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did exceed him. For Trajan erected many famous emperors' styles. In this emperor's time also, the monuments and buildings, insomuch as Constantine church for the most part was in peace; so as in this the Great in emulation was wont to call him, “ Pa- sequence of six princes, we do see the blessed ef rietaria," wall-flower, because his name was upon so fects of learning in sovereignty, painted forth in the many walls: but his buildings and works were more greatest table of the world. of glory and triumph than use and necessity. But But for a tablet, or picture of smaller volume, not Adrian spent his whole reign, which was peaceable, presuming to speak of your majesty that liveth, in in a perambulation, or survey of the Roman empire, my judgment, the most excellent is that of queen giving order, and making assignation where he went, Elizabeth, your immediate predecessor in this part for re-edifying of cities, towns, and forts decayed, of Britain ; a princess that if Plutarch were now and for cutting of rivers and streams, and for mak-alive to write lives by parallels, would trouble him, ing bridges and passages, and for policying of cities I think, to find for her a parallel amongst women. and commonalties with new ordinances and constitu- This lady was endued with learning in her sex sintions, and granting new franchises and incorpora- gular, and rare even amongst masculine princes; tions ; so that his whole time was a very restora whether we speak of learning of language, or of tion of all the lapses and decays of former times. science, modern or ancient, divinity or humanity :
Antoninus Pius, who succeeded him, was a prince and unto the very last year of her life, she was accusexcellently learned; and had the patient and subtle tomed to appoint set hours for reading ; scarcely wit of a schoolman; insomuch as in common speech, any young student in an university, more daily, which leaves no virtue untaxed, he was called “ Cy- or more duly. As for her government, I assure mini sector," a carver, or divider of cumin seed, myself I shall not exceed, if I do affirm, that which is one of the least seeds; such a patience he this part of the island never had forty-five years of had and settled spirit, to enter into the least and better times; and yet not through the calmness of most exact differences of causes, a fruit no doubt of the season, but through the wisdom of her regimen. the exceeding tranquillity and serenity of his mind; For if there be considered, of the one side, the which being no ways charged or encumbered, either truth of religion established; the constant peace and with fears, remorses, or scruples, but having been security; the good administration of justice; the noted for a man of the purest goodness, without all temperate use of the prerogative, not slackened, nor fiction or affectation, that hath reigned or lived, much strained; the flourishing state of learning, made his mind continually present and entire. He sortable to so excellent a patroness; the convenient likewise approached a degree nearer unto christian-estate of wealth and means, both of crown and subity, and became, as Agrippa said unto St. Paul, “ half ject; the habit of obedience, and the moderation of a christian;" holding their religion and law in good discontents; and there be considered, on the other opinion, and not only ceasing persecution, but giving side, the differences of religion, the troubles of way to the advancement of christians.
neighbour countries, the ambition of Spain, and There succeeded him the first divi fratres, the two opposition of Rome; and then, that she was solitary, adoptive brethren, Lucius Commodus Verus, son to and of herself: these things, I say, considered; as Ælius Verus, who delighted much in the softer kind I could not have chosen an instance so recent and of learning, and was wont to call the poet Martial so proper, so I suppose I could not have chosen one his Virgil, and Marcus Aurelius Antoninus; whereof more remarkable, or eminent to the purpose now in the latter, who obscured his colleague, and survived hand, which is concerning the conjunction of learnhim long, was named the philosopher; who, as he ing in the prince with felicity in the people. excelled all the rest in learning, so he excelled them Neither hath learning an influence and operation likewise in perfection of all royal virtues ; insomuch only upon civil merit and moral virtue, and the arts as Julianus the emperor, in his book, entitled “ Cæ or temperature of peace and peaceable government; sares," being as a pasquil or satire to deride all his but likewise it hath no less power and efficacy in predecessors, fèigned, that they were all invited to enablement towards martial and military virtue and a banquet of the gods, and Silenus the jester sat at prowess ; as may be notably represented in the exthe nether end of the table, and bestowed a scoff on amples of Alexander the Great, and Cæsar the dicevery one as they came in ; but when Marcus Phi- tator, mentioned before, but now in fit place to be losophus came in, Silenus was gravelled, and out of resumed; of whose virtues and acts in war there countenance, not knowing where to carp at him, save needs no note or recital, having been the wonders at the last he gave a glance at his patience towards of time in that kind: but of their affections towards his wife. And the virtue of this prince, continued learning, and perfections in learning, it is pertinent with that of his predecessor, made the name of An- to say somewhat. toninus so sacred in the world, that though it were Alexander was bred and taught under Aristotle extremely dishonoured in Commodus, Caracalla, and the great philosopher, who dedicated divers of his Heliogabalus, who all bore the name; yet when books of philosophy unto him; he was attended with Alexander Severus refused the name, because he Callisthenes, and divers other learned persons, that was a stranger to the family, the senate with one followed him in camp, throughout his journeys and acclamation said, “ Quo modo Augustus, sic et An- conquests. What price and estimation he had learntoninus.” In such renown and veneration was the ing in, doth notably appear in these three particuname of these two princes in those days, that they lars : first in the envy he used to express that he would have had it as a perpetual addition in all the bore towards Achilles, in this, that he had so good
a trumpet of his praises as Homer's verses : when bearing a secret grudge to Callisthenes, secondly, in the judgment or solution he gave because he was against the new ceremony of his touching that precious cabinet of Darius, which was adoration : feasting one night, where the same found amongst his jewels, whereof question was Callisthenes was at the table, it was moved by some, made what thing was worthy to be put into it, and after supper, for entertainment sake, that Callisthehe gave his opinion for Homer's works: thirdly, in nes, who was an eloquent man, might speak of his letter to Aristotle, after he had set forth his some theme or purpose at his own choice: which books of nature, wherein he expostulateth with him Callisthenes did; choosing the praise of the Macefor publishing the secrets or mysteries of philosophy, donian nation for his discourse, and performing the and gave him to understand that himself esteemed same with so good manner, as the hearers were it more to excel other men in learning and know much ravished: whereupon Alexander, nothing ledge, than in power and empire. And what use pleased, said, “ It was easy to be eloquent upon so he had of learning doth appear, or rather shine, in good a subject. “ But,” saith he, “ turn your stile, all his speeches and answers, being full of science and let us hear what you can say against us :” which and use of science, and that in all variety.
Callisthenes presently undertook, and did with that And here again it may seem a thing scholastical, sting and life, that Alexander interrupted him, and and somewhat idle, to recite things that every man said, “ The goodness of the cause made him eloquent knoweth ; but yet, since the argument I handle before, and despite made him eloquent then again.” leadeth me thereunto, I am glad that men shall per Consider farther, for tropes of rhetoric, that excelceive I am as willing to flatter, if they will so call lent use of a metaphor or translation, wherewith he it, an Alexander, or a Cæsar, or an Antoninus, that taxed Antipater, who was an imperious and tyranare dead many hundred years since, as any that now nous governor: for when one of Antipater's friends liveth: for it is the displaying of the glory of learn-commended him to Alexander for his moderation, ing in sovereignty that I propound to myself, and that he did not degenerate, as his other lieutenants not an humour of declaiming in any man's praises. did, into the Persian pride in use of purple, but Observe then the speech he used of Diogenes, and kept the ancient habit of Macedon, of black: “True," see if it tend not to the true state of one of the saith Alexander, “but Antipater is all purple greatest questions of moral philosophy: whether the within." Or that other, when Parmenio came to enjoying of outward things, or the contemning of him in the plain of Arbela, and showed him the them, be the greatest happiness : for(when he saw innumerable multitude of his enemies, especially as Diogenes so perfectly contented with so little, he they appeared by the infinite number of lights, as it said to those that mocked at his condition ; “ Were had been a new firmament of stars, and thereupon I not Alexander, I would wish to be Diogenes." advised him to assail them by night: whereupon he But Seneca inverteth it, and saith ; “ Plus erat, quod answered, “ That he would not steal the victory." hic nollet accipere, quam quod ille posset dare." For matter of policy, weigh that significant dis“ There were more things which Diogenes would tinction, so much in all ages embraced, that he made have refused, than those were, which Alexander between his two friends, Hephæstion and Craterus, could have given or enjoyed."
when he said, " That the one loved Alexander, and Observe again that speech which was usual with the other loved the king:" describing the principal him, " That he felt his mortality chiefly in two difference of princes' best servants, that some in things, sleep and lust;" and see if it were not a affection love their person, and others in duty love speech extracted out of the depth of natural philo- their crown. sophy, and liker to have come out of the mouth of Weigh also that excellent taxation of an error Aristotle, or Democritus, than from Alexander. ordinary with counsellors of princes, that they
See again that speech of humanity and poesy ; counsel their masters according to the model of their when
upon the bleeding of his wounds, he called own mind and fortune, and not of their masters; unto him one of his flatterers, that was wont to when, upon Darius's great offers, Parmenio had ascribe to him divine honour, and said, “ Look, this said, " Surely I would accept these offers, were I as is very blood ; this is not such liquor as Homer Alexander;" saith Alexander, “ So would I, were I speaketh of, which ran from Venus's hand, when it as Parmenio." was pierced by Diomedes."
Lastly, weigh that quick and acute reply, which See likewise his readiness in reprehension of he made when he gave so large gifts to his friends logic, in the speech he used to Cassander, upon a and servants, and was asked what he did reserve complaint that was made against his father Antipa- for himself, and he answered, " Hope :" weigh, I ter: for when Alexander happened to say, “ Do say, whether he had not cast up his account right, you think these men would have come from so far because hope must be the portion of all that resolve to complain, except they had just cause of grief?" upon great enterprises. For this was Cæsar's porAnd Cassander answered, “ Yea, that was the tion when he went first into Gaul, his estate being matter, because they thought they should not be then utterly overthrown with largesses. And this disproved." Said Alexander laughing : “See the was likewise the portion of that noble prince, howsubtilties of Aristotle, to take a matter both ways, soever transported with ambition, Henry duke of pro et contra," etc.
Guise, of whom it was usually said, that he was the But note again how well he conld use the same greatest usurer in France, because he had turned all art, which he reprehended, to serve his own humour, 1 his estate into obligations.
To conclude therefore: as certain critics are used, which did admit them already cashiered; whereto say hyperbolically, “ That if all sciences were with they were so surprised, crossed, and confused, lost, they might be found in Virgil;" so certainly as they would not suffer him to go on in his speech, this may be said truly, there are the prints and foot- but relinquished their demands, and made it their steps of all learning in those few speeches which suit, to be again called by the name of “Milites." are reported of this prince: the admiration of whom, The second speech was thus : Cæsar did exwhen I consider him not Alexander the tremely affect the name of king; and some were Great, but as Aristotle's scholar, hath carried me set on, as he passed by, in popular acclamation to too far.
salute him king; whereupon, finding the cry weak As for Julius Cæsar, the excellency of his learn- and poor, he put it off thus, in a kind of jest, as if they ing needeth not to be argued from his education, or had mistaken his surname ; “Non rex sum, sed his company, or his speeches; but in a farther de Cæsar;" a speech, that if it be searched, the life gree doth declare itself in his writings and works; and fulness of it can scarce be expressed: for, first, whereof some are extant and permanent, and some it was a refusal of the name, but yet not serious : unfortunately perished. For, first, we see, there is again, it did signify an infinite confidence and magleft unto us that excellent history of his own wars, nanimity, as if he presumed Cæsar was the greater which he entitled only a commentary, wherein all title, as by his worthiness it is come to pass till this succeeding times have admired the solid weight day: but chiefly, it was a speech of great allurement of matter, and the real passages, and lively images toward his own purpose ; as if the state did strive of actions and persons, expressed in the greatest with him but for a name, whereof mean families propriety of words and perspicuity of narration that were vested; for Rex was a surname with the Roever was; which that it was not the effect of a mans, as well as King is with us. natural gift, but of learning and precept, is well wit The last speech which I will mention, was used nessed by that work of his, entitled “De Analogia,” to Metellus; when Cæsar, after war declared, did being a grammatical philosophy, wherein he did possess himself of the city of Rome, at which time labour to make this same vox ad placitum to become entering into the inner treasury to take the money vox ad licitum, and to reduce custom of speech there accumulated, Metellus, being tribune, forbad congruity of speech; and took, as it were, the pic him: whereto Cæsar said, " That if he did not desist, ture of words from the life of reason.
he would lay him dead in the place.” And preSo we receive from him, as a monument both of sently taking himself up, he added, “ Adolescens, his power and learning, the then reformed computa durius est mihi hoc dicere, quàm facere, Young tion of the year; well expressing that he took it to man, it is harder for me to speak it, than to do it.” A be as great a glory to himself to observe and know the speech compounded of the greatest terror and greatlaw of the heavens, as to give law to men upon the est clemency that could proceed out of the mouth earth.
of man. So likewise in that book of his, " Anti-Cato,” it But to return, and conclude with him : it is evident, may easily appear that he did aspire as well to vic himself knew well his own perfection in learning, tory of wit as victory of war; undertaking therein a and took it upon him ; as appeared, when, upon conflict against the greatest champion with the pen occasion that some spake, what a strange resolution that then liv?d, Cicero the orator.
it was in Lucius Sylla to resign his dictature; he So again in his book of “ Apophthegms,” which scoffing at him, to his own advantage, answered, he collected, we see that he esteemed it more honour “ That Sylla could not skill of letters, and therefore to make himself but a pair of tables, to take the knew not how to dictate." wise and pithy words of others, than to have every And here it were fit to leave this point, touching word of his own to be made an apophthegm, or an the concurrence of military virtue and learning, for oracle; as vain princes, by custom of flattery, pre what example would come with any grace, after tend to do. And yet if I should enumerate divers those two of Alexander and Cæsar ? were it not in of his speeches, as I did those of Alexander, they regard of the rareness of circumstance, that I find are truly such as Solomon noteth, when he saith, in one other particular, as that which did so sud* Verba sapientum tanquam aculei, et tanquam clavi denly pass from extreme scorn to extreme wonder; in altum defisi :" whereof I will only recite three, and it is of Xenophon the philosopher, who went not so delectable for elegancy, but admirable for from Socrates's school into Asia, in the expedition vigour and efficacy.
of Cyrus the younger, against king Artaxerxes. As, first, it is reason he be thought a master of This Xenophon at that time was very young, and words, that could with one word appease a mutiny in never had seen the wars before ; neither had any his army, which was thus : The Romans, when their command in the army, but only followed the war as generals did speak to their army, did use the word a voluntary, for the love and conversation of ProxMilites, but when the magistrates spake to the peo enus his friend. He was present when Falinus ple, they did use the word Quirites. The soldiers came in message from the great king to the Grewere in tumult, and seditiously prayed to be ca- cians, after that Cyrus was slain in the field, and they shiered; not that they so meant, but by expostula- a handful of men left to themselves in the midst of tion thereof to draw Cæsar to other conditions ; the king's territories, cut off from their country by wherein he being resolute not to give away, after many navigable rivers, and many hundred miles. some silence, he began his speech, "Ego, Quirites :" | The message imported that they should deliver up
their arms, and submit themselves to the king's and imperfections of manners. For if a man's mind mercy. To which message before answer was be deeply seasoned with the consideration of the made, divers of the army conferred familiarly with mortality and corruptible nature of things, he will Falinus: and amongst the rest Xenophon happened easily concur with Epictetus, who went forth one to say, "Why, Falinus, we have now but these two day, and saw a woman weeping for her pitcher of things left, our arms and our virtue ; and if we yield earth that was broken ; and went forth the next day, up our arms, how shall we make use of our virtue ?" and saw a woman weeping for her son that was Whereto Falinus, smiling on him, said, “ If I be not dead; and thereupon said, “ Heri vidi fragilem deceived, young gentleman, you are an Athenian, frangi, hodie vidi mortalem mori.” And therefore and, I believe, you study philosophy, and it is pretty did Virgil excellently and profoundly couple the that you say; but you are much abused, if you think knowledge of causes, and the conquest of all fears your virtue can withstand the king's power.” Here together, as concomitantia : was the scorn : the wonder followed; which was,
Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas, that this young scholar, or philosopher, after all the Quique metus omnes, et inexorabile fatum captains were murdered in parley by treason, con
Subjecit pedibus, strepitumque Acherontis avari.” ducted those ten thousand foot, through the heart of It were too long to go over the particular remeall the king's high countries, from Babylon to dies which learning doth minister to all the diseases Græcia in safety, in despite of all the king's forces, of the mind, sometimes purging the ill humours, to the astonishment of the world, and the encourage- sometimes opening the obstructions, sometimes helpment of the Grecians in time succeeding to make ing digestion, sometimes increasing appetite, someinvasion upon the kings of Persia ; as was after times healing the wounds and exulcerations thereof, purposed by Jason the Thessalian, attempted by and the like ; and therefore I will conclude with Agesilaus the Spartan, and achieved by Alexander that which hath“ rationem totius,” which is, that the Macedonian, all upon the ground of the act of it disposeth the constitution of the mind not to be that young scholar.
fixed or settled in the defects thereof, but still to be To proceed now from imperial and military virtue capable and susceptible of growth and reformation. to moral and private virtue : first, it is an assured For the unlearned man knows not what it is to detruth, which is contained in the verses ;
scend into himself, or to call himself to account;
nor the pleasure of that “ suavissima vita, indies “ Scilicet ingenuas didicisse fideliter artes,
sentire se fieri meliorem.” The good parts he hath, Emollit mores, nec sinit esse feros."
he will learn to show to the full, and use them dexIt taketh away the wildness, and barbarism, and terously, but not much to increase them : the faults fierceness of men's minds : but indeed the accent had he hath, he will learn how to hide and colour them, but need be upon fideliter : for a little superficial learn- not much to amend them : like an ill mower, that ing doth rather work a contrary effect. It taketh mows on still, and never whets his scythe. Whereas, away all levity, temerity, and insolency, by copious with the learned man it fares otherwise, that he doth suggestion of all doubts and difficulties, and acquaint-ever intermix the correction and amendment of his ing the mind to balance reasons on both sides, and mind, with the use and employment thereof. Nay, to turn back the first offers and conceits of the mind, farther, in general and in sum, certain it is, that and to accept of nothing but examined and tried. It veritas and bonitas differ but as the seal and the taketh away vain admiration of any thing, which is print: for truth prints goodness; and they be the the root of all weakness : for all things are admired, clouds of error, which descend in the storms of either because they are new, or because they are passions and perturbations. great. For novelty, no man that wadeth in learning From moral virtue let us pass on to matter of or contemplation throughly, but will find that printed power and commandment, and consider whether in in his heart, “ Nil novi super terram.” Neither right reason there be any comparable with that, can any man marvel at the play of puppets, that wherewith knowledge investeth and crowneth man's goeth behind the curtain, and adviseth well of the nature. We see the dignity of the commandment is motion. And for magnitude, as Alexander the Great, according to the dignity of the commanded : to have after he was used to great armies, and the conquests commandment over beasts, as herdmen have, is a of the spacious provinces in Asia, when he received thing contemptible; to have commandment over letters out of Greece, of some fights and services children, as schoolmasters have, is a matter of small there, which were commonly for a passage, or a honour; to have commandment over galley-slaves, fort, or some walled town at the most, he said, “ It is a disparagement, rather than an honour. Neither seemed to him, that he was advertised of the battle is the commandment of tyrants much better, over of the frogs and the mice, that the old tales went people which have put off the generosity of their of.” So certainly, if a man meditate upon the uni- minds : and therefore it was ever holden, that versal frame of nature, the earth, with men upon it, honours in free monarchies and commonwealths had the divineness of souls excepted, will not seem much a sweetness more than in tyrannies, because the other than an ant-hill, where some ants carry corn, commandment extendeth more over the wills of men, and some carry their young, and some go empty, and not only over their deeds and services. And and all to and fro a little heap of dust. It taketh therefore when Virgil putteth himself forth to attriaway or mitigateth fear of death, or adverse fortune; bute to Augustus Cæsar the best of human honours, which is one of the greatest impediments of virtue, he doth it in these words:
victorque volentes pleasure incomparable for the mind of man to be Per populos dat jura, viamque affectat Olympo.”
settled, landed, and fortified in the certainty of truth, But the commandment of knowledge is yet higher and from thence to descry and behold the errors, than the commandment over the will; for it is a perturbations, labours, and wanderings up and down, commandment over the reason, belief, and under of other men.” standing of man, which is the highest part of the Lastly, leaving the vulgar arguments that by mind, and giveth law to the will itself: for there is learning man excelleth man in that wherein man no power on earth, which setteth up a throne, or excelleth beasts; that by learning man ascendeth to chair of state, in the spirits and souls of men, and the heavens and their motions, where in body he in their cogitations, imaginations, opinions, and cannot come, and the like; let us conclude with the beliefs, but knowledge and learning. And therefore dignity and excellency of knowledge and learning we see the detestable and extreme pleasure that in that whereunto man's nature doth most aspire, arch-heretics and false prophets are transported which is, immortality or continuance: for to this with, when they once find in themselves that they tendeth generation, and raising of houses and famihave a superiority in the faith and conscience of lies; to this tend buildings, foundations, and monumen; so great, as, if they have once tasted of it, it ments; to this tendeth the desire of memory, fame, is seldom seen that any torture or persecution can and celebration, and in effect the strength of all make them relinquish or abandon it. But as this is other human desires. We see then how far the that which the author of the “ Revelation” calleth monuments of wit and learning are more durable " the depth,” or profoundness, “ of Satan ;" so, by than the monuments of power, or of the hands. For argument of contraries, the just and lawful sove- have not the verses of Homer continued twenty-five reignty over men's understanding, by force of truth hundred years, or more, without the loss of a syllarightly interpreted, is that which approacheth ble or letter ; during which time, infinite palaces, nearest to the similitude of the divine rule.
temples, castles, cities, have been decayed and deAs for fortune and advancement, the beneficence molished ! It is not possible to have the true picof learning is not so confined to give fortune only to tures or statues of Cyrus, Alexander, Cæsar; no, states and commonwealths, as it doth not likewise nor of the kings or great personages of much later give fortune to particular persons. For it was well years; for the originals cannot last, and the copies noted long ago, that Homer hath given more men cannot but lose of the life and truth. But the images their livings, than either Sylla, or Cæsar, or Augus- of men's wits and knowledges remain in books, tus ever did, notwithstanding their great largesses exempted from the wrong of time, and capable of and donatives, and distributions of lands to so many perpetual renovation. Neither are they fitly to be legions; and no doubt it is hard to say, whether arms called images, because they generate still, and cast or learning have advanced greater numbers. And their seeds in the minds of others, provoking and in case of sovereignty we see, that if arms or de causing infinite actions and opinions in succeeding scent have carried away the kingdom, yet learning ages: so that if the invention of the ship was hath carried the priesthood, which ever hath been thought so noble, which carrieth riches and comin some competition with empire.
modities from place to place, and consociateth the Again, for the pleasure and delight of knowledge most remote regions in participation of their fruits; and learning, it far surpasseth all other in nature : how much more are letters to be magnified, which, for shall the pleasures of the affections so exceed as ships, pass through the vast seas of time, and the pleasures of the senses, as much as the obtain- make ages so distant to participate of the wisdom, ing of desire or victory exceedeth a song or a din- illuminations, and inventions, the one of the other! ner? and must not, of consequence, the pleasures of Nay farther, we see, some of the philosophers which the intellect, or understanding, exceed the pleasures were least divine, and most immersed in the senses, of the affections? We see in all pleasures there is and denied generally the immortality of the soul; a satiety, and after they be used, their verdure de- yet came to this point, that whatsoever motions the parteth; which showeth well they be but deceits of spirit of man could act and perform without the orpleasure, and not pleasures; and that it was the gans of the body, they thought might remain after novelty which pleased, and not the quality; and death, which were only those of the understanding, therefore we see that voluptuous men turn friars, and not of the affections; so immortal and incorand ambitious princes turn melancholy. But of ruptible a thing did knowledge seem unto them to knowledge there is no satiety, but satisfaction and be. But we, that know by Divine revelation, that appetite are perpetually interchangeable ; and there not only the understanding, but the affections purifore appeareth to be good in itself simply, without fied ; not only the spirit, but the body changed, fallacy or accident. Neither is that pleasure of shall be advanced to immortality, do disclaim small efficacy and contentment to the mind of man, these rudiments of the senses. But it must be rewhich the poet Lucretius describeth elegantly : membered both in this last point, and so it may
likewise be needful in other places, that in proba“ Suave mari magno, turbantibus æquora ventis, etc.”
tion of the dignity of knowledge or learning, I did “ It is a view of delight, saith he, to stand or walk in the beginning separate divine testimony from huupon the shore side, and to see a ship tossed with man, which method I have pursued, and so handled tempest upon the sea; or to be in a fortified tower, them both apart. and to see two battles join upon a plain; but it is a Nevertheless I do not pretend, and I know it will