champains, but grazing, and not over-grown the earth and wine together may comfort the spirits with heath or the like; or else timber-shades, as in the more; provided always it be not taken for a forests, and the like. It is noted also, that groves heathen sacrifice, or libation to the earth.

of bays do forbid pestilent airs; which was account29. They have in physic use of pomanders, and ed a great cause of the wholesome air of Antiochia. knots of powders, for drying of rheums, comforting There be also some soils that put forth odorate of the heart, provoking of sleep, &c. For though herbs of themselves; as wild thyme, wild marjoram, those things be not so strong as perfumes, yet you pennyroyal, camomile ; and in which the brier roses may have them continually in your hand; whereas smell almost like musk-roses; which, no doubt, are perfumes you can take but at times: and besides, signs that do discover an excellent air.


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937. It were good for men to think of having to be kept company with and employed : and others healthful air in their houses; which will never be unlucky. Certainly, it is agreeable to reason, that if the rooms be low roofed, or full of windows and there are at the least some light effluxions from doors; for the one maketh the air close, and not spirit to spirit, when men are in presence one with fresh, and the other maketh it exceeding unequal; another, as well as from body to body. which is a great enemy to health. The windows 942. It hath been observed, that old men who also should not be high up to the roof, which is in have loved young company, and been conversant use for beauty and magnificence, but low. Also stone- continually with them, have been of long life ; their walls are not wholesome ; but timber is more whole- spirits, as it seemeth, being recreated by such comsome ; and especially brick: nay, it hath been used pany. Such were the ancient sophists and rhetoby some with great success to make their walls ricians; which ever had young auditors and disthick ; and to put a lay of chalk between the bricks, ciples; as Gorgias, Protagoras, Isocrates, &c. who to take away all dampishness.

lived till they were a hundred years old.

And so

likewise did many of the grammarians and schoolExperiment solitary touching the emission of spiritual masters ; such as was Orbilius, &c. species which affect the senses.

943. Audacity and confidence doth, in civil busi938. These emissions, as we said before, are ness, so great effects, as a man may reasonably handled, and ought to be handled by themselves doubt, that besides the very daring, and earnestness, under their proper titles : that is, visibles and audi- and persisting, and importunity, there should be bles, each a part: in this place it shall suffice to give some secret binding, and stooping of other men's some general observations common to both. First, spirits to such persons. they seem to be incorporeal. Secondly, they work 944. The affections, no doubt, do make the spirits swiftly. Thirdly, they work at large distances. more powerful and active; and especially those Fourthly, in curious varieties. Fifthly, they are affections which draw the spirits into the eyes : not effective of any thing; nor leave no work be- which are two; love, and envy, which is called hind them ; but are energies merely : for their oculus malus. As for love, the Platonists, some of working upon mirrors and places of echo doth not them, go so far as to hold that the spirit of the lover alter any thing in those bodies; but it is the same doth pass into the spirits of the person loved ; action with the original, only repercussed. And as which causeth the desire of return into the body for the shaking of windows, or rarifying the air by whence it was emitted: whereupon followeth that great noises; and the heat caused by burning- appetite of contact and conjunction which is in glasses, they are rather concomitants of the audible lovers. And this is observed likewise, that the and visible species, than the effects of them. Sixthly, aspects which procure love, are not gazings, but they seem to be of so tender and weak a nature, as sudden glances and dartings of the eye.

As for they affect only such a rare and attenuate substance, envy, that emitteth some malign and poisonous as is the spirit of living creatures.

spirit, which taketh hold of the spirit of another ;

and is likewise of greatest force when the cast of Erperiments in consort touching the emission of immateriale virtues from the minds and spirits of is most dangerous when an envious eye is cast upon

the eye is oblique. It hath been noted also, that it men, either by affections, or by imaginations, or by other impressions.

persons in glory, and triumph, and joy. The reason

whereof is, for that at such times the spirits come 939. It is mentioned in some stories, that where forth most into the outward parts, and so meet the children have been exposed, or taken away young percussion of the envious eye more at hand: and from their parents; and that afterwards they have therefore it hath been noted, that after great approached to their parents' presence, the parents, triumphs, men have been ill-disposed for some days though they have not known them, have had a following. We see the opinion of fascination is secret joy or other alteration thereupon.

ancient, for both effects; of procuring love ; and 940. There was an Ægyptian soothsayer, that sickness caused by envy: and fascination is ever by made Antonius believe, that his genius, which other the eye. But yet if there be any such infection from wise was brave and confident, was in the presence spirit to spirit, there is no doubt but that it worketh of Octavianus Cæsar, poor and cowardly : and thereby presence, and not by the eye alone ; yet most fore he advised him to absent himself as much as forcibly by the eye. he could, and remove far from him. This sooth 945. Fear and shame are likewise infective; for sa

to make him live in Ægypt, and other remote places ready to start: and when one man is out of counfrom Rome. Howsoever the conceit of a predomi- tenance in a company, others do likewise blush in nant or mastering spirit of one man over another, is his behalf. ancient, and received still, even in vulgar opinion.

941. There are conceits, that some men that are Now we will speak of the force of imagination of an ill and melancholy nature, do incline the upon other bodies ; and of the means to exalt company into which they come to be sad and ill- and strengthen it. Imagination, in this place, I disposed; and contrariwise, that others that are of understand to be, the representation of an individual a jovial nature, do dispose the company to be merry thought. Imagination is of three kinds: the first and cheerful. And again, that some men are lucky I joined with belief of that which is to come; the

• Lo, you

second joined with memory of that which is past ; | juggler was some strange man, and could do strange and the third is of things present, or as if they were things, that other man caught a strong imaginapresent; for I comprehend in this, imaginations tion.” I hearkened unto him, thinking for a vanity feigned, and at pleasure ; as if one should imagine he spoke prettily. Then he asked me another such a man to be in the vestments of a pope, or to question : saith he, “ Do you remember, whether have gs. I single out, for this time, that which he bade the man think the card first, and afterwards is with faith or belief of that which is to come. The told the other man in his ear what he should think ; inquisition of this subject in our way, which is by or else that he did whisper first in the man's ear induction, is wonderful hard: for the things that are that should tell the card, telling that such a man should reported are full of fables ; and new experiments think such a card, and after bade the man think a can hardly be made, but with extreme caution; for card ?" I told him, as was true, that he did first the reason which we will hereafter declare.

whisper the man in the ear, that such a man should The power of imagination is of three kinds; the think such a card : upon this the learned man did first upon the body of the imaginant, including like much exult and please himself, saying; wise the child in the mother's womb; the second is, may see that my opinion is right: for if the man the power of it upon dead bodies, as plants, wood, had thought first, his thought had been fixed; stone, metal, &c. ; the third is, the power of it upon but the other imagining first, bound his thought.” the spirits of men and living creatures : and with which though it did somewhat sink with me, yet this last we will only meddle.

I made it lighter than I thought and said ; I thought The problem therefore is, whether a man con- it was confederacy between the juggler and the two stantly and strongly believing that such a thing shall servants; though, indeed, I had no reason so to be, as that such a one will love him; or that such think, for they were both my father's servants; and a one will grant him his request; or that such a he had never played in the house before. The jugone shall recover a sickness; or the like ; it doth gler also did cause a garter to be held up; and took help any thing to the effecting of the thing itself. upon him to know, that such a one should point in And here again we must warily distinguish ; for it such a place of the garter ; as it should be near so is not meant, as hath been partly said before, that many inches to the longer end, and so many to the it should help by making a man more stout, or shorter; and still he did it, by first telling the more industrious, in which kind a constant belief imaginer, and after bidding the actor think. doth much, but merely by a secret operation, or Having told this relation, not for the weight binding, or changing the spirit of another : and in thereof, but because it doth handsomely open the this it is hard, as we began to say, to make any new nature of the question, I return to that I said; that experiment; for I cannot command myself to be experiments of imagination must be practised by lieve what I will, and so no trial can be made. Nay, others, and not by a man's self. For there be it is worse ; for whatsoever a man imagineth doubt three means to fortify belief: the first is experiingly, or with fear, must needs do hurt, if imagina- ence; the second is reason ; and the third is authotion have any power at all; for a man representeth rity: and that of these which is far the most potent, that oftener that he feareth, than the contrary. is authority; for belief upon reason, or experience,

The help therefore is, for a man to work by will stagger. another, in whom he may create belief, and not by 947. For authority, it is of two kinds ; belief in himself; until himself have found by experience, an art; and belief in a man. And for things of that imagination doth prevail; for then experience belief in an art, a man may exercise them by himworketh in himself belief; if the belief that such a self; but for belief in a man, it must be by another. thing shall be, be joined with a belief that his Therefore if a man believe in astrology, and find a imagination may procure it.

figure prosperous; or believe in natural magic, and 946. For example ; I related one time to a man that a ring with such a stone, or such a piece of a that was curious and vain enough in these things, living creature, carried, will do good; it may help that I saw a kind of juggler, that had a pair of cards, his imagination : but the belief in a man is far the and would tell a man what card he thought. This more active. But howsoever, all authority must be pretended learned man told me, it was a mistaking out of a man's self, turned, as was said, either upon in me; “ for," said he, “it was not the knowledge an art or upon a man: and where authority is from of the man's thought, for that is proper to God, one man to another, there the second must be ignobut it was the enforcing of a thought upon him, and rant, and not learned, or full of thoughts; and such binding his imagination by a stronger, that he could are, for the most part, all witches and superstitious think no other card.” And thereupon he asked me persons; whose beliefs, tied to their teachers and a question or two, which I thought he did but cun traditions, are no whit controlled either by reason ningly, knowing before what used to be the feats of or experience; and upon the same reason, in magic, the juggler. “ Sir," said he,“ do you remember they use for the most part boys and young people, whether he told the card the man thought, himself, whose spirits easiliest take belief and imagination. or bade another to tell it?" I answered, as was Now to fortify imagination, there be three ways: true, that he bade another tell it. Whereunto he the authority whence the belief is derived; means said, “So I thought: for,” said he, “himself could to quicken and corroborate the imagination; and not have put on so strong an imagination; but by means to repeat it and refresh it. telling the other the card, who believed that the 948. For the authority, we have already spoken:

as for the second, namely, the means to quicken another, it is necessary that he, by whom you work, and corroborate the imagination; we see what hath have a precedent opinion of you that you can do been used in magic, if there be in those practices strange things; or that you are a man of art, as they any thing that is purely natural, as vestments, call it; for else the simple affirmation to another, characters, words, seals; some parts of plants, or that this or that shall be, can work but a weak imliving creatures ; stones; choice of the hour: ges- pression in his imagination. tures and motions; also incenses and odours; choice 952. It were good, because you cannot discern of society, which increaseth imagination; diets and fully of the strength of imagination in one man more preparations for some time before. And for words, than another, that you did use the imagination of there have been ever used, either barbarous words, more than one, that so you may light upon a of no sense, lest they should disturb the imagination; strong one. As if a physician should tell three or or words of similitude, that may second and feed the four of his patient's servants, that their master shall imagination; and this was ever as well in heathen surely recover. charms, as in charms of latter times. There are 953. The imagination of one that you shall use, used also Scripture words; for that the belief that such is the variety of men's minds, cannot be always religious texts and words have power, may strengthen alike constant and strong; and if the success follow the imagination. And for the same reason, hebrew not speedily, it will faint and lose strength. To words, which amongst us is counted the holy tongue, remedy this, you must pretend to him, whose imaand the words more mystical, are often used. gination you use, several degrees of means, by which

949. For the refreshing of the imagination, to operate: as to prescribe him that every three days, which was the third means of exalting it, we see if he find not the success apparent, he do use anthe practices of magic, as in images of wax, and other root, or part of a beast or ring, &c. as being the like, that should melt by little and little ; or of more force; and if that fail, another; and if that, some other things buried in muck, that should another, till seven times. Also you must prescribe putrify by little and little ; or the like: for so oft a good large time for the effect you promise; as if as the imaginant doth think of those things, so oft you should tell a servant of a sick man that his doth he represent to his imagination the effect of master shall recover, but it will be fourteen days ere that he desireth.

he findeth it apparently, &c. All this to entertain 950. If there be any power in imagination, it is the imagination that it waver less. less credible that it should be so incorporeal, and 954. It is certain, that potions, or things taken immateriate a virtue, as to work at great distances, into the body ; incenses and perfumes taken at the or through all mediums, or upon all bodies : but nostrils ; and ointments of some parts, do naturally that the distance must be competent, the medium work upon the imagination of him that taketh them. not adverse, and the body apt and proportionate. And therefore it must needs greatly co-operate with Therefore if there be any operation upon bodies in the imagination of him whom you use, if you preabsence by nature, it is like to be conveyed from scribe him, before he do use the receipt, for the man to man, as fame is; as if a witch, by imagina- work which he desireth, that he do take such a pill, tion, should hurt any afar off, it cannot be natu or a spoonful of liquor; or burn such an incense ; rally: but by working upon the spirit of some that or anoint his temples, or the soles of his feet, with cometh to the witch; and from that party upon the such an ointment or oil: and you must choose, for imagination of another; and so upon another ; till the composition of such pill, perfume, or ointment, it come to one that hath resort to the party such ingredients as do make the spirits a little more intended; and so by him to the party intended him- gross or muddy; whereby the imagination will fix self. And although they speak, that it sufficeth to the better. make a point, or a piece of the garment, or the 955. The body passive, and to be wrought upon, name of the party, or the like; yet there is less I mean not of the imaginant, is better wrought upon, credit to be given to those things, except it be by as hath been partly touched, at some times than at working of evil spirits.

others : as if you should prescribe a servant about The experiments, which may certainly demon a sick person, whom you have possessed that his strate the power of imagination upon other bodies, master shall recover, when his master is fast asleep, are few or none : for the experiments of witchcraft to use such a root, or such a root. For imagination are no clear proofs ; for that they may be by a is like to work better upon sleeping men, than men tacit operation of malign spirits : we shall therefore awake: as we shall show when we handle dreams. be forced, in this inquiry, to resort to new experi 956. We find in the art of memory, that images ments; wherein we can give only directions of visible work better than other conceits: as if you trials, and not any positive experiments. And if would remember the word philosophy, you shall any man think that we ought to have stayed till we more surely do it, by imagining, that such a man, had made experiment of some of them ourselves, as for men are best places, is reading upon Aristotle's we do commonly in other titles, the truth is, that “ Physics:" than if you should imagine him to say, these effects of imagination upon other bodies have “l'll go study philosophy.” And therefore this so little credit with us, as we shall try them at observation would be translated to the subject we leisure; but in the mean time we will lead others now speak of: for the more lustrous the imagination

is, it filleth and fixeth the better. And therefore I 951. When you work by the imagination of conceive, that you shall, in that experiment, whereof

the way.

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