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even to the falling of a sparrow; and much more is
Experiment solitary touching the use of bathing like to reach to the preservation of birds in such
and anointing. seasons. The natural cause also may be the want of heat, and abundance of moisture, in the summer 740. It is strange that the use of bathing, as a precedent; which putteth forth those fruits, and part of diet, is left. With the Romans and Grecians must needs leave great quantity of cold vapours not it was as usual as eating or sleeping; and so is it dissipated ; which causeth the cold of the winter amongst the Turks at this day; whereas with us it following
remaineth but as a part of physic. I am of opinion,
that the use of it, as it was with the Romans, was Experiment solitary touching medicines that con hurtful to health: for that it made the body soft, dense and relieve the spirits.
and easy to waste.
For the Turks it is more pro
per, because that their drinking water and feeding 738. They have in Turkey a drink called coffee, upon rice, and other food of small nourishment, made of a berry of the same name, as black as soot, maketh their bodies so solid and hard, as you need and of a strong scent, but not aromatical; which not fear that bathing should make them frothy. they take, beaten into powder, in water, as hot as Besides, the Turks are great sitters, and seldom they can drink it: and they take it, and sit at it in walk; whereby they sweat less and need bathing their coffee-houses, which are like our taverns.
But yet certain it is that bathing, and espeThis drink comforteth the brain and heart, and cially anointing, may be so used as it may be a helpeth digestion. Certainly this berry coffee, the great help to health, and prolongation of life. But root and leaf beetle, the leaf tobacco, and the tear hereof we shall speak in due place, when we come of poppy, opium, of which the Turks are great to handle experiments medicinal. takers, supposing it expelleth all fear, do all condense the spirits, and make them strong and aleger.
Experiments in consort touching chambletting of But it seemeth they are taken after several manners ;
paper. for coffee and opium are taken down, tobacco but in 741. The Turks have a pretty art of chamblet. smoke, and beetle is but champed in the mouth with ting of paper, which is not with us in use. They a little lime. It is like there are more of them, if take divers oiled colours, and put them severally, in they were well found out, and well corrected. drops, upon water, and stir the water lightly, and Query, of henbane-seed; of mandrake ; of saffron, then wet their paper, being of some thickness, with root and flower; of folium indicum; of ambergrease; it
, and the paper will be waved and veined, like of the Assyrian amomum, if it may be had ; and of chamblet or marble. the scarlet powder which they call kermes; and, generally, of all such things as do inebriate and
Experiment solitary touching cuttle-ink. provoke sleep. Note, that tobacco is not taken in 742. It is somewhat strange, that the blood of all root or seed, which are more forcible ever than birds and beasts and fishes should be of a red colour, leaves.
and only the blood of the cuttle should be as black Experiment solitary touching paintings of the body. be the high concoction of that blood; for we see in
as ink. A man would think, that the cause should 739. The Turks have a black powder, made of a ordinary puddings, that the boiling turneth the mineral called alcohol, which with a fine long pen- blood to be black; and the cuttle is accounted a decil they lay under their eye-lids, which doth colour licate meat, and is much in request. them black; whereby the white of the eye is set off more white. With the same powder they colour Experiment solitary touching increase of weight in also the hairs of their eye-lids, and of their eye
earth. brows, which they draw into embowed arches. You shall find that Xenophon maketh mention, that the 743. It is reported of credit, that if you take Medes used to paint their eyes. The Turks use earth from land adjoining to the river of Nile, and with the same tincture to colour the hair of their preserve it in that manner that it neither come to beads and beards black. And divers with us that be wet nor wasted; and weigh it daily, it will not are grown grey, and yet would appear young, find alter weight until the seventeenth of June, which is means to make their hair black, by combing it, as the day when the river beginneth to rise ; and then they say, with a leaden comb, or the like. As for it will grow more and more ponderous, till the river the Chineses, who are of an ill complexion, being cometh to its height. Which if it be true, it cannot olivaster, they paint their cheeks scarlet, especially be caused but by the air, which then beginneth to their king and grandees. Generally, barbarous peo- condense; and so turneth within that small mold into ple, that go naked, do not only paint themselves, a degree of moisture, which produceth weight.
So but they pounce and raise their skin, that the paint it hath been observed, that tobacco cut, and weighed, ing may not be taken forth; and make it into works. and then dried by the fire, loseth weight; and after So do the West Indians; and so did the ancient being laid in the open air, recovereth weight again. Picts and Britons; so that it seemeth men would And it should seem that as soon as ever the river have the colours of birds' feathers, if they could tell | beginneth to increase, the whole body of the air how; or at least they will have gay skins instead thereabouts suffereth a change: for, that which is of gay clothes.
more strange, it is credibly affirmed, that upon that
very day when the river first riseth, great plagues 748. Bones, after full growth, continue at a stay ; in Cairo use suddenly to break up.
and so doth the skull: horns, in some creatures, are
cast and renewed: teeth stand at a stay, except Experiments in consort touching sleep.
their wearing : as for nails, they grow continually : 744. Those that are very cold, and especially in and bills and beaks will overgrow, and sometimes their feet, cannot get to sleep : the cause may be, be cast ; as in eagles and parrots. for that in sleep is required a free respiration, which 749. Most of the hard substances fly to the excold doth shut in and hinder; for we see that in tremes of the body : as skull, horns, teeth, nails, and great colds one can scarce draw his breath. An beaks: only the bones are more inward, and clad other cause may be, for that cold calleth the spirits with flesh. As for the entrails, they are all withto succour ; and therefore they cannot so well close, out bones ; save that a bone is, sometimes, found in and go together in the head : which is ever requi- the heart of a stag; and it may be in some other site to sleep. And for the same cause, pain and creature. noise hinder sleep; and darkness, contrariwise, fur 750. The skull hath brains, as a kind of marrow, thereth sleep.
within it. The back-bone hath one kind of marrow, 745. Some noises, whereof we spake in the which hath an affinity with the brain ; and other hundred and twelfth experiment, help sleep: as the bones of the body have another. The jaw-bones blowing of the wind, the trickling of water, hum- have no marrow severed, but a little pulp of marrow ming of bees, soft singing, reading, &c. The cause diffused. Teeth likewise are thought to have a is, for that they move in the spirits a gentle atten- kind of marrow diffused, which causeth the sense tion ; and whatsoever moveth attention without too and pain; but it is rather sinew; for marrow hath much labour stilleth the natural and discursive mo no sense; no more than blood. Horn is alike tion of the spirits.
throughout; and so is the nail. 746. Sleep nourisheth, or at least preserveth bo 751. None other of the hard substances have dies, a long time, without other nourishment. Beasts sense, but the teeth ; and the teeth have sense, not that sleep in winter, as it is noted of wild bears, only of pain but of cold. during their sleep wax very fat, though they eat no But we will leave the inquiries of other hard subthing. Bats have been found in ovens and other hol- stances unto their several places; and now inquire low close places, matted one upon another: and there only of the teeth. fore it is likely that they sleep in the winter time, 752. The teeth are, in men, of three kinds; and eat nothing. Query, whether bees do not sleep sharp, as the fore-teeth ; broad, as the back-teeth, all winter, and spare their honey? Butterflies, and which we call the molar-teeth, or grinders ; and other flies, do not only sleep, but lie as dead all win- pointed teeth, or canine, which are between both. ter: and yet with a little heat of sun or fire, revive But there have been some men that have had their again. A dormouse both winter and summer, will teeth undivided, as of one whole bone, with some sleep some days together, and eat pothing.
little mark in the place of the division ; as Pyrrhus
had. Some creatures have over-long or out-growing Experiments in consort touching teeth and hard teeth, which we call fangs, or tusks: as boars, pikes, substances in the bodies of living creatures.
salmons, and dogs, though less. Some living To restore teeth in age, were magnale naturæ. creatures have teeth against teeth ; as men and It may be thought of. But howsoever, the nature horses ; and some have teeth, especially their masof the teeth deserveth to be inquired of, as well as ter-teeth, indented one within another like saws, as the other parts of living creatures' bodies.
lions; and so again have dogs. Some fishes have 747. There be five parts in the bodies of living divers rows of teeth in the roofs of their mouths; creatures, that are of hard substance; the skull, the as pikes, salmons, trouts, &c. And many more in teeth, the bones, the horns, and the nails. The salt waters. Snakes and other serpents have venomgreatest quantity of hard substance continued is to ous teeth ; which are sometimes mistaken for their wards the head. For there is the skull of an entire sting. bone ; there are the teeth; there are the maxillary 753. No beast that hath horns hath upper teeth; bones; there is the hard bone that is the instrument and no beast that hath teeth above wanteth them of hearing; and thence issue the horns; so that the below : but yet if they be of the same kind, it folbuilding of living creatures' bodies is like the build- loweth not, that if the hard matter goeth not into ing of a timber house, where the walls and other upper teeth, it will go into horns ; nor yet e conparts have columns and beams; but the roof is, in verso; for does, that have no horns, have no upper the better sort of houses, all tile, or lead, or stone. teeth. As for birds, they have three other hard substances 754. Horses have, at three years old, a tooth put proper to them; the bill, which is of like matter forth, which they call a colt's tooth ; and at four with the teeth: for no birds have teeth: the shell years old there cometh the mark tooth, which hath of the egg: and their quills : for as for their spur, a hole as big as you may lay a pea within it: and it is but a nail. But no living creatures that have that weareth shorter and shorter every year; till shells very hard, as oysters, cockles, muscles, scals that at eight years old the tooth is smooth, and the lops, crabs, lobsters, crawfish, shrimps, and especi- hole gone ; and then they say, that the mark is out ally the tortoise, have bones within them, but only of the horse's mouth. little gristles.
755. The teeth of men breed first, when the
child is about a year and half old : and then they of a dry substance in comparison of beasts. Fishes cast them, and new come about seven years old.
For the second cause, fulness of food; But divers have backward teeth come forth at twenty, men, kine, swine, dogs, &c. feed full; and we see yea, some at thirty and forty. Query, of the man- that those creatures, which being wild, generate selner of the coming of them forth. They tell a tale dom, being tame, generate often; which is from of the old Countess of Desmond, who lived till she warmth, and fulness of food. We find, that the was seven score years old, that she did dentire twice time of going to rut of deer is in September; for or thrice; casting her old teeth, and others coming that they need the whole summer's feed and grass in their place.
to make them fit for generation. And if rain come 756. Teeth are much hurt by sweetmeats; and early about the middle of September, they go to rut by painting with mercury; and by things over-hot; somewhat the sooner ; if drought, somewhat the and things over-cold; and by rheums. And the later. So sheep, in respect of their small heat, pain of the teeth is one of the sharpest of pains. generate about the same time, or somewhat before.
757. Concerning teeth, these things are to be But for the most part, creatures that generate at considered. 1. The preserving of them. 2. The certain seasons, generate in the spring; as birds and keeping of them white. 3. The drawing of them fishes; for that the end of the winter, and the heat with least pain. 4. The staying and easing of the and comfort of the spring prepareth them. There toothache. 5. The binding in of artificial teeth, is also another reason why some creatures generate where teeth have been strucken out. 6. And last at certain seasons; and that is the relation of their of all, that great one of restoring teeth in age. The time of bearing to the time of generation ; for no instances that give any likelihood of restoring teeth creature goeth to generate whilst the female is full ; in age, are the late coming of teeth in some ; and nor whilst she is busy in sitting, or rearing her the renewing of the beaks in birds, which are com-young. And therefore it is found by experience, material with teeth. Query, therefore, more par- that if you take the eggs or young ones out of the ticularly how that cometh. And again, the renew nests of birds, they will fall to generate again three ing of horns. But yet that hath not been known to or four times one after another. have been provoked by art; therefore let trial be 759. Of living creatures, some are longer time in made, whether horns may be procured to grow in the womb, and some shorter. Women go commonbeasts that are not horned, and how ? And whether ly nine months; the cow and the ewe about six they may be procured to come larger than usual ; as months; does go about nine months ; mares eleven to make an ox or a deer have a greater head of months; bitches nine weeks; elephants are said to horns ? And whether the head of a deer, that by go two years; for the received tradition of ten years age is more spitted, may be brought again to be is fabulous. For birds there is double inquiry; the more branched ? for these trials, and the like, will distance between the treading or coupling, and the show, whether by art such hard matter can be call-laying of the egg; and again, between the egg laid, ed and provoked. It may be tried also, whether and the disclosing or hatching.
And amongst birds may not have something done to them when birds, there is less diversity of time than amongst they are young, whereby they may be made to have other creatures; yet some there is; for the hen greater or longer bills; or greater and longer talons ? sitteth but three weeks, the turkey-hen, goose, and And whether children may not have some wash, or duck, a month : Query, of others. The cause of the something to make their teeth better and stronger ? great difference of times amongst living creatures is, Coral is in use as a help to the teeth of children. either from the nature of the kind, or from the con
stitution of the womb. For the former, those that Experiments in consort touching the generation and are longer in coming to their maturity or growth are bearing of living creatures in the womb. longer in the womb; as is chiefly seen in men : and
so elephants, which are long in the womb, are long 758. Some living creatures generate but at cer time in coming to their full growth. But in most tain seasons of the year; as deer, sheep, wild conies, other kinds, the constitution of the womb, that is, &c, and most sorts of birds and fishes : others at any the hardness or dryness thereof, is concurrent with time of the year, as men; and all domestic creatures, the former cause. For the colt hath about four as horses, hogs, dogs, cats, &c. The cause of years of growth ; and so the fawn; and so the calf. generation at all seasons seemeth to be fulness : for But whelps, which come to their growth, commongeneration is from redundance. This fulness ariseth ly, within three quarters of a year, are but nine from two causes ; either from the nature of the weeks in the womb. As for birds, as there is less creature, if it be hot, and moist, and sanguine; or diversity amongst them in the time of their bringing from plenty of food. For the first, men, horses, forth ; so there is less diversity in the time of their dogs, &c. which breed at all seasons, are full of heat growth : most of them coming to their growth within and moisture ; doves are the fullest of heat and a twelvemonth. moisture amongst birds, and therefore breed often ; 760. Some creatures bring forth many young the tame dove almost continually. But deer are a ones at a burden: as bitches, hares, conies, &c. melancholy dry creature, as appeareth by their fear Some ordinarily but one ; as women, lionesses, &c. fulness, and the hardness of their flesh. Sheep are This may be cansed, either by the quantity of sperm a cold creature, as appeareth by their mildness, and required to the producing one of that kind; which for that they seldom drink. Most sort of birds are if less be required, may admit greater number; if
more, fewer : or by the partitions and cells of the impulsion there is requisite the force of the body womb, which may sever the sperm.
that moveth, and the resistance of the body that is
moved : and if the body be too great, it yieldeth too Experiments in consort touching species visible.
little ; and if it be too small, it resisteth too little. 761. There is no doubt, but light by refraction 765. It is common experience, that no weight will show greater, as well as things coloured. For will press or cut so strong, being laid upon a body, like as a shilling in the bottom of the water will show as falling or strucken from above. It may be the greater ; so will a candle in a lanthorn, in the bottom air hath some part in farthering the percussion ; of the water. I have heard of a practice, that glow- but the chief cause I take to be, for that the parts worms in glasses were put in the water to make the of the body moved have by impulsion, or by the fish come. But I am not yet informed, whether when motion of gravity continued, a compression in them, a diver diveth, having his eyes open, and swimmeth as well downwards, as they have when they are upon his back; whether, I say, he seeth things in the thrown, or shot through the air, forwards. I conair, greater or less. For it is manifest, that when the ceive also, that the quick loss of that motion preeye standeth in the finer medium, and the object is in venteth the resistance of the body below; and prithe grosser, things show greater : but contrariwise, ority of the force always is of great efficacy, as when the eye is placed in the grosser medium, and appeareth in infinite instances. the object in the finer, how it worketh I know not. 762. It would be well bolted out, whether great
Experiment solitary touching titillation. refractions may not be made upon reflexions, as 766. Tickling is most in the soles of the feet, well as upon direct beams. For example, we see, and under the arm-holes, and on the sides. The that take an empty bason, put an angel of gold, or cause is the thinness of the skin in those parts, what you will, into it; then go so far from the joined with the rareness of being touched there : bason, till you cannot see the angel, because it is for all tickling is a light motion of the spirits, which not in a right line; then fill the bason with water, the thinness of the skin, and suddenness and rareness and you shall see it out of its place, because of the of touch do farther : for we see a feather, or a rush, reflexion. To proceed therefore, put a looking-glass drawn along the lip or cheek, doth tickle ; whereas into a bason of water ; I suppose you shall not see a thing more obtuse, or a touch more hard, doth the image in a right line, or at equal angles, but not. And for suddenness, we see no man can tickle aside. I know not whether this experiment may himself: we see also that the palm of the hand, not be extended so, as you might see the image, and though it hath as thin a skin as the other parts not the glass ; which for beauty and strangeness mentioned, yet is not ticklish, because it is accuswere a fine proof: for then you should see the image tomed to be touched. Tickling also causeth laughlike a spirit in the air. As for example, if there be ter. The cause may be the emission of the spirits, a cistern or pool of water, you shall place over and so of the breath, by a flight from titillation ; against it a picture of the devil, or what you will, for upon tickling we see there is ever a starting or so as you do not see the water. Then put a look- shrinking away of the part to avoid it; and we see ing-glass in the water : now if you can see the also, that if you tickle the nostrils with a feather, devil's picture aside, not seeing the water, it would or straw, it procureth sneezing; which is a sudden look like a devil indeed. They have an old tale in emission of the spirits, that do likewise expel the Oxford, that Friar Bacon walked between two stee- moisture. And tickling is ever painful, and not well ples; which was thought to be done by glasses, endured. when he walked upon the ground.
Experiment solitary touching the scarcity of rain in Experiments in consort touching impulsion and
767. It is strange, that the river of Nilus over. 763. A weighty body put into motion is more flowing, as it doth, the country of Ægypt, there easily impelled than at first when it resteth. The should be, nevertheless, little or no rain in that cause is, partly because motion doth discuss the torpor country. The cause must be either in the nature of solid bodies; which beside their motion of gra- of the water, or in the nature of the air, or of both. vity, have in them a natural appetite not to move at In the water, it may be ascribed either unto the all; and partly, because a body that resteth, doth get, long race of the water; for swift-running waters by the resistance of the body upon which it resteth, vapour not so much as standing waters; or else to a stronger compression of parts than it hath of it- the concoction of the water ; for waters well conself: and therefore needeth more force to be put in cocted vapour not so much as waters raw; no more motion. For if a weighty body be pensile, and than waters upon the fire do vapour so much after hang but by a thread, the percussion will make an some time of boiling as at the first. And it is true impulsion very near as easily as if it were already that the water of Nilus is sweeter than other waters in motion.
in taste ; and it is excellent good for the stone, and 764. A body over-great or over-small, will not be hypochondriacal melancholy, which showeth it is thrown so far as a body of a middle size : so that, lenifying; and it runneth through a country of a it seemeth, there must be a commensuration, or pro- hot climate, and flat, without shade, either of woods portion between the body moved and the force, to or hills, whereby the sun must needs have great make it move well. The cause is, because to the power to concoct it. As for the air, from whence
I conceive this want of showers cometh chiefly, periment concerning annihilation ; namely, that if the cause must be, for that the air is of itself thin you provide against three causes of putrefaction, and thirsty ; and as soon as ever it getteth any mois. bodies will not corrupt: the first is, that the air ture from the water, it imbibeth and dissipateth it be excluded, for that undermineth the body, and in the whole body of the air, and suffereth it not to conspireth with the spirit of the body to dissolve it. remain in vapour, whereby it might breed rain. The second is, that the body adjacent and ambient
be not commaterial, but merely heterogeneal toExperiment solitary touching clarification.
wards the body that is to be preserved; for if no768. It hath been touched in the title of perco- thing can be received by the one, nothing can issue lations, namely, such as are inwards, that the from the other; such are quicksilver and white whites of eggs and milk do clarify; and it is certain, amber, to herbs, and flies, and such bodies. The that in Ægypt they prepare and clarify the wa third is, that the body to be preserved be not of that ter of Nile, by putting it into great jars of stone, gross that it may corrupt within itself, although no and stirring it about with a few stamped almonds, part of it issue into the body adjacent: and therewherewith they also besmear the mouth of the fore it must be rather thin and small, than of bulk. vessel; and so draw it off, after it hath rested some There is a fourth remedy also, which is, that if the time. It were good to try this clarifying with body to be preserved be of bulk, as a corpse is, then almonds in new beer, or muste, to hasten and perfect the body that encloseth it must have a virtue to the clarifying.
draw forth, and dry the moisture of the inward Experiment solitary touching plants without leaves. body; for else the putrefaction will play within,
though nothing issue forth. I remember Livy doth 769. There be scarce to be found any vegetables, relate, that there were found at a time two coffins of that have branches and no leaves, except you allow lead in a tomb; whereof the one contained the body coral for one. But there is also in the deserts of of king Numa, it being some four hundred years S. Macaria in Ægypt, a plant which is long, leafless, after his death: and the other, his books of sacred brown of colour, and branched like coral, save that rites and ceremonies, and the discipline of the ponit closeth at the top. This being set in water with- tiffs; and that in the coffin that had the body, there in a house, spreadeth and displayeth strangely; and was nothing at all to be seen, but a little light cinthe people thereabout have a superstitious belief, ders about the sides ; but in the coffin that had the that in the labour of women it helpeth to the easy books, they were found as fresh as if they had been deliverance.
but newly written, being written on parchment, Experiment solitary touching the materials of glass. and covered over with watch-candles of wax three
or four fold. By this it seemeth that the Romans 770. The crystalline Venice glass is reported to in Numa's time were not so good embalmers as the be a mixture in equal portions of stones brought Ægyptians were ; which was the cause that the body from Pavia by the river Ticinum, and the ashes of
was utterly consumed. But I find in Plutarch, and a weed called by the Arabs kal, which is gathered others, that when Augustus Cæsar visited the sepulin a desert between Alexandria and Rosetta ; and is chre of Alexander the Great in Alexandria, he found by the Ægyptians used first for fuel ; and then they the body to keep its dimension ; but withal, that crush the ashes into lumps like a stone, and so notwithstanding all the embalming, which no doubt sell them to the Venetians for their glass-works. was of the best, the body was so tender, as Cæsar, Experiment solitary touching prohibition of putre
touching but the nose of it, defaced it. Which faction, and the long conservation of bodies.
maketh me find it very strange, that the Ægyptian
mummies should be reported to be as hard as stone771. It is strange, and well to be noted, how pitch; for I find no difference but one, which inlong carcasses have continued uncorrupt, and in their deed may be very material; namely, that the anformer dimensions, as appeareth in the mummies cient Ægyptian mummies were shrowded in a numof Ægypt; having lasted, as is conceived, some of ber of folds of linen, besmeared with gums, in manthem, three thousand years. It is true, they find ner of sear-cloth, which it doth not appear was means to draw forth the brains, and to take forth practised upon the body of Alexander. the entrails, which are the parts aptest to corrupt. But that is nothing to the wonder: for we see what Experiment solitary touching the abundance of nitre
in certain sea-shores. a soft and corruptible substance the flesh of all the other parts of the body is. But it should seem, that, 772. Near the castle of Caty, and by the wells according to our observation and axiom in our of Assan, in the land of Idumea, a great part of the hundredth experiment, putrefaction, which we con way you would think the sea were near at hand, ceive to be so natural a period of bodies, is but an though it be a good distance off: and it is nothing accident; and that matter maketh not that haste to but the shining of the nitre upon the sea sands, such corruption that is conceived. And therefore bodies abundance of nitre the shores there do put forth. in shining amber, in quicksilver, in balms, whereof we now speak, in wax, in honey, in gums, and, it Experiment solitary touching bodies that are borne may be, in conservatories of snow, &c. are preserved
up by water. very long. It need not go for repetition, if we re 773. The Dead sea, which vomiteth up bitumen, sume again that which we said in the aforesaid ex is of that crassitude, as living bodies bound hand