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within : and again, because they relax the pores, Experiment solitary touching the return of saltness and so make better passage for the spirits, blood,
in pits upon the sea-shore. and aliment: lastly, because they dissipate and digest any inutile or excrementitious moisture which lieth 882. It hath been set down before, that pits upon in the flesh; all which help assimilation. Frictions the sea-shore turn into fresh water, by percolation also do more fill and impinguate the body, than of the salt through the sand ; but it is farther noted, exercise. The cause is, for that in frictions the in- by some of the ancients, that in some places of ward parts are at rest; which in exercise are beaten, Africa, after a time, the water in such pits will bemany times, too much: and for the same reason, as come brackish again. The cause is, for that after we have noted heretofore, galley-slaves are fat and a time, the very sands through which the salt fleshy, because they stir the limbs more, and the in- water passeth, become salt; and so the strainer itself ward parts less.
is tinctured with salt. The remedy therefore is, to dig
still new pits, when the old wax brackish ; as if you Experiment solitary touching globes appearing flat
would change your strainer. at distance. 878. All globes afar off appear flat. The cause
Experiment solitary touching attraction by similiis, for that distance, being a secondary object of
tude of substance. sight, is not otherwise discerned, than by more or 883. It hath been observed by the ancients, that less light; which disparity, when it cannot be dis- salt water will dissolve salt put into it, in less time cerned, all seemeth one: as it is, generally, in ob- than fresh water will dissolve it. The cause may jects not distinctly discerned; for so letters, if they be, for that the salt in the precedent water doth, by be so far off as they cannot be discerned, show but similitude of substance, draw the salt new put in unas a duskish paper; and all engravings and emboss- to it; whereby it diffuseth in the liquor more speedings, afar off, appear plain.
ily. This is a noble experiment, if it be true, for it
showeth means of more quick and easy infusions ; Experiment solitary touching shadows.
and it is likewise a good instance of attraction by 879. The uttermost parts of shadows seem ever to similitude of substance. Try it with sugar put into tremble. The cause is, for that the little motes water formerly sugared, and into other water unwhich we see in the sun do ever stir, though there sugared. be no wind; and therefore those moving, in the meeting of the light and the shadow, from the light
Experiment solitary touching attraction. to the shadow, and from the shadow to the light, 884. Put sugar into wine, part of it above, part do show the shadow to move, because the medium under the wine, and you shall find, that which may moveth.
seem strange, that the sugar above the wine will
soften and dissolve sooner than that within the wine. Experiment solitary touching the rolling and break
The cause is, for that the wine entereth that part of ing of the seas.
the sugar which is under the wine, by simple infu880. Shallow and narrow seas break more than sion or spreading ; but that part above the wine is deep and large. The cause is, for that, the impul- likewise forced by sucking ; for all spongy bodies sion being the same in both, where there is greater expel the air and draw in liquor, if it be contiguous: quantity of water, and likewise space enough, there as we see it also in sponges put part above the the water rolleth and moveth, both more slowly, and water. It is worthy the inquiry, to see how you with a sloper rise and fall: but where there is less may make more accurate infusions, by help of water, and less space, and the water dasheth more attraction. against the bottom, there it moveth more swiftly, and more in precipice ; for in the breaking of the
Experiment solitary touching heat under earth. waves there is ever a precipice.
885. Water in wells is warmer in winter than in
summer; and so air in caves. The cause is, for that Experiment solitary touching the dulcoration of salt
in the hither parts, under the earth, there is a dewater.
gree of some heat, as appeareth in sulphureous 881. It hath been observed by the ancients, that veins, &c. which shut close in, as in winter, is the salt water boiled, or boiled and cooled again, is more more; but if it perspire, as it doth in summer, it is potable, than of itself raw: and yet the taste of salt the less. in distillations by fire riseth not, for the distilled water will be fresh. The cause may be, for that the
Experiment solitary touching flying in the air. salt part of the water doth partly rise into a kind of 886. It is reported, that amongst the Leucadians, scum on the top, and partly goeth into a sediment in ancient time, upon a superstition they did use to in the bottom; and so is rather a separation than precipitate a man from a high cliff into the sea; an evaporation. But it is too gross to rise into a tying about him with strings, at some distance, many vapour ; and so is a bitter taste likewise ; for simple great fowls; and fixing unto his body divers feathers, distilled waters, of wormwood, and the like, are not spread, to break the fall. Certainly many birds of bitter.
good wing, as kites, and the like, would bear up a good weight, as they fly; and spreading of feathers thin and close, and in great breadth, will likewise
.bear up a great weight, being even laid, without tilting upon the sides. The farther extension of this
Experiments in consort touching the influences of
the moon. experiment for flying may be thought upon.
Of the power of the celestial bodies, and what Experiment solitary touching the dye of scarlet.
more secret influences they have, besides the two 887. There is in some places, namely in Cepha- manifest influences of heat and light, we shall speak lonia, a little shrub which they call holly-oak, or when we handle experiments touching the celestial dwarf-oak : upon the leaves whereof there riseth a bodies; meanwhile we will give some directions tumour like a blister; which they gather, and rub for more certain trials of the virtue and influences out of it a certain red dust, that converteth, after a of the moon, which is our nearest neighbour. while, into worms, which they kill with wine, as is The influences of the moon, most observed, are reported, when they begin to quicken : with this four; the drawing forth of heat; the inducing of dust they dye scarlet.
putrefaction; the increase of moisture ; the exciting
of the motions of spirits. Experiment solitary touching maleficiating.
890. For the drawing forth of heat, we have 888. In Zant it is very ordinary to make men formerly prescribed to take water warm, and to set impotent to accompany with their wives. The like part of it against the moon-beams, and part of it is practised in Gascony ; where it is called nouër l' with a screen between; and to see whether that eguillette. It is practised always upon the wedding which standeth exposed to the beams will not cool day. And in Zant the mothers themselves do it,
But because this is but a small interposi. by way of prevention; because thereby they hinder tion, though in the sun we see a small shade doth other charms; and can undo their own. It is a much, it were good to try it when the moon shineth, thing the civil law taketh knowledge of; and there and when the moon shineth not at all; and with fore is of no light regard.
water warm in a glass bottle, as well as in a dish ;
and with cinders; and with iron red-hot, &c. Experiment solitary touching the rise of water by
891. For the inducing of putrefaction, it were means of flame.
good to try it with flesh or fish exposed to the moon889. It is a common experiment, but the cause beams; and again exposed to the air when the is mistaken. Take a pot, or better a glass, because moon shineth not, for the like time; to see whether therein you may see the motion, and set a candle will corrupt sooner: and try it also with capon, or lighted in the bottom of a bason of water, and turn some other fowl, laid abroad, to see whether it will the mouth of the pot or glass over the candle, and mortify and become tender sooner: try it also with and it will make the water rise. They ascribe it dead flies, or dead worms, having a little water cast to the drawing of heat; which is not true : for it upon them, to see whether will putrify sooner. Try appeareth plainly to be but a motion of nexe, which it also with an apple or orange, having holes made in they call ne detur vacuum ; and it proceedeth thus their tops, to see whether will rot or mould sooner. The flame of the candle, as soon as it is covered, Try it also with Holland cheese, having wine put being suffocated by the close air, lesseneth by little into it, whether will breed mites sooner or greater. and little ; during which time there is some little 892. For the increase of moisture, the opinion ascent of water, but not much : for the flame occu received is; that seeds will grow soonest; and hair, pying less and less room, as it lesseneth, the water and nails, and hedges, and herbs, cut, &c. will grow succeedeth. But upon the instant of the candle's soonest, if they be set or cut in the increase of the going out, there is a sudden rise of a great deal of
Also that brains in rabbits, woodcocks,
brains, and are great drinkers, to take fume of lig-
in men's bodies increase and decrease as the moon bears about the middle of November went to sleep; doth : and therefore it were good to purge some and then the foxes began to come forth, which durst day or two after the full; for that then the hu- not before. It is noted by some of the ancients, that mours will not replenish so soon again.
the she-bear breedeth, and lyeth in with her young, 895. As for the exciting of the motion of the during that time of rest: and that a bear big with spirits, you must note that the wth of hedges, young hath seldom been seen. herbs, hair, &c. is caused from the moon, by exciting of the spirits, as well as by increase of the Experiment solitary touching the generation of creamoisture. But for spirits in particular, the great
tures by copulation, and by putrefaction. instance is in lunacies.
900. Some living creatures are procreated by co896. There may be other secret effects of the in- pulation between male and female : some by putrefluence of the moon, which are not yet brought into faction : and of those which come by putrefaction, observation. It may be, that if it so fall out that many do, nevertheless, afterwards procreate by cothe wind be north, or north-east, in the full of the pulation. For the cause of both generations : first, moon, it increaseth cold; and if south, or south- it is most certain, that the cause of all vivification is west, it disposeth the air for a good while to warmth a gentle and proportionable heat, working upon a and rain; which would be observed.
glutinous and yielding substance: for the heat doth 897. It may be, that children and young cattle, bring forth spirit in that substance : and the subthat are brought forth in the full of the moon, are stance being glutinous produceth two effects; the stronger and larger than those that are brought one, that the spirit is detained, and cannot break forth in the wane ; and those also which are begot- forth : the other, that the matter being gentle and ten in the full of the moon : so that it might be yielding, is driven forwards by the motion of the good husbandry to put rams and bulls to their fe- spirits, after some swelling, into shape and memmales, somewhat before the full of the moon. It bers. Therefore all sperm, all menstruous substance, may be also, that the eggs laid in the full of the all matter whereof creatures are produced by putremoon breed the better birds; and a number of the faction, have evermore a closeness, lentor, and selike effects which may be brought into observation. quacity. It seemeth therefore, that the generation Query also, whether great thunders and earthquakes by sperm only, and by putrefaction, have two difbe not most in the full of the moon.
The first is, for that creatures which
have a definite and exact shape, as those have which Experiment solitary touching vinegar.
are procreated by copulation, cannot be produced by 898. The turning of wine to vinegar is a kind of a weak and casual heat; nor out of matter which putrefaction: and in making of vinegar, they use to is not exactly prepared according to the specjes. set vessels of wine over-against the noon sun; which The second is, for that there is a greater time recalleth out the more oily spirits, and leaveth the quired for maturation of perfect creatures; for if the liquor more sour and hard. We see also, that burnt time required in vivification be of any length, then wine is more hard and astringent than wine unburnt. the spirits will exhale before the creature be mature; It is said, that cider in navigations under the line except it be enclosed in a place where it may have ripeneth, when wine or beer soureth. It were good continuance of the heat, access of some nourishment to set a rundlet of verjuice over against the sun in to maintain it, and closeness that may keep it from summer, as they do vinegar, to see whether it will exhaling: and such places are the wombs and maripen and sweeten.
trices of the females. And therefore all creatures Experiment solitary touching creatures that sleep all and are made in shorter time; and need not so per
made of putrefaction are of more uncertain shape; winter.
fect an enclosure, though some closeness be com899. There be divers creatures that sleep all win monly required. As for the heathen opinion, which ter, as the bear, the hedge-hog, the bat, the bee, &c. was, that upon great mutations of the world, perfect These all wax fat when they sleep, and egest not. creatures were first engendered of concretion; as The cause of their fattening during their sleeping well as frogs, and worms, and flies, and such like, time, may be the want of assimilating; for what are now ; we know it to be vain : but if any such soever assimilateth not to flesh turneth either to thing should be admitted, discoursing according to sweat or fat. These creatures, for part of their sense, it cannot be, except you admit of a chaos sleeping time, have been observed not to stir at all; first, and commixture of heaven and earth. For the and for the other part, to stir, but not to remove frame of the world, once in order, cannot affect it by And they get warm and close places to sleep in. any excess or casualty. When the Flemings wintered in Nova Zembla, the
Experiments in consort touching the transmission of spirits, and force of imagination, because the
withdraw credit from the operations by transmission and influx of immateriate virtues, and the force effects fail sometimes. For as in infection, and of imagination.
contagion from body to body, as the plague, and the The philosophy of Pythagoras, which was full of like, it is most certain that the infection is received, superstition, did first plant a monstrous imagination, many times, by the body passive, but yet is, by the which afterwards was, by the school of Plato and strength and good disposition thereof, repulsed and others, watered and nourished. It was, that the wrought out, before it be formed into a disease ; so world was one entire perfect living creature; inso- much more in impressions from mind to mind, or much as Apollonius of Tyana, a Pythagorean pro from spirit to spirit, the impression taketh, but is phet, affirmed, that the ebbing and flowing of the encountered and overcome by the mind and spirit, sea was the respiration of the world, drawing in which is passive, before it work any manifest effect. water as breath, and putting it forth again. They And therefore they work most upon weak minds went on, and inferred, that if the world were a living and spirits; as those of women, sick persons, supercreature, it had a soul and spirit; which also they stitious and fearful persons, children, and young held, calling it spiritus mundi, the spirit or soul of creatures : the world : by which they did not intend God, for
“ Nescio quis teneros oculus mihi fascinat agnos :" they did admit of a Deity besides, but only the soul or essential form of the universe. This foundation | The poet speaketh not of sheep, but of lambs. As being laid, they might build upon it what they for the weakness of the power of them upon kings would; for in a living creature, though never so and magistrates, it may be ascribed, besides the great, as for example, in a great whale, the sense main, which is the protection of God over those that and the affects of any one part of the body instantly execute his place, to the weakness of the imaginamake a transcursion throughout the whole body; tion of the imaginant : for it is hard for a witch or so that by this they did insinuate, that no distance a sorcerer to put on a belief that they can hurt such of place, nor want of indisposition of matter, could persons. hinder magical operations; but that, for example, 902. Men are to be admonished, on the other we might here in Europe have sense and feeling of side, that they do not easily give place and credit to that which was done in China ; and likewise we these operations, because they succeed many times ; might work any effect without and against matter; for the cause of this success is oft to be truly ascriband this not holpen by the co-operation of angels or ed unto the force of affection and imagination upon spirits, but only by the unity and harmony of nature. the body agent; and then by a secondary means it There were some also that staid not here; but went may work upon a diverse body : as for example, if farther, and held, that if the spirit of man, whom a man carry a planet's seal, or a ring, or some part they call the microcosm, do give a fit touch to the of a beast, believing strongly that it will help him spirit of the world, by strong imaginations and be to obtain his love; or to keep him from danger of liefs, it might command nature ; for Paracelsus, and hurt in fight; or to prevail in a suit, &c. it may some darksome authors of magic, do ascribe to ima- make him more active and industrious: and again, gination exalted the power of miracle-working faith. more confident and persisting, than otherwise he With these vast and bottomless follies men have would be. Now the great effects that may come of been in part entertained.
industry and perseverance, especially in civil busiBut we, that hold firm to the works of God, and ness, who knoweth not ? For we see audacity doth to the sense, which is God's lamp, “ lucerna Dei almost bind and mate the weaker sort of minds; spiraculum hominis,” will inquire with all sobriety and the state of human actions is so variable, that and severity, whether there be to be found in the to try things oft, and never to give over, doth wonfootsteps of nature, any such transmission and influx ders: therefore it were a mere fallacy and mistakof immateriate virtues; and what the force of ima. ing to ascribe that to the force of imagination upon gination is ; either upon the body imaginant, or upon another body which is but the force of imagination another body : wherein it will be like that labour upon the proper body; for there is no doubt but of Hercules, in purging the stable of Augeas, to that imagination and vehement affection work greatly separate from superstition and magical arts and upon the body of the imaginant; as we shall show observations, any thing that is clean and pure natu- in due place. ral; and not to be either contemned or condemned. 903. Men are to be admonished, that as they are And although we shall have occasion to speak of not to mistake the causes of these operations; so this in more places than one, yet we will now make much less they are to mistake the fact or effect; some entrance thereinto.
and rashly to take that for done which is not done.
And therefore, as divers wise judges have preExperiments in consort, monitory, touching transmis
scribed and cautioned, men may not too rashly besion of spirits, and the force of imagination,
lieve the confessions of witches, nor yet the evidence 901. Men are to be admonished that they do not against them. For the witches themselves are
imaginative, and believe ofttimes they do that which at distance; and that of fire to naphtha; and that they do not: and people are credulous in that point, of some herbs to water, though at distance; and and ready to impute accidents and natural opera- | divers others; we shall handle, but yet not under tions to witchcraft. It is worthy the observing, this present title, but under the title of attraction in that both in ancient and late times, as in the Thes- general. salian witches, and the meetings of witches that 907. The fourth is the emission of spirits, and have been recorded by so many late confessions, the immateriate powers and virtues, in those things great wonders which they tell, of carrying in the which work by the universal configuration and symair, transforming themselves into other bodies, &c. pathy of the world; not by forms, or celestial in. are still reported to be wrought, not by incantations fluxes, as is vainly taught and received, but by the or ceremonies, but by ointments, and anointing them- primitive nature of matter, and the seeds of things. selves all over. This may justly move a man to Of this kind is, as we yet suppose, the working of think that these fables are the effects of imagination: the loadstone, which is by consent with the globe for it is certain that ointments do all, if they be laid of the earth : of this kind is the motion of gravity, on any thing thick, by stopping of the pores, shut which is by consent of dense bodies with the globe in the vapours, and send them to the head extremely. of the earth: of this kind is some disposition of And for the particular ingredients of those magical bodies to rotation, and particularly from east to ointments, it is like they are opiate and soporifer- west: of which kind we conceive the main float ous. For anointing of the forehead, neck, feet, back and refloat of the sea is, which is by consent of bone, we know, is used for procuring dead sleeps : the universe, as part of the diurnal motion. These and if any man say that this effect would be better | immateriate virtues have this property differing done by inward potions; answer may be made, that from others; that the diversity of the medium hin. the medicines which go to the ointments are so dereth them not; but they pass through all mediums, strong, that if they were used inwards, they would yet at determinate distances. And of these we shall kill those that use them: and therefore they work speak, as they are incident to several titles. potently, though outwards.
908. The fifth is the emission of spirits; and We will divide the several kinds of the operations this is the principal in our intention to handle now by transmission of spirits and imagination, which in this place ; namely, the operation of the spirits will give no small light to the experiments that of the mind of man upon other spirits : and this is follow. All operations by transmission of spirits of a double nature; the operations of the affecand imagination have this; that they work at dis- tions, if they be vehement; and the operation of the tance, and not at touch; and they are these being imagination, if it be strong.
But these two are distinguished.
so coupled, as we shall handle them together; for 904. The first is the transmission or emission of when an envious or amorous aspect doth infect the the thinner and more airy parts of bodies; as in spirits of another, there is joined both affection and odours and infections: and this is, of all the rest, imagination. the most corporeal.
909. The sixth is, the influxes of the heavenly But you must remember withal, that there be a bodies, besides those two manifest ones, of heat and number of those emissions, both wholesome and un- light. But these we will handle where we handle wholesome, that give no smell at all: for the plague, the celestial bodies and motions. many times when it is taken, giveth no scent at all : 910. The seventh is the operations of sympathy, and there be many good and healthful airs that do which the writers of natural magic have brought appear by habitation and other proofs, that differ into an art or precept : and it is this ; that if you not in smell from other airs. And under this head desire to superinduce any virtue or disposition upon you may place all imbibitions of air, where the sub a person, you should take the living creature, in stance is material, odour-like; whereof some never which that virtue is most eminent, and in perfection; theless are strange, and very suddenly diffused; as of that creature you must take the parts wherein that the alteration which the air receiveth in Ægypt, virtue chiefly is collocate: again, you must take those almost immediately, upon the rising of the river of parts in the time and act when that virtue is most in Nilus, whereof we have spoken.
exercise; and then you must apply it to that part 905. The second is the transmission or emission of man wherein that virtue chiefly consisteth. As of those things that we call spiritual species : as if you would superinduce courage and fortitude, take visibles and sounds; the one whereof we have a lion or a cock; and take the heart, tooth, or paw handled, and the other we shall handle in due place. of the lion; or the heart or spur of the cock: take These move swiftly, and at great distance; but then those parts immediately after the lion or the cock they require a medium well disposed, and their have been in fight; and let them be worn upon a transmission is easily stopped.
man's heart or wrist. Of these and such like sym906. The third is the emissions, which cause at- pathies, we shall speak under this present title. traction of certain bodies at distance; wherein though 911. The eighth and last is, an emission of imthe loadstone be commonly placed in the first rank, materiate virtues ; such as we are a little doubtful yet we think good to except it, and refer it to another to propound, it is so prodigious ; but that it is so head: but the drawing of amber and jet, and other constantly avouched by many: and we have set it electric bodies, and the attraction in gold of the spirit down as a law to ourselves, to examine things to the of quick-silver at distance; and the attraction of heat bottom; and not to receive upon credit, or reject