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most; this is most manifest in music; and concords a concord; but if you stay upon it it is offensive : and discords in music; for all sounds, whether they and therefore there be these three degrees of pleasbe sharp or flat, if they be sweet, have a roundness ing and displeasing in sounds, sweet sounds, discords, and equality; and if they be harsh, are unequal ; for and harsh sounds, which we call by divers names, a discord itself is but a harshness of divers sounds as shrieking or grating, such as we now speak of. meeting. It is true that inequality not stayed upon, As for the setting of the teeth on edge, we see but passing, is rather an increase of sweetness ; plainly what an intercourse there is between the as in the purling of a wreathed string ; and in the teeth and the organ of the hearing, by the taking raucity of a trumpet ; and in the nightingale-pipe of the end of a bow between the teeth and striking of a regal; and in a discord straight falling npon / upon the string.
which are put into pits, where the sea goeth and Experiment solitary touching veins of medicinal
cometh, but yet so that there is fresh water coming earth.
also to them when the sea voideth, become by that 701. THERE be minerals and fossils in .great va means fatter, and more grown. riety ; but of veins of earth medicinal, but few; the
Experiment solitary touching attraction by similichief are, terra lemnia, terra sigillata communis, and bolus armenus; whereof terra lemnia is the chief.
tude of substance. The virtues of them are, for curing of wounds,
704. The Turkish bow giveth a very forcible stanching of blood, stopping of fluxes, and rheums, shoot ; insomuch as it hath been known, that the and arresting the spreading of poison, infection, and arrow hath pierced a steel target, or a piece of brass putrefaction: and they have of all other simples the of two inches thick: but that which is more strange, perfectest and purest quality of drying, with little the arrow, if it be headed with wood, hath been or no mixture of any other quality. Yet it is true, known to pierce through a piece of wood of eight that the bole-armoniac is the most cold of them, inches thick. And it is certain, that we had in use and that terra lemnia is the most hot; for which at one time, for sea fight, short arrows, which they cause the island Lemnos, where it is digged, was in called sprights, without any other heads, save wood the old fabulous ages consecrated to Vulcan. sharpened ; which were discharged out of muskets,
and would pierce through the sides of ships where Experiment solitary touching the growth of sponges. a bullet would not pierce. But this dependeth upon
702. About the bottom of the Straits are gather- one of the greatest secrets in all nature ; which is, ed great quantities of sponges, which are gathered that similitude of substance will cause attraction, from the sides of rocks, being as it were a large where the body is wholly freed from the motion of but tough moss.
It is the more to be noted, because gravity : for if that were taken away, lead would that there be but few substances, plant-like, that draw lead, and gold would draw gold, and iron would grow deep within the sea; for they are gathered draw iron, without the help of the loadstone. But sometimes fifteen fathom deep: and when they are this same motion of weight or gravity, which is a laid on shore, they seem to be of great bulk : but mere motion of the matter, and hath no affinity with crushed together, will be transported in a very small the form or kind, doth kill the other motion, except
itself be killed by a violent motion, as in these in
stances of arrows; for then the motion of attraction Experiment solitary touching sea-fish put in fresh
by similitude of substance beginneth to show itself. waters.
But we shall handle this point of nature fully in due 703. It seemeth, that fish that are used to the place. salt water, do nevertheless delight more in fresh. We see, that salmons and smelts love to get into
Experiment solitary touching certain drinks in rivers, though it be against the stream. At the
Turkey. haven of Constantinople you shall have great quan 705. They have in Turkey and the east certain tities of fish that come from the Euxine sea, that confections, which they call servets, which are like when they come into the fresh water, do inebriate, to candied conserves, and are made of sugar and and turn up their bellies, so as you may take them lemons, or sugar and citrons, or sugar and violets, with your hand. I doubt there hath not been suf- and some other flowers; and some mixture of amficient experiment made of putting sea fish into fresh ber for the more delicate persons : and those they water ponds, and pools. It is a thing of great use dissolve in water, and thereof make their drink, beand pleasure ; for so you may have them new at cause they are forbidden wine by their law. But I some good distance from the sea : and besides, it do much marvel, that no Englishman, or Dutchman, may be, the fish will eat the pleasanter, and may or German, doth set up brewing in Constantinople ; fall to breed. And it is said, that Colchester oysters, considering they have such quantity of barley. For
as for the general sort of men, frugality may be the the body, which heat did keep firm in the parts, cause of drinking water; for that it is no small severeth and issueth out. saving to pay nothing for one's drink; but the bet 711. In those diseases which cannot be dister sort might well be at the cost. And yet I won-charged by sweat, sweat is ill, and rather to be der the less at it, because I see France, Italy, or stayed; as in diseases of the lungs, and fluxes of Spain, have not taken into use beer or ale; which, the belly : but in those diseases which are expelled perhaps, if they did, would better both their healths by sweat, it easeth and lighteneth; as in agues, and their complexions. It is likely it would be pestilences, &c. The cause is, for that sweat in the matter of great gain to any that should begin it in latter sort is partly critical, and sendeth forth the Turkey.
matter that offendeth ; but in the former, it either
proceedeth from the labour of the spirits, which Experiments in consort touching sweat.
showeth them oppressed; or from motion of consent, 706. In bathing in hot water, sweat, neverthe- when nature, not able to expel the disease where it less, cometh not in the parts under the water. The is seated, moveth to an expulsion indifferent over all cause is ; first, for that sweat is a kind of colliqua. the body. tion, and that kind of colliquation is not made either by an over-dry heat, or an over-moist heat: for over
Experiment solitary touching the glow-worm. moisture doth somewhat extinguish the heat, as we 712. The nature of the glow-worm is hitherto see that even hot water quencheth fire; and over not well observed. Thus much we see; that they dry heat shutteth the pores : and therefore men will breed chiefly in the hottest months of summer; and sooner sweat covered before the sun or fire, than if that they breed not in champain, but in bushes and they stood naked : and earthen bottles, filled with hedges. Whereby it may be conceived, that the hot water, do provoke in bed a sweat more daintily spirit of them is very fine, and not to be refined but than brick-bats hot. Secondly, hot water doth by summer heats : and again, that by reason of the cause evaporation from the skin; so as it spendeth fineness, it doth easily exhale. In Italy, and the the matter in those parts under the water, before it hotter countries, there is a fly they call Lucciole, issueth in sweat. Again, sweat cometh more plen- that shineth as the glow-worm doth; and it may be tifully, if the heat be increased by degrees, than if is the flying glow-worm. But that fly is chiefly it be greatest at first, or equal. The cause is, for upon fens and marshes. But yet the two former that the pores are better opened by a gentle heat, observations hold; for they are not seen but in the than by a more violent: and by their opening, the heat of summer ; and sedge, or other green of the sweat issueth more abundantly. And therefore fens, give as good shade as bushes. It may be the physicians may do well when they provoke sweat glow-worms of the cold countries ripen not so far as in bed by bottles, with a decoction of sudorific herbs to be winged. in hot water, to make two degrees of heat in the bottles; and to lay in the bed the less heated first, Experiments in consort touching the impressions, and after half an hour, the more heated.
which the passions of the mind make upon the 707. Sweat is salt in taste; the cause is, for that
body. that part of the nourishment which is fresh and 713. The passions of the mind work upon the sweet, turneth into blood and flesh; and the sweat is body the impressions following. Fear causeth paleonly that part which is separate and excerned. Blood ness, trembling, the standing of the hair upright, also raw hath some saltness more than flesh : be- starting, and shrieking. The paleness is caused, for cause the assimilation into flesh is not without a that the blood runneth inward to succour the heart. little and subtile excretion from the blood.
The trembling is caused, for that through the flight 708. Sweat cometh forth more out of the upper of the spirits inward, the outward parts are destiparts of the body than the lower ; the reason is, tuted, and not sustained. Standing upright of the because those parts are more replenished with spirits ; hair is caused, for that by shutting of the pores and the spirits are they that put forth sweat: be- of the skin, the hair that lieth aslope must needs sides, they are less fleshy, and sweat issueth, chiefly, rise. Starting is both an apprehension of the thing out of the parts that are less fleshy, and more dry; feared, and in that kind it is a motion of shrinking, as the forehead and breast.
and likewise an inquisition in the beginning, what 709. Men sweat more in sleep than waking; and the matter should be; and in that kind it is a moyet sleep doth rather stay other fluxions, than cause tion of erection : and therefore when a man would them; as rheums, looseness of the body, &c. The listen suddenly to any thing, he starteth; for the cause is, for that in sleep the heat and spirits do starting is an erection of the spirits to attend. naturally move inwards, and there rest. But when Shrieking is an appetite of expelling that which they are collected once within, the heat becometh suddenly striketh the spirits: for it must be noted, more violent and irritate ; and thereby expelleth that many motions, though they be unprofitable to sweat.
expel that which hurteth, yet they are offers of 710. Cold sweats are, many times, mortal, and nature, and cause motions by consent; as in groannear death ; and always ill, and suspected; as in ing or crying upon pain. great fears, hypochondriacal passions, &c. The 714. Grief and pain cause sighing, sobbing, groancause is, for that cold sweats come by a relaxation ing, screaming, and roaring; tears, distorting of the or forsaking of the spirits, whereby the moisture of face, grinding of the teeth, sweating. Sighing is
caused by the drawing in of a greater quantity of the spirits, but in a less degree. For the shaking breath to refresh the heart that laboureth ; like a of the head is but a slow and definite trembling ; great draught when one is thirsty. Sobbing is the and is a gesture of slight refusal; and we see also, same thing stronger. Groaning, and screaming, and that a dislike causeth, often, that gesture of the roaring, are caused by an appetite of expulsion, as hand, which we use when we refuse a thing, or warn hath been said : for when the spirits cannot expel it away. The frowning and knitting of the brows the thing that hurteth, in their strife to do it, by is a gathering, or serring of the spirits, to resist in motion of consent, they expel the voice. And this some measure. And we see also this knitting of is when the spirits yield, and give over to resist : the brows will follow upon earnest studying, or cogifor if one do constantly resist pain, he will not groan. tation of any thing, though it be without dislike. Tears are caused by contraction of the spirits of the 718. Shame causeth blushing, and casting down brain; which contraction by consequence astringeth of the eyes. Blushing is the resort of blood to the the moisture of the brain, and thereby sendeth tears face; which in the passion of shame is the part that into the eyes. And this contraction or compression laboureth most. And although the blushing will causeth also wringing of the hands; for wringing is be seen in the whole breast if it be naked, yet that a gesture of expression of moisture. The distorting is but in passage to the face. As for the casting of the face is caused by a contention, first to bear down of the eyes, it proceedeth of the reverence a and resist, and then to expel; which maketh the man beareth to other men ; whereby, when he is parts knit first, and afterwards open. Grinding of ashamed, he cannot endure to look firmly upon others: the teeth is caused, likewise, by a gathering and and we see, that blushing, and the casting down of serring of the spirits together to resist, which the eyes both, are more when we come before many; maketh the teeth also to set hard one against another. ore Pompeii quid mollius? nunquam non coram Sweating is also a compound motion, by the labour pluribus erubuit;" and likewise when we come beof the spirits, first to resist, and then to expel. fore great or reverend persons.
in the eyes, singing, leaping, dancing, and sometimes or cast of the eye aside. Tears come from the tears. All these are the effects of the dilatation and same cause that they do in grief: for pity is but coming forth of the spirits into the outward parts ; grief in another's behalf. The cast of the eye is a which maketh them more lively and stirring. We gesture of aversion, or lothness to behold the object know it hath been seen, that excessive sudden joy
of pity. hath caused present death, while the spirits did 720. Wonder causeth astonishment, or an imspread so much as they could not retire again. As movable posture of the body; casting up of the for tears, they are the effects of compression of the eyes to heaven, and lifting up of the hands. For moisture of the brain, upon dilatation of the spirits. astonishment, it is caused by the fixing of the mind For compression of the spirits worketh an express upon one object of cogitation, whereby it doth not sion of the moisture of the brain by consent, as spatiate and transcur, as it useth ; for in wonder hath been said in grief. But then in joy, it work the spirits fly not, as in fear; but only settle, and eth it diversely; viz. by propulsion of the moisture, are made less apt to move.
As for the casting up when the spirits dilate, and occupy more room. of the eyes, and lifting up of the hands, it is a kind
716. Anger causeth paleness in some, and the of appeal to the Deity, which is the author, by going and coming of the colour in others : also power and providence, of strange wonders. trembling in some : swelling, foaming at the mouth, 721. Laughing causeth a dilatation of the mouth stamping, bending of the fist. Paleness, and going and lips; a continued expulsion of the breath, with and coming of the colour, are caused by the burn the loud noise, which maketh the interjection of ing of the spirits about the heart; which to refresh laughing; shaking of the breasts and sides ; runthemselves, call in more spirits from the outward ning of the eyes with water, if it be violent and conparts. And if the paleness be alone, without send tinued. Wherein first it is to be understood, that ing forth the colour again, it is commonly joined laughing is scarce, properly, a passion, but hath its with some fear; but in many there is no paleness source from the intellect; for in laughing there at all, but contrariwise redness about the cheeks and ever precedeth a conceit of somewhat ridiculous. gills; which is by the sending forth of the spirits And therefore it is proper to man. Secondly, that in an appetite to revenge. Trembling in anger is the cause of laughing is but a light touch of the likewise by a calling in of the spirits; and is com- spirits, and not so deep an impression as in other monly when anger is joined with fear. Swelling is passions. And therefore, that which hath no affinity caused, both by a dilatation of the spirits by over with the passions of the mind, it is moved, and that heating, and by a liquefaction or boiling of the hu- in great vehemency, only by tickling some parts of mours thereupon. Foaming at the mouth is from the body : and we see that men even in a grieved state the same cause, being an ebullition. Stamping, and of mind, yet cannot sometimes forbear laughing. bending of the fist, are caused by an imagination of Thirdly, it is ever joined with some degree of dethe act of revenge.
light: and therefore exhilaration hath some affinity 717. Light displeasure or dislike causeth shaking with joy, though it be a much lighter motion: “res of the head, frowning and knitting of the brows. severa est verum gaudium.” Fourthly, that the These effects arise from the same causes that trem-object of it is deformity, absurdity, shrewd turns, Lling and horror do; namely, from the retiring of and the like. Now to speak of the causes of the
effects before mentioned, whereunto these general | imagination. The cause of the imagination that notes give some light. For the dilatation of the things come upon them is, for that the spirits visual mouth and lips, continued expulsion of the breath themselves draw back ; which maketh the object and voice, and shaking of the breast and sides, they seem to come on; and besides, when they see things proceed, all, from the dilatation of the spirits ; espe-| turn round and move, fear maketh them think they cially being sudden. So likewise, the running of come upon them. The cause that they cannot see the eyes with water, as hath been formerly touched, things afar off, is the weakness of the spirits ; for in where we spake of the tears of joy and grief, is an every megrim or vertigo there is an obtenebration effect of dilatation of the spirits. And for sud- joined with a semblance of turning round; which denness, it is a great part of the matter : for we see also in the lighter sort of swoonings. The we see, that any shrewd turn that lighteth upon cause of seeing things out of their place, is the reanother, or any deformity, &c. moveth laughter in fraction of the spirits visual; for the vapour is as the instant; which after a little time it doth not. an unequal medium; and it is as the sight of things So we cannot laugh at any thing after it is stale, out of place in water. The cause of seeing things but whilst it is new: and even in tickling, if you double, is the swift and unquiet motion of the tickle the sides, and give warning; or give a hard spirits, being oppressed, to and fro; for as was said or continued touch, it doth not move laughter so before, the motion of the spirits visual, and the momuch.
tion of the object, make the same appearances; and 722. Lust causeth a flagrancy in the eyes, and for the swift motion of the object, we see, that if you priapism. The cause of both these is, for that in fillip a lute-string, it showeth double or treble. lust, the sight and the touch are the things desired; 726. Men are sooner drunk with small draughts and therefore the spirits resort to those parts which than with great. And again, wine sugared inebriare most affected. And note well in general, for that ateth less than wine pure. The cause of the former great use may be made of the observation, that, ever- is, for that the wine descendeth not so fast to the more, the spirits, in all passions, resort much to the bottom of the stomach, but maketh longer stay in parts that labour most, or are most affected. As in the upper part of the stomach, and sendeth vapours the last which hath been mentioned, they resort to faster to the head; and therefore inebriateth sooner. the eyes and venerous parts: in fear and anger to And for the same reason, sops in wine, quantity for the heart: in shame to the face: and in light dislikes quantity, inebriate more than wine of itself. The to the head.
cause of the latter is, for that the sugar doth inspis
sate the spirits of the wine, and maketh them not so Experiments in consort touching drunkenness.
easy to resolve into vapour. Nay farther, it is 723. It hath been observed by the ancients, and thought to be some remedy against inebriating, if is yet believed, that the sperm of drunken men is wine sugared be taken after wine pure. And the unfruitful. The cause is, for that it is over-moisten
same effect is wrought either by oil or milk, taken ed, and wanteth spissitude : and we have a merry upon much drinking. saying, that they that go drunk to bed get daughters. 724. Drunken men are taken with a plain defect,
Experiment solitary touching the help or hurt of or destitution in voluntary motion. They reel ;
wine, though moderately used. they tremble; they cannot stand, nor speak strong 727. The use of wine in dry and consumed bodies ly. The cause is, for that the spirits of the wine is hurtful ; in moist and full bodies it is good. The oppress the spirits animal, and occupy part of the cause is, for that the spirits of the wine do prey place where they are; and so make them weak to upon the dew or radical moisture, as they term it, move. And therefore drunken men are apt to fall of the body, and so deceive the animal spirits. But asleep: and opiates, and stupefactives, as poppy, where there is moisture enough, or superfluous, hen-bane, hemlock, &c. induce a kind of drunken- there wine helpeth to digest, and desiccate the ness, by the grossness of their vapour; as wine doth moisture. by the quantity of the vapour. Besides, they rob the spirits animal of their matter, whereby they are
Experiment solitary touching caterpillars. nourished: for the spirits of the wine prey upon it 728. The caterpillar is one of the most general as well as they: and so they make the spirits less of worms, and breedeth of dew and leaves; for we supple and apt to move.
see infinite number of caterpillars which breed upon 725. Drunken men imagine every thing turneth trees and hedges, by which the leaves of the trees round; they imagine also that things come upon or hedges are in great part consumed ; as well by them; they see not well things afar off ; those things their breeding out of the leaf, as by their feeding that they see near hand, they see out of their place; upon the leaf, They breed in the spring chiefly, and sometimes they see things double. The cause because then there is both dew and leaf. And they of the imagination that things turn round is, for breed commonly when the east winds have much that the spirits themselves turn, being compressed blown; the cause whereof is, the dryness of that by the vapour of the wine ; for any liquid body upon wind; for to all vivification upon putrefaction, it is compression turneth, as we see in water : and it is requisite the matter be not too moist : and therefore all one to the sight, whether the visual spirits move, we see they have cobwebs about them, which is a or the object moveth, or the medium moveth. And sign of a slimy dryness ; as we see upon the ground, we see that long turning round breedeth the same I whereupon, by dew and sun, cobwebs breed all over.
We see also the green caterpillar breedeth in the off, and crumble away by degrees. And they are inward parts of roses, especially not blown, where known by the extreme tenderness and softness of the the dew sticketh ; but especially caterpillars, both new shell, and sometimes by the freshness of the the greatest, and the most, breed upon cabbages, colour of it. The cause of the casting of skin and which have a fat leaf, and apt to putrify. The shell should seem to be the great quantity of matter caterpillar, towards the end of summer, waxeth in those creatures that is fit to make skin or shell : volatile, and turneth to a butterfly, or perhaps some and again, the looseness of the skin or shell, that other fly. There is a caterpillar that hath a fur or sticketh not close to the flesh. For it is certain, down upon it, and seemeth to have affinity with the that it is the new skin or shell that putteth off silk-worm.
the old : so we see, that in deer it is the young
horn that putteth off the old; and in birds, the Experiment solitary touching the flies cantharides.
young feathers put off the old : and so birds that 729. The flies cantharides are bred of a worm or have much matter for their beak, cast their beaks, caterpillar, but peculiar to certain fruit-trees ; as are the new beak putting off the old. the fig-tree, the pine-tree, and the wild brier; all which bear sweet fruit, and fruit that hath a kind of Experiments in consort touching the postures of the
body. secret biting or sharpness: for the fig hath a milk in it that is sweet and corrosive; the pine-apple hath a 733. Lying not erect, but hollow, which is in the kernel that is strong and abstersive ; the fruit of the making of the bed ; or with the legs gathered up, brier is said to make children, or those that eat them, which is in the posture of the body, is the more scabbed. And therefore no marvel, though cantha- wholesome. The reason is, the better comforting rides have such a corrosive and cauterising quality ; of the stomach, which is by that less pensile: and for there is not any other of the insecta, but is bred we see that in weak stomachs, the laying up of the of a duller matter. The body of the cantharides is legs high, and the knees almost to the mouth, bright coloured; and it may be, that the delicate helpeth and comforteth. We see also, that galleycoloured dragon-flies may have likewise some corro- slaves, notwithstanding their misery otherwise, are sive quality.
commonly fat and fleshy; and the reason is, because
the stomach is supported somewhat in sitting, and Experiments in consort touching lassitude.
is pensile in standing or going. And therefore, for 730. Lassitude is remedied by bathing, or anoint- prolongation of life, it is good to choose those ing with oil and warm water. The cause is, for exercises where the limbs move more than the that all lassitude is a kind of contusion, and com stomach and belly; as in rowing, and in sawing, pression of parts; and bathing and anointing give a being set. relaxation or emollition; and the mixture of oil and 734. Megrims and giddiness are rather when we water is better than either of them alone ; because rise after long sitting, than while we sit. The water entereth better into the pores, and oil after cause is, for that the vapours, which were gathered entry softeneth better. It is found also, that the by sitting, by the sudden motion fly more up into taking of tobacco doth help and discharge lassitude. the head. The reason whereof is, partly, because by cheering 735. Leaning long upon any part maketh it or comforting of the spirits, it openeth the parts numb, and, as we call it, asleep. The cause is, for compressed or contused; and chiefly because it re that the compression of the part suffereth not the freshes the spirits by the opiate virtue thereof, and spirits to have free access ; and therefore when we so dischargeth weariness, as sleep likewise doth. come out of it, we feel a stinging or pricking, which
731. In going up a hill, the knees will be most is the re-entrance of the spirits. weary ; in going down a hill, the thighs. The cause is, for that in the list of the feet, when a man
Experiment solitary touching pestilential years. goeth up the hill, the weight of the body beareth 736. It hath been noted, that those years are most upon the knees ; and in going down the hill, pestilential and unwholesome, when there are great upon the thighs.
numbers of frogs, flies, locusts, &c. The cause is Experiment solitary touching the casting of the skin plain; for that those creatures being engendered of
putrefaction, when they abound, show a general disand shell in some creatures.
position of the year, and constitution of the air, to 732. The casting of the skin is by the ancients diseases of putrefaction. And the same prognostic, compared to the breaking of the secundine, or caul, as hath been said before, holdeth, if you find worms but not rightly : for that were to make every cast in oak-apples : for the constitution of the air aping of the skin a new birth : and besides, the secun-peareth more subtilly in any of these things, than dine is but a general cover, not shaped according to to the sense of man. the parts, but the skin is shaped according to the parts. The creatures that cast their skin are the Experiment solitary touching the prognostics of hard
winters. snake, the viper, the grasshopper, the lizard, the silk-worm, &c. Those that cast their shell are, the 737. It is an observation amongst country people, lobster, the crab, the crawfish, the hodmandod or that years of store of haws and hips do commonly dodman, the tortoise, &c. The old skins are found, portend cold winters; and they ascribe it to God's but the old shells never : so as it is like, they scale providence, that, as the Scripture saith, reacheth