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sowing time, which with us breedeth much dearth, coverture, that they take liking in, than the virtue insomuch as the corn never cometh up; and many of the herb. times they are forced to re-sow summer corn where 675. It were a matter of great profit, save that I they sowed winter corn. Another ill accident is doubt it is too conjectural to venture upon, if one bitter frosts continued without snow, especially in could discern what corn, herbs, or fruits, are like to the beginning of the winter, after the seed is new be in plenty or scarcity, by some signs and prog
Another disease is worms, which sometimes nostics in the beginning of the year: for as for those breed in the root, and happen upon hot suns and that are like to be in plenty, they may be bargained showers immediately after the sowing; and another for upon the ground; as the old relation was of worm breedeth in the ear itself, especially when hot Thales; who, to show how easy it was for a phisuns break often out of clouds. Another disease is losopher to be rich, when he foresaw a great plenty weeds; and they are such as either choke and over- of olives, made a monopoly of them. And for scarshadow the corn, and bear it down ; or starve the city, men may make profit in keeping better the old corn, and deceive it of nourishment. Another dis- store. Long continuance of snow is believed to ease is over-rankness of the corn ; which they use make a fruitful year of corn; an early winter, or a to remedy by mowing it after it is come up; or put- very late winter, a barren year of corn; an open ting sheep into it. Another ill accident is laying of and serene winter, an ill year of fruit : these we corn with great rains, near or in harvest. Another have partly touched before; but other prognostics ill accident is, if the seed happen to have touched of like nature are diligently to be inquired. oil, or any thing that is fat; for those substances 676. There seem to be in some plants singularihave an antipathy with nourishment of water. ties, wherein they differ from all other; the olive
670. The remedies of the diseases of corn have hath the oily part only on the outside ; whereas all been observed as followeth. The steeping of the other fruits have it in the nut or kernel. The fir grain, before sowing, a little time in wine, is thought hath, in effect, no stone, nut, nor kernel; except you a preservative: the mingling of seed-corn with ashes will count the little grains kernels. The pomegrais thought to be good : the sowing at the wane of nate and pine-apple have only amongst fruits grains the moon, is thought to make the corn sound: it distinct several cells. No herbs have curled hath not been practised, but it is thought to be of leaves but cabbage and cabbage-lettuce. None have use to make some miscellane in corn ; as if you sow doubled leaves, one belonging to the stalk, another a few beans with wheat, your wheat will be the to the fruit or seed, but the artichoke. No flower better. It hath been observed, that the sowing of hath that kind of spread that the woodbine hath. corn with houseleek doth good. Though grain that This may be a large field of contemplation ; for it toucheth oil or fat, receiveth hurt, yet the steeping showeth that in the frame of nature, there is, in the of it in the dregs of oil, when it beginneth to putrify, producing of some species, a composition of matter, which they call amurca, is thought to assure it which happeneth oft, and may be much diversified : against worms. It is reported also, that if corn be in others, such as happeneth rarely, and admitteth mowed, it will make the grain longer, but emptier, little variety : for so it is likewise in beasts : dogs and having more of the husk.
have a resemblance with wolves and foxes; horses 671. It hath been noted, that seed of a year old with asses ; kine with buffles; hares with coneys, is the best; and of two or three years is worse ; and | &c. And so in birds : kites and kestrels have a that which is more old is quite barren ; though, no resemblance with hawks; common doves with ringdonbt, some seed and grains last better than others. doves and turtles ; blackbirds with thrushes and The corn which in the vanning lieth lowest is the mavises; crows with ravens, daws, and choughs, &c. best: and the corn which broken or bitten retaineth But elephants and swine amongst beasts; and the a little yellowness, is better than that which is very bird of paradise and the peacock amongst birds; and white.
some few others, have scarce any other species that 672. It hath been observed, that of all roots of have affinity with them. herbs, the root of sorrel goeth the farthest into the We leave the description of plants, and their earth; insomuch that it hath been known to go virtues, to herbals, and other like books of natural three cubits deep: and that it is the root that con- history ; wherein men's diligence hath been great, tinueth fit longest to be set again, of any root that even to curiosity: for our experiments are only such groweth. It is a cold and acid herb, that, as it as do ever ascend a degree to the deriving of causes, seemeth, loveth the earth, and is not much drawn and extracting of axioms, which we are not ignorant by the sun.
but that some both of the ancient and modern 673. It hath been observed, that some herbs like writers have also laboured; but their causes and best being watered with salt water; as radish, beet, axioms are so full of imagination, and so infected rue, pennyroyal: this trial would be extended to with the old received theories, as they are mere some other herbs ; especially such as are strong, as inquinations of experience, and concoct it not. tarragon, mustard-seed, rocket, and the like. 674. It is strange that is generally received, how
Experiment solitary touching healing of wounds. some poisonous beasts affect odorate and wholesome 677. It hath been observed by some of the herbs; as that the snake loveth fennel ; that the ancients, that skins, especially of rams, newly pulled toad will be much under sage ; that frogs will be in off, and applied to the wounds of stripes, do keep cinquefoil. It may be it is rather the shade, or other | them from swelling and exulcerating; and likewise
heal them and close them up; and that the whites reason that some give, that they are partly carried, of eggs do the same. The cause is a temperate whereas beasts go, that is nothing; for by that conglutination ; for both bodies are clammy and reason swimming should be swifter than running : viscous, and do bridle the deflux of humours to the and that kind of carriage also is not without labour hurts, without penning them in too much.
of the wing. Experiment solitary touching fat diffused in flesh. Experiment solitary touching the different clearness 678. You may turn almost all flesh into a fatty
of the sea. substance, if you take flesh and cut it into pieces, 682. The sea is clearer when the north wind and put the pieces into a glass covered with parch- bloweth, than when the south wind. The cause is, ment; and so let the glass stand six or seven hours for that salt water hath a little oiliness in the surface in boiling water. It may be an experiment of pro- thereof, as appeareth in very hot days: and again, for fit for making of fat or grease for many uses; but that the southern wind relaxeth the water somewhat; then it must be of such flesh as is not edible; as and no water boiling is so clear as cold water. horses, dogs, bears, foxes, badgers, &c.
Experiment solitary touching the different heats of Experiment solitary touching ripening of drink
fire and boiling water. before the time.
683. Fire burneth wood, making it first luminous; 679. It is reported by one of the ancients, that then black and brittle; and lastly, broken and incinenew wine put into vessels well stopped, and the rate; scalding water doth none of these. The cause vessels let down into the sea, will accelerate very is, for that by fire the spirit of the body is first refined, much the making of them ripe and potable. The and then emitted; whereof the refining or attenusame would be tried in wort.
ation causeth the light; and the emission, first the
fragility, and after, the dissolution into ashes; Experiment solitary touching pilosity and plumage. neither doth any other body enter : but in water the
680. Beasts are more hairy than men, and sayage spirit of the body is not refined so much; and bemen more than civil ; and the plumage of birds ex sides part of the water entereth, which doth increase ceedeth the pilosity of beasts. The cause of the the spirit, and in a degree extinguish it: therefore smoothness in men is not any abundance of heat and we see that hot water will quench fire. And again moisture, though that indeed causeth pilosity; but we see, that in bodies wherein the water doth not there is requisite to pilosity, not so much heat and much enter, but only the heat passeth, hot water moisture, as excrementitious heat and moisture; for worketh the effects of fire; as in eggs boiled and whatsoever assimilateth, goeth not into the hair; roasted, into which the water entereth not at all, and excrementitious moisture aboundeth most in there is scarce difference to be discerned: but in fruit, beasts, and men that are more savage. Much the and flesh, whereinto the water entereth in some same reason is there of the plumage of birds; for part, there is much more difference. birds assimilate less and excern more than beasts;
Experiment solitary touching the qualification of for their excrements are ever liquid, and their flesh generally more dry: besides, they have not instru
heat by moisture. ments for urine; and so all the excrementitious 684. The bottom of a vessel of boiling water, as moisture goeth into the feathers : and therefore it is hath been observed, is not very much heated, so as no marvel, though birds be commonly better meat men may put their hand under the vessel and remove than beasts, because their flesh doth assimilate more it. The cause is, for that the moisture of water as finely, and secerneth more subtilly. Again, the it quencheth coals where it entereth, so it doth allay head of man hath hair upon the first birth, which heat where it toucheth: and therefore note well, no other part of the body hath. The cause may be that moisture, although it doth not pass through want of perspiration; for much of the matter of hair, bodies, without communication of some substance, in the other parts of the body, goeth forth by in as heat and cold do, yet it worketh manifest effects; sensible perspiration; and besides, the skull being not by entrance of the body, but by qualifying of the of a more solid substance, nourisheth and assimilat- heat and cold ; as we see in this instance: and we eth less, and excerneth more; and so likewise doth see, likewise, that the water of things distilled in the chin. We see also, that hair cometh not upon water, which they call the bath, differeth not much the palms of the hands, nor soles of the feet; from the water of things distilled by fire. We see which are parts more perspirable. And children also, that pewter dishes with water in them will not likewise are not hairy, for that their skins are more melt easily, but without it they will; nay we see perspirable.
more, that butter, or oil, which in themselves are Experiment solitary touching the quickness of
inflammable, yet by virtue of their moisture will do
the like. motion in birds. 681. Birds are of swifter motion than beasts ;
Experiment solitary touching yawning. for the flight of many birds is swifter than the race 685. It hath been noted by the ancients, that it of any beasts. The cause is, for that the spirits in is dangerous to pick one's ear whilst he yawneth. birds are in greater proportion, in comparison of the The cause is, for that in yawning the inner parchbulk of their body, than in beasts: for as for the ment of the ear is extended, by the drawing in of
the spirit and breath; for in yawning, and sighing ceiveth more easily all alterations, than any other both, the spirit is first strongly drawn in, and then parts of the flesh. strongly expelled.
Experiment solitary touching the taste. Experiment solitary touching the hiccough.
690. When the mouth is out of taste, it maketh 686. It hath been observed by the ancients, that things taste sometimes salt, chiefly bitter; and somesneezing doth cease the hiccough. The cause is, time loathsome, but never sweet. The cause is, the for that the motion of the hiccough is a lifting up of corrupting of the moisture about the tongue, which the stomach, which sneezing doth somewhat depress, many times turneth bitter, and salt, and loathsome; but and divert the motion another way. For first we sweet never; for the rest are degrees of corruption. see that the hiccough cometh of fulness of meat, especially in children, which causeth an extension
Experiment solitary touching some prognostics of of the stomach : we see also it is caused by acid
pestilentiul seasons. meats, or drinks, which is by the pricking of the 691. It was observed in the great plague of the stomach; and this motion is ceased either by diver- last year, that there were seen in divers ditches and sion, or by detention of the spirits ; diversion, as in low grounds about London, many toads that had sneezing; detention, as we see holding of the breath tails two or three inches long at the least ; whereas doth help somewhat to cease the hiccough; and toads usually have no tails at all. Which argueth putting a man into an earnest study doth the like, a great disposition to putrefaction in the soil and as is commonly used: and vinegar put to the nos air. It is reported likewise, that roots, such as trils, or gargarised, doth it also ; for that it is carrots and parsnips, are more sweet and luscious in astringent, and inhibiteth the motion of the spirits. infectious years than in other years. Experiment solitary touching sneezing. Experiment solitary touching special simples for
medicines. 687. Looking against the sun doth induce sneezing. The cause is not the heating of the nostrils, 692. Wise physicians should with all diligence for th the holding up of the nostrils against the inquire, what simples nature yieldeth that have exsun, though one wink, would do it; but the drawing treme subtile parts, without any mordication or down of the moisture of the brain : for it will make acrimony : for they undermine that which is hard; the eyes run with water; and the drawing of they open that which is stopped and shut; and they moisture to the eyes, doth draw it to the nostrils by expel that which is offensive, gently, without too motion of consent; and so followeth sneezing: as much perturbation. Of this kind are elder-flowers ; contrariwise, the tickling of the nostrils within, doth which therefore are proper for the stone: of this kind draw the moisture to the nostrils, and to the eyes by is the dwarf-pine; which is proper for the jaundice: consent; for they also will water. But yet it hath of this kind is hartshorn; which is proper for agues been observed, that if one be about to sneeze, the and infections: of this kind is piony ; which is prorubbing of the eyes till they run with water will per for stoppings in the head : of this kind is fumiprevent it. Whereof the cause is, for that the tory; which is proper for the spleen : and a number humour which was descending to the nostrils, is of others. Generally, divers creatures bred of diverted to the eyes.
putrefaction, though they be somewhat loathsome to
take, are of this kind; as earth-worms, timber-sows, Experiment solitary touching the tenderness of
snails, &c. And I conceive that the trochisks of the teeth.
vipers, which are so much magnified, and the flesh 688. The teeth are more by cold drink, or the of snakes some ways condited, and corrected, which like, affected than the other parts. The cause is of late are grown into some credit, are of the same double; the one, for that the resistance of bone to nature. So the parts of beasts putrified, as castocold is greater than of flesh, for that the flesh shrink reum and musk, which have extreme subtile parts, eth, but the bone resisteth, whereby the cold be are to be placed amongst them. We see also, that cometh more eager: the other is, for that the teeth putrefactions of plants, as agaric and Jew's ear, are are parts without blood; whereas blood helpeth to of greatest virtue. The cause is, for that putrefacqualify the cold; and therefore we see that the tion is the subtilest of all motions in the parts of sinews are much affected with cold, for that they bodies : and since we cannot take down the lives of are parts without blood; so the bones in sharp colds living creatures, which some of the Paracelsians say, wax brittle: and therefore it hath been seen, that if they could be taken down, would make us immorall contusions of bones in hard weather are more tal; the next is for subtilty of operation, to take difficult to cure.
bodies putrified; such as may be safely taken. Experiment solitary touching the tongue.
Experiments in consort touching Venus. 689. It hath been noted, that the tongue re 693. It hath been observed by the ancients, that ceiveth more easily tokens of discases than the much use of Venus doth dim the sight; and yet other parts; as of heats within, which appear most eunuchs, which are unable to generate, are neverthein the blackness of the tongue. Again, pyed cattle less also dim-sighted. The cause of dimness of sight are spotted in their tongues, &c. The cause is, no in the former, is the expense of spirits; in the latter, doubt, the tenderness of the part, which thereby re the over-moisture of the brain: for the over-moisture
of the brain doth thicken the spirits visual, and creatures bred of putrefaction. The contemplation obstructeth their passages; as we see by the decay in whereof hath many excellent fruits. First, in disthe sight in age ; where also the diminution of the closing the original of vivification. Secondly, in spirits concurreth as another cause: we see also disclosing the original of figuration. Thirdly, in that blindness cometh by rheums and cataracts. disclosing many things in the nature of perfect Now in eunuchs there are all the notes of moisture; creatures, which in them lie more hidden. And as the swelling of their thighs, the looseness of their fourthly, in traducing, by way of operation, some belly, the smoothness of their skin, &c.
observations on the insecta, to work effects upon 694. The pleasure in the act of Venus is the perfect creatures. Note, that the word insecta agreetk greatest of the pleasures of the senses: the matching not with the matter, but we ever use it for brevity's of it with itch is improper, though that also be pleas- sake, intending by it creatures bred of putrefaction. ing to the touch. But the causes are profound. 696. The insecta are found to breed out of several First, all the organs of the senses qualify the motions matters: some breed of mud or dung; as the earthof the spirits ; and make so many several species of worms, eels, snakes, &c. For they are both putremotions, and pleasures or displeasures thereupon, as factions : for water in mud doth putrify, as not able there be diversities of organs. The instruments of to preserve itself: and for dung, all excrements are sight, hearing, taste, and smell, are of several frame; the refuse and putrefactions of nourishment. Some and so are the parts for generation. Therefore Sca- breed in wood, both growing and cut down. Query, liger doth well to make the pleasure of generation a in what woods most, and at what seasons? We see sixth sense ; and if there were any other differing that the worms with many feet, which round themorgans, and qualified perforations for the spirits to selves into balls, are bred chiefly under logs of timber, pass, there would be more than the five senses : but not in the timber ; and they are said to be found neither do we well know, whether some beasts and also many times in gardens, where no logs are. birds have not senses that we know not, and the But it seemeth their generation requireth a coververy scent of dogs is almost a sense by itself. Se- ture, both from sun and rain or dew, as the timber condly, the pleasures of the touch are greater and is; and therefore they are not venomous, but condeeper than those of the other senses : as we see in trariwise are held by the physicians to clarify the warming upon cold; or refrigeration upon heat: blood. It is observed also, that cimices are found for as the pains of the touch are greater than the in the holes of bedsides. Some breed in the hair of offences of other senses; so likewise are the pleasures. | living creatures, as lice and tikes; which are bred It is true, that the affecting of the spirits immedi- by the sweat close kept, and somewhat arefied by ately, and, as it were, without an organ, is of the the hair. The excrements of living creatures do greatest pleasure ; which is but in two things : not only breed insecta when they are excerned, sweet smells, and wine, and the like sweet vapours. but also while they are in the body : as in worms, For smells, we see their great and sudden effect in whereto children are most subject, and are chiefly fetching men again when they swoon: for drink, in the guts. And it hath been lately observed by it is certain that the pleasure of drunkenness is next physicians, that in many pestilent diseases, there the pleasure of Venus; and great joys, likewise, are worms found in the upper parts of the body, make the spirits move and touch themselves : and where excrements are not, but only humours putrithe pleasure of Venus is somewhat of the same kind.fied. Fleas breed principally of straw or mats,
695. It hath been always observed, that men are where there hath been a little moisture; or the more inclined to Venus in the winter, and women chamber and bed-straw kept close and not aired. It in the summer. The cause is, for that the spirits, is received, that they are killed by strewing wormin a body more hot and dry, as the spirits of men wood in the rooms. And it is truly observed, that are, by the summer are more exhaled and dissipated; bitter things are apt rather to kill, than engender and in the winter more condensed and kept entire ; putrefaction ; and they be things that are fat or but in bodies that are cold and moist, as women's are, sweet that are aptest to putrify. There is a worm the summer doth cherish the spirits, and calleth them that breedeth in meal, of the shape of a large white forth; the winter doth dull them. Furthermore, maggot, which is given as a great dainty to nightthe abstinence, or intermission of the use of Venus ingales. The moth breedeth upon cloth and other in moist and well habituate bodies, breedeth a num- lanifices; especially if they be laid up dankish and ber of diseases: and especially dangerous imposthu. wet. It delighteth to be about the flame of a candle. mations. The reason is evident; for that it is a There is a worm called a wevil, bred under ground, principal evacuation, especially of the spirits : for of and that feedeth upon roots; as parsnips, carrots, the spirits there is scarce any evacuation but in &c. Some breed in waters, especially shaded, Venus and exercise. And therefore the omission of but they must be standing waters; as the watereither of them breedeth all diseases of repletion. spider that hath six legs. The fly called the gad
fly, breedeth of somewhat that swimmeth upon the Experiments in consort touching the insecta.
top of the water, and is most about ponds. There The nature of vivification is very worthy the in- is a worm that breedeth of the dregs of wine decayed; quiry : and as the nature of things is commonly bet- which afterwards, as is observed by some of the ter perceived in small than in great; and in imper- ancients, turneth into a gnat. It hath been observed fect than in perfect ; and in parts than in whole : by the ancients, that there is a worm that breedeth so the nature of vivification is best inquired in / in old snow, and is of colour reddish, and dull of
motion, and dieth soon after it cometh out of snow. pieces; which is caused also, for that their vital Which should show, that snow hath in it a secret spirits are more diffused throughout all their parts, warmth ; for else it could hardly vivify. And the and less confined to organs than in perfect creatures. reason of the dying of the worm, may be the sudden 698. The insecta have voluntary motion, and exhaling of that little spirit, as soon as it cometh therefore imagination; and whereas some of the out of the cold, which had shut it in. For as butter- ancients have said, that their motion is indetermiflies quicken with heat, which were benumbed with nate, and their imagination indefinite, it is neglicold; so spirits may exhale with heat, which were gently observed; for ants go right forwards to their preserved in cold. It is affirmed both by the an- hills; and bees do admirably know the way from cient and modern observation, that in furnaces of a flowery heath two or three miles off to their hives. copper and brass, where chalcites, which is vitriol, It may be, gnats and flies have their imagination is often cast in to mend the working, there riseth more mutable and giddy, as small birds likewise suddenly a fly, which sometimes moveth as if it took have. It is said by some of the ancients, that they hold of the walls of the furnace; sometimes is seen have only the sense of feeling, which is manifestly moving in the fire below; and dieth presently as untrue ; for if they go forth-right to a place, they soon as it is out of the furnace : which is a noble must needs have sight; besides, they delight more instance and worthy to be weighed; for it showeth, in one flower or herb than in another, and therefore that as well violent heat of fire, as the gentle heat have taste: and bees are called with sound upon of living creatures, will vivify if it have matter pro- brass, and therefore they have hearing; which portionable. Now the great axiom of vivification showeth likewise, that though their spirit be difis, that there must be heat to dilate the spirit of the fused, yet there is a seat of their senses in their head. body; an active spirit to be dilated; matter viscous Other observations concerning the insecta, togeor tenacious to hold in the spirit; and that matter ther with the enumeration of them, we refer to that to be put forth and figured. Now a spirit dilated place, where we mean to handle the title of animals by so ardent a fire as that of the furnace, as soon in general as ever it cooleth never so little, congealeth presently.
Experiment solitary touching leaping. And, no doubt, this action is farthered by the chalcites, which hath a spirit that will put forth and 699. A man leapeth better with weights in his germinate, as we see in chemical trials. Briefly, hands than without. The cause is, for that the most things putrified bring forth insecta of several weight, if it be proportionable, strengtheneth the names; but we will not take upon us now to enu- sinews by contracting them. For otherwise, where merate them all.
no contraction is needful, weight hindereth. As we 697. The insecta have been noted by the ancients see in horse-races, men are curious to foresee, that to feed little : but this hath not been diligently ob there be not the least weight upon the one horse served; for grasshoppers eat up the green of whole more than upon the other. In leaping with weights countries; and silk-worms devour leaves swiftly; the arms are first cast backwards, and then forwards, and ants make great provision. It is true, that with so much the greater force ; for the hands go creatures that sleep and rest much, eat little ; as backward before they take their rise. Query, if dormice and bats, &c. They are all without blood : the contrary motion of the spirits immediately bewhich may be, for that the juice of their bodies is fore the motion we intend, doth not cause the spirits almost all one; not blood, and flesh, and skin, and as it were to break forth with more force ; as breath bone, as in perfect creatures; the integral parts also, drawn and kept in, cometh forth more forcibly; have extreme variety, but the similar parts little. and in casting of any thing, the arms, to make a It is true, that they have, some of them, a diaphragm greater swing, are first cast backward. and an intestine ; and they have all skins; which in most of the insecta are cast often. They are not, Experiment solitary touching the pleasures and disgenerally, of long life; yet bees have been known
pleasures of the senses, especially of hearing. to live seven years : and snakes are thought, the 700. Of musical tones and unequal sounds we rather for the casting of their spoil, to live till have spoken before ; but touching the pleasure and they be old : and eels
, which many times breed of displeasure of the senses, not so fully. Harsh putrefaction, will live and grow very long : and sounds, as of a saw when it is sharpened ; grinding those that interchange from worms to flies in the of one stone against another ; squeaking or shrieksummer, and from flies to worms in the winter, ing noise; make a shivering or horror in the body, have been kept in boxes four years at the least. and set the teeth on edge. The cause is, for that Yet there are certain flies that are called ephemera the objects of the ear do affect the spirits, immethat live but a day. The cause is the exility of the diately, most with pleasure and offence. We see spirit, or perhaps the absence of the sun; for that there is no colour that affecteth the eye much with if they were brought in, or kept close, they might displeasure; there be sights that are horrible, belive longer. Many of the insecta, as butterflies and cause they excite the memory of things that are other flies, revive easily when they seem dead, be- odious or fearful; but the same things painted do ing brought to the sun or fire. The cause whereof little affect. As for smells, tastes, and touches, is the diffusion of the vital spirit, and the easy di- they be things that do affect by a participation or lating of it by a little heat. They stir a good while impulsion of the body of the object. So it is sound after their heads are off, or that they be cut in | alone that doth immediately and incorporeally affect