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and silk, especially raw silk, have, besides their de- for to ascribe it only to the vapour of lead, is less sire of continuance, in regard of the tenuity of their probable. Query, whether the fixing may be in thread, a greediness of moisture : and by moisture such a degree, as it will be figured like other to join and incorporate with other thread; especially metals ? For if so, you may make works of it for if there be a little wreathing; as appeareth by the some purposes, so they come not near the fire. twisting of thread, and the practice of twirling about of spindles. And we see also, that gold and
Eaperiment solitary touching honey and sugar. silver thread cannot be made without twisting. 848. Sugar hath put down the use of honey, in
somuch as we have lost those observations and preExperiment solitary touching other passions of
parations of honey which the ancients had, when it matter, and characters of bodies.
was more in price. First, it seemeth that there 846. The differences of impressible and not im was in old time tree-honey, as well as bee-honey, pressible; figurable and not figurable; mouldable which was the tear or blood issuing from the tree: and not mouldable; scissile and not scissile ; and insomuch as one of the ancients relateth, that in many other passions of matter, are plebeian notions, Trebisond there was honey issuing from the boxapplied unto the instruments and uses which men trees, which made men mad. Again, in ancient ordinarily practise ; but they are all but the effects time there was a kind of honey, which either of its of some of these causes following, which we will own nature, or by art, would grow as hard as sugar, enumerate without applying them, because that will and was not so luscious as ours. They had also a be too long. The first is the cession or not cession wine of honey, which they made thus. They of bodies, into a smaller space or room, keeping the crushed the honey into a great quantity of water, outward bulk, and not flying up. The second is the and then strained the liquor: after they boiled it in stronger or weaker appetite in bodies to continuity, a copper to the half; then they poured it into earthen and to fly discontinuity. The third is the disposi- vessels for a small time; and after turned it into tion of bodies to contract or not contract: and again, vessels of wood, and kept it for many years. They to extend or not extend. The fourth is the small have also at this day, in Russia and those northern quantity or great quantity of the pneumatical in countries, mead simple, which, well made and bodies. The fifth is the nature of the pneumatical, seasoned, is a good wholesome drink, and very clear. whether it be native spirit of the body, or common They use also in Wales a compound drink of mead, air. The sixth is the nature of the native spirits in with herbs and spices. But meanwhile it were the body, whether they be active and eager, or dull good, in recompence of that we have lost in honey, and gentle. The seventh is the emission or deten- there were brought in use a sugar-mead, for so we tion of the spirits in bodies. The eighth is the may call it, though without any mixture at all of dilatation or contraction of the spirits in bodies, honey; and to brew it, and keep it stale, as they while they are detained. The ninth is the colloca use mead: for certainly, though it would not be so tion of the spirits in bodies, whether the collocation abstersive, and opening, and solutive a drink as be equal or unequal; and again, whether the spirits mead; yet it will be more grateful to the stomach, be coacervate or diffused. The tenth is the density and more lenitive, and fit to be used in sharp disor rarity of the tangible parts. The eleventh is the eases : for we see, that the use of sugar in beer and equality or inequality of the tangible parts. The ale hath good effects in such cases. twelfth is the digestion or crudity of the tangible parts. The thirteenth is the nature of the matter,
Experiment solitary touching the finer sort of
base metals. whether sulphureous or mercurial, watery or oily, dry and terrestrial, or moist and liquid ; which 849. It is reported by the ancients, that there was natures of sulphureous and mercurial, seem to be a kind of steel in some places, which would polish natures radical and principal. The fourteenth is almost as white and bright as silver. And that there the placing of the tangible parts in length or trans was in India a kind of brass, which, being polished, verse, as it is in the warp and the woof of textiles, could scarce be discerned from gold. This was in more inward, or more outward, &c. The fifteenth the natural ure: but I am doubtful, whether men is the porosity or imporosity betwixt the tangible have sufficiently refined metals, which we count parts, and the greatness or smallness of the pores. base ; as whether iron, brass, and tin be refined to The sixteenth is the collocation and posture of the the height? But when they come to such a finepores. There may be more causes; but these do ness, as serveth the ordinary use, they try no occur for the present.
farther. Experiment solitary touching induration by Ea periment solitary touching cements and quarries. sympathy.
850. There have been found certain cements un847. Take lead and melt it, and in the midst of it, der earth that are very soft; and yet, taken forth when it beginneth to congeal, make a little dint or into the sun, harden as hard as marble: there are hole, and put quicksilver wrapped in a piece of also ordinary quarries in Somersetshire, which in linen into that hole, and the quicksilver will fix and the quarry cut soft to any bigness, and in the buildrun no more, and endure the hammer. This is a ing prove firm and hard. noble instance of induration, by consent of one body with another, and motion of excitation to imitate;
Experiment solitary touching the altering of the
the most part, are larger than the bulls; which is colour of hairs and feathers.
caused by abundance of moisture, which in the
horns of the bull faileth. Again, heat causeth pilo851. Living creatures generally do change their sity and crispation, and so likewise beards in men. It hair with age, turning to be grey and white: as is seen also expelleth finer moisture, which want of heat in men, though some earlier, some later; in horses cannot expel ; and that is the cause of the beauty that are dappled, and turn white; in old squirrels that and variety of feathers. Again, heat doth put forth turn grisly; and many others. So do some birds; as
many excrescences, and much solid matter, which cygnets from grey turn white; hawks from brown want of heat cannot do : and this is the cause of turn more white. And some birds there be that upon horns, and of the greatness of them ; and of the their moulting do turn colour; as robin-red-breasts, greatness of the combs and spurs of cocks, gills of after their moulting, growing to be red again by turkey-cocks, and fangs of boars. Heat also dilateth degrees; so do goldfinches upon the head. The cause the pipes and organs, which causeth the deepness is, for that moisture doth chiefly colour hair and fea of the voice. Again, heat refineth the spirits, and thers, and dryness turneth them grey and white: now that causeth the cock singing-bird to excel the hen. hair in age waxeth dryer ; so do feathers. As for feathers, after moulting, they are young feathers, Experiment solitary touching the comparative magand so all one as the feathers of young birds. So
nitude of living creatures. the beard is younger than the hair of the head, and 853. There be fishes greater than any beasts; as doth, for the most part, wax hoary later. Out of the whale is far greater than the elephant: and this ground a man may devise the means of alter- beasts are generally greater than birds. For fishes, ing the colour of birds, and the retardation of hoary the cause may be, that because they live not in the hairs. But of this see the fifth experiment. air, they have not their moisture drawn and soaked
by the air and sun-beams. Also they rest always in Experiment solitary touching the differences of
a mapner, and are supported by the water : whereas living creatures, male and female.
motion and labourdo consume. As for the greatness of 852. The difference between male and female, beasts more than of birds, it is caused, for that beasts in some creatures, is not to be discerned, otherwise stay longer time in the womb than birds, and there than in the parts of generation : as in horses and nourish and grow; whereas in birds, after the egg laid, mares, dogs and bitches, doves he and she, and there is no farther growth or nourishment from the others. But some differ in magnitude, and that di- female; for the sitting doth vivify, and not nourish. versly; for in most the male is the greater ; as in man, pheasants, peacocks, turkeys, and the like: Experiment solitary touching exossation of fruits. and in some few, as in hawks, the female. Some 854. We have partly touched before the means differ in the hair and feathers, both in the quantity, of producing fruits without cores or stones. And crispation, and colours of them; as he-lions are this we add farther, that the cause must be abunhirsute, and have great manes: the she-lions are dance of moisture ; for that the core and stone are smooth like cats. Bulls are more crisp upon the made of a dry sap: and we see, that it is possible to forehead than cows; the peacock, and pheasant-cock, make a tree put forth only in blossom, without fruit; and goldfinch-cock, have glorious and fine colours; as in cherries with double flowers; much more into the hens have not. Generally the males in birds fruit without stone or cores. It is reported, that a have fairest feathers. Some differ in divers features: cion of an apple, grafted upon a colewort stalk, as bucks have horns, does none ; rams have more sendeth forth a great apple without a core. It is wreathed horns than ewes ; cocks have great combs not unlikely, that if the inward pith of a tree were and spurs, hens little or none; boars have great taken out, so that the juice came only by the bark, fangs, sows much less; the turkey-cock hath great it would work the effect. For it hath been observed, and swelling gills, the hen hath less; men have that in pollards, if the water get in on the top, and generally deeper and stronger voices than women. they become hollow, they put forth the more. We Some differ in faculty ; as the cocks amongst sing- add also, that it is delivered for certain by some, ing-birds are the best singers. The chief cause of that if the cion be grafted the small end downwards, all these, no doubt, is, for that the males have more it will make fruit have little or no cores and stones. strength of heat than the females; which appeareth manifestly in this, that all young creatures males
Experiment solitary touching the melioration of
tobacco. are like females ; and so are eunuchs, and gelt creatures of all kinds, like females. Now heat causeth 855. Tobacco is a thing of great price, if it be greatness of growth, generally, where there is mois in request : for an acre of it will be worth, as is ture enough to work upon : but if there be found affirmed, two hundred pounds by the year towards in any creature, which is seen rarely, an over-great charge. The charge of making the ground and heat in proportion to the moisture, in them the fe- otherwise is great, but nothing to the profit; but the male is the greater; as in hawks and sparrows. English tobacco hath small credit, as being too dull And if the heat be balanced with the moisture, and earthy : nay, the Virginian tobacco, though that then there is no difference to be seen between male be in a hotter climate, can get no credit for the and female ; as in the instances of horses and dogs. same cause : so that a trial to make tobacco more We see also, that the horns of oxen and cows, for aromatical, and better concocted, here in England,
we see some
were a thing of great profit. Some have gone about fish, flesh, &c. : by rottenness is, for that the spirits to do it by drenching the English tobacco in a de- of the fruit by putrefaction gather heat, and thereby coction or infusion of Indian tobacco : but those are digest the harder part, for in all putrefactions there but sophistications and toys; for nothing that is is a degree of heat: by time and keeping is, because once perfect, and hath run its race, can receive much the spirits of the body do ever feed upon the tangiamendment. You must ever resort to the beginnings ble parts, and attenuate them : by several maturaof things for melioration. The way of maturation of tions is, by some degree of heat: and by fire is, betobacco must, as in other plants, be from the heat cause it is the proper work of heat to refine, and to either of the earth or of the sun :
incorporate; and all sourness consisteth in some leading of this in musk-melons, which are sown grossness of the body; and all incorporation doth upon a hot-bed dunged below, upon a bank turned make the mixture of the body more equal in all its upon the south sun, to give heat by reflection ; laid parts; which ever induceth a milder taste. upon tiles, which increaseth the heat, and covered with straw to keep them from cold. They remove
Experiment solitary touching flesh edible, and not
edible. them also, which addeth some life: and by these helps they become as good in England, as in Italy 859. Of fleshes, some are edible ; some, except or Provence. These, and the like means, may be it be in famine, not. For those that are not edible, tried in tobacco. Inquire also of the steeping of the the cause is, for that they have commonly too much roots in some such liquor as may give them vigour bitterness of taste; and therefore those creatures to put forth strong.
which are fierce and choleric are not edible ; as
lions, wolves, squirrels, dogs, foxes, horses, &c. As Experiment solitary touching several heals working for kine, sheep, goats, deer, swine, conies, hares, &c. the same effects.
we see they are mild and fearful. Yet it is true, 856. Heat of the sun for the maturation of fruits; that horses, which are beasts of courage, have been, yea, and the heat of vivification of living creatures, and are eaten by some nations; as the Scythians are both represented and supplied by the heat of were called Hyppophagi ; and the Chinese eat fire; and likewise the heats of the sun, and life, are horse-flesh at this day; and some gluttons have represented one by the other. Trees set upon the used to have colt's flesh baked. In birds, such as backs of chimneys do ripen fruit sooner. Vines, are carnivoræ, and birds of prey, are commonly no that have been drawn in at the window of a kitchen, good meat; but the reason is, rather the choleric have sent forth grapes ripe a month at least before nature of those birds, than their feeding upon flesh : others. Stoves at the back of walls bring forth for pewets, gulls, shovellers, ducks, do feed upon flesh, oranges here with us. Eggs, as is reported by some, and yet are good meat. And we see that those have been hatched in the warmth of an oven. It birds which are of prey, or feed upon flesh, are good is reported by the ancients, that the ostrich layeth meat when they are very young; as hawks, rooks her eggs under sand, where the heat of the sun out of the nest, owls, &c. Man's flesh is not eaten. discloseth them.
The reasons are three : first, because men in humaExperiment solitary touching swelling and dilatation nity do abhor it: secondly, because no living crea
ture that dieth of itself is good to eat: and therefore in boiling.
the cannibals themselves eat no man's flesh of those 857. Barley in the boiling swelleth not much; that die of themselves, but of such as are slain. wheat swelleth more; rice extremely ; insomuch as The third is, because there must be generally some a quarter of a pint, unboiled, will arise to a pint disparity between the nourishment and the body boiled. The cause no doubt is, for that the more nourished; and they must not be over-near, or like: close and compact the body is, the more it will yet we see, that in great weaknesses and consumpdilate: now barley is the most hollow; wheat more tions, men have been sustained with women's milk; solid than that; and rice most solid of all. It may and Ficinus, fondly, as I conceive, adviseth, for the be also that some bodies have a kind of lentour, prolongation of life, that a vein be opened in the and more depertible nature than others : as we see arm of some wholesome young man, and the blood it evident in coloration ; for a small quantity of saf to be sucked. It is said that witches do greedily fron will tinct more than a very great quantity of eat man's flesh: which if it be true, besides a devilbrasil or wine.
ish appetite in them, it is likely to proceed, for that
man's flesh may send up high and pleasing vapours, Experiment solitary touching the dulcoration of
which may stir the imagination ; and witches' felifruits.
city is chiefly in imagination, as hath been said. 858. Fruit groweth sweet by rolling, or pressing them gently with the hand; as rolling pears, dama..
Experiment solitary touching the salamander. scenes, &c. : by rottenness; as medlars, services, 860. There is an ancient received tradition of the sloes, hips, &c. : by time; as apples, wardens, pome- salamander, that it liveth in the fire, and hath force granates, &c.: by certain special maturations; as also to extinguish the fire. It must have two things, by laying them in hay, straw, &c. : and by fire ; as if it be true, to this operation : the one a very close in roasting, stewing, baking, &c. The cause of the skin, whereby flame, which in the midst is not so sweetness by rolling and pressing, is emollition, hot, cannot enter; for we see that if the palm of the which they properly induce; as in beating of stock-hand be anointed thick with white of egg, and then
aqua vitæ be poured upon it, and inflamed, yet one vessel is not so much compressed as in the bottle
i may endure the flame a pretty while. The other is because in the vessel the liquor meeteth with liquor some extreme cold and quenching virtue in the body chiefly ; but in the bottles a small quantity of liquor of that creature, which choketh the fire. We see meeteth with the sides of the bottles, which comthat milk quencheth wild-fire better than water, press it so that it doth not open again. because it entereth better.
Experiment solitary touching the working of water E.rperiment solitary touching the contrary operations
upon air contiguous. of time upon fruits and liquors.
865. Water, being contiguous with air, cooleth it, 861. Time doth change fruit, as apples, pears, but moisteneth it not, except it vapour. The cause pomegranates, &c. from more sour to more sweet : is, for that heat and cold have a virtual transition, but contrariwise liquors, even those that are of the without communication of substance ; but moisture juice of fruit, from more sweet to more sour : as not: and to all madefaction there is required an wort, muste, new verjuice, &c. The cause is, the imbibition : but where the bodies are of such several congregation of the spirits together : for in both levity and gravity as they mingle not, there can kinds the spirit is attenuated by time; but in the follow no imbibition. And therefore, oil likewise first kind it is more diffused, and more mastered by lieth at the top of the water, without commixture : the grosser parts, which the spirits do but digest: and a drop of water running swiftly over a straw or but in drinks the spirits do reign, and finding less smooth body, wetteth not. opposition of the parts, become themselves more strong; which causeth also more strength in the Experiment solitary touching the nature of air. liquor; such as, if the spirits be of the hotter sort, 866. Star-light nights, yea, and bright moon-shine the liquor becometh apt to burn: but in time, it nights, are colder than cloudy nights.
The cause causeth likewise, when the higher spirits are eva- is, the dryness and fineness of the air, which thereporated, more sourness.
by becometh more piercing and sharp ; and there
fore great continents are colder than islands : and as Experiment solitary touching blows and bruises.
for the moon, though its inclineth the air to 862. It hath been observed by the ancients, that moisture, yet when it shineth bright, it argueth the plates of metal, and especially of brass, applied air is dry. Also close air is warmer than open air; presently to a blow, will keep it down from swell- which, it may be, is, for that the true cause of cold ing. The cause is repercussion, without humecta- is an expiration from the globe of the earth, which tion or entrance of any body: for the plate hath only in open places is stronger ; and again, air itself, if a virtual cold, which doth not search into the hurt; it be not altered by that expiration, is not without whereas all plasters and ointments do enter. Sure some secret degree of heat; as it is not likewise ly, the cause that blows and bruises induce swellings without some secret degree of light: for otherwise is, for that the spirits resorting to succour the part cats and owls could not see in the night; but that that laboureth, draw also the humours with them : air hath a little light, proportionable to the visual for we see, that it is not the repulse and the return spirits of those creatures. of the humour in the part strucken that causeth it; for that gouts and tooth-aches cause swelling, where Experiments in consort touching the eyes and sight. there is no percussion at all.
867. The eyes do move one and the same way; Experiment solitary touching the orrice root.
for when one eye moveth to the nostril, the other
moveth from the nostril. The cause is motion of 863. The nature of the orrice root is almost consent, which in the spirits and parts spiritual is singular; for there be few odoriferous roots; and in strong. But yet use will induce the contrary; for those that are in any degree sweet, it is but the same some can squint when they will: and the common sweetness with the wood or leaf: but the orrice is tradition is, that if children be set upon a table with not sweet in the leaf; neither is the flower any thing a candle behind them, both eyes will move outwards, so sweet as the root. The root seemeth to have a as affecting to see the light, and so induce squinting. tender dainty heat; which, when it cometh above 868. We see more exquisitely with one eye shut, ground to the sun and the air, vanisheth : for it is a than with both open. The cause is, for that the great mollifier; and hath a smell like a violet. spirits visual unite themselves more, and so become Experiment solitary touching the compression
stronger. For you may see, by looking in a glass, of liquors.
that when you shut one eye, the pupil of the other
eye that is open dilateth. 864. It hath been observed by the ancients, that a 869. The eyes, if the sight meet not in one angle, great vessel full, drawn into bottles, and then the see things double. The cause is, for that seeing two liquor put again into the vessel, will not fill the ves- things, and seeing one thing twice, worketh the same sel again so full as it was, but that it may take in effect: and therefore a little pellet held between two more liquor: and that this holdeth more in wine fingers laid across, seemeth double. than in water. The cause may be trivial ; namely, 870. Pore-blind men see best in the dimmer by the expense of the liquor, in regard some may lights; and likewise have their sight stronger near stick to the sides of the bottles : but there may be a hand, than those that are not pore-blind; and can cause more subtile; which is, that the liquor in the read and write smaller letters. The cause is, for that
the spirits visual in those that are pore-blind, are the offence is, for that the sight is the most spiritual thinner and rarer than in others; and therefore the of the senses; whereby it hath no object gross greater light disperseth them. For the same cause enough to offend it. But the cause chiefly is, for they need contracting; but being contracted, are that there be no active objects to offend the eye. more strong than the visual spirits of ordinary eyes For harmonical sounds, and discordant sounds, are are; as when we see through a level, the sight is the both active and positive : so are sweet smells and stronger; and so is it when you gather the eye-lids stinks: so are bitter and sweet in tastes : so are somewhat close: and it is commonly seen in those over-hot and over-cold in touch : but blackness and that are pore-blind, that they do much gather the darkness are indeed but privatives; and therefore eye-lids together. But old men, when they would have little or no activity. Somewhat they do consee to read, put the paper somewhat afar off: the tristate, but very little. cause is, for that old men's spirits visual, contrary to those of pore-blind men, unite not, but when the Experiment solitary touching the colour of the sea,
or other water. object is at some good distance from their eyes.
871. Men see better, when their eyes are over 874. Water of the sea, or otherwise, looketh against the sun or a candle, if they put their hand a blacker when it is moved, and whiter when it resto little before their eyes. The reason is, for that the eth. The cause is, for that by means of the motion, glaring of the sun or the candle doth weaken the the beams of light pass not straight, and therefore eye; whereas the light circumfused is enough for must be darkened; whereas, when it resteth, the the perception. For we see that an over-light beams do pass straight. Besides, splendour hath a maketh the eyes dazzle ; insomuch as perpetual degree of whiteness; especially if there be a little looking against the sun would cause blindness. repercussion: for a looking-glass with the steel beAgain, if men come out of a great light into a dark hind, looketh whiter than glass simple. This exroom ; and contrariwise, if they come out of a dark periment deserveth to be driven farther, in trying room into a light room, they seem to have a mist be- by what means motion may hinder sight. fore their eyes, and see worse than they shall do after they have stayed a little while, either in the
Experiment solitary touching shell-fish. light or in the dark. The cause is, for that the 875. Shell-fish have been, by some of the ancients, spirits visual are, upon a sudden change, disturbed compared and sorted with the insecta ; but I see no and put out of order ; and till they be recollected reason why they should; for they have male and do not perform their function well. For when they female as other fish have: neither are they bred of are much dilated by light, they cannot contract sud- putrefaction; especially such as do move. Neverdenly; and when they are much contracted by dark- theless it is certain, that oysters, and cockles, and ness, they cannot dilate suddenly. And excess of mussels, which move not, have no discriminate sex. both these, that is, of the dilatation and contraction Query, in what time, and how they are bred ? It of the spirits visual, if it be long, destroyeth the eye. seemeth, that shells of oysters are bred where none For as long looking against the sun or fire hurteth were before; and it is tried, that the great horsethe eye by dilatation; so curious painting in small mussel, with the fine shell, that breedeth in ponds, volumes, and reading of small letters, do hurt the hath bred within thirty years : but then, which is eye by contraction.
strange, it hath been tried, that they do not only 872. It hath been observed, that in anger the eyes gape and shut as the oysters do, but remove from wax red; and in blushing, not the eyes, but the ears, one place to another. and the parts behind them. The cause is, for that in anger the spirits ascend and wax eager; which
Experiment solitary touching the right side and is most easily seen in the eyes, because they are translucid ; though withal it maketh both the cheeks 876. The senses are alike strong, both on the right and the gills red: but in blushing, it is true the side and on the left; but the limbs on the right side spirits ascend likewise to succour both the eyes and are stronger. The cause may be, for that the brain, the face, which are the parts that labour ; but then which is the instrument of sense, is alike on both they are repulsed by the eyes, for that the eyes, in sides; but motion, and abilities of moving, are someshame, do put back the spirits that ascend to them, what holpen from the liver, which lieth on the right as unwilling to look abroad: for no man in that side. It may be also, for that the senses are put passion doth look strongly, but dejectedly; and that in exercise indifferently on both sides from the time repulsion from the eyes diverteth the spirits and of our birth; but the limbs are used most on the heat more to the ears, and the parts by them. right side, whereby custom helpeth ; for we see that
873. The objects of the sight may cause a great some are left-handed; which are such as have used pleasure and delight in the spirits, but no pain or
the left hand most. great offence; except it be by memory, as hath been said. The glimpses and beams of diamonds that
Experiment solitary touching frictions. strike the eye; Indian feathers, that have glorious 877. Frictions make the parts more fleshy and colours; the coming into a fair garden ; the coming full; as we see both in men, and in the currying of into a fair room richly furnished; a beautiful per- horses, &c. The cause is, for that they draw greater son; and the like; do delight and exhilarate the quantity of spirits and blood to the parts: and again, spirits much. The reason why it holdeth not in | because they draw the aliment more forcibly from