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tulips. And they are all cold plants; which there and all, once a year; as borage, lettuce, cucumbers, fore, as it should seem, have a quicker perception musk-melons, basil, tobacco, mustard-seed, and all of the heat of the sun increasing than the hot herbs kinds of corn: some continue many years; as hyssop, have; as a cold hand will sooner find a little warmth germander, lavender, fennel, &c. The cause of the than a hot. And those that come next after, are dying is double ; the first is, the tenderness and wall-flowers, cowslips, hyacinths, rosemary flowers, weakness of the seed, which maketh the period in &c. and after them pinks, roses, flower-de-luces, &c. a small time; as it is in borage, lettuce, cucumbers, and the latest are gilly-flowers, holyoaks, larksfoot, corn, &c. and therefore none of these are hot. The &c.
The earliest blossoms are the blossoms of other cause is, for that some herbs can worse endure peaches, almonds, cornelians, mezerions, &c. and cold; as basil, tobacco, mustard-seed. And these they are of such trees as have much moisture, have all much heat. either watery or oily. And therefore crocus vernus also, being an herb that hath an oily juice, putteth
Experiments in consort louching the lasting of
herbs and trees. forth early; for those also find the sun sooner than the drier trees. The grains are, first rye and wheat; 583. The lasting of plants is most in those that then oats and barley; then peas and beans. For are largest of body : as oaks, elm, chestnut, the loatthough green peas and beans be eaten sooner, yet tree, &c. and this holdeth in trees ; but in herbs it the dry ones that are used for horse-meat, are ripe is often contrary : for borage, colewort, pompions, last; and it seemeth that the fatter grain cometh which are herbs of the largest size, are of small first. The earliest fruits are strawberries, cherries, durance ; whereas hyssop, winter-savoury, germangooseberries, currants; and after them early apples, der, thyme, sage, will last long. The cause is, for early pears, apricots, rasps; and after them, damas- that trees last according to the strength and quantity cenes, and most kind of plums, peaches, &c.; and the of their sap and juice; being well munited by their latest, are apples, wardens, grapes
, nuts, quinces, bark against the injuries of the air: but herbs draw almonds, sloes, brier-berries, hips, medlars, services, a weak juice, and have a soft stalk; and therefore cornelians, &c.
those amongst them which last longest, are herbs 578. It is to be noted, that, commonly, trees that of strong smell, and with a sticky stalk. ripen latest, blossom soonest ; as peaches, cornelians, 584. Trees that bear mast, and nuts, are comsloes, almonds, &c.; and it seemeth to be a work of monly more lasting than those that bear fruits ; providence that they blossom so soon ; for otherwise especially the moister fruits : as oaks, beeches, chestthey could not have the sun long enough to ripen. nuts, walnuts, almonds, pine trees, &c. last longer
579. There be fruits, but rarely, that come than apples, pears, plums, &c. The cause is the twice a year; as some pears, strawberries, &c. And fatness and oiliness of the sap; which ever wastit seemeth they are such as abound with nourish- eth less than the more watery. ment; whereby after one period, before the sun 585. Trees that bring forth their leaves late in waxeth too weak, they can endure another. The the year, and cast them likewise late, are more lastviolet also, amongst flowers, cometh twice a year, ing than those that sprout their leaves early, or especially the double white; and that also is a plant shed them betimes. The cause is, for that the late full of moisture. Roses come twice, but it is not coming forth showeth a moisture more fixed; and without cutting, as hath been formerly said. the other more loose, and more easily resolved.
580. In Muscovy, though the corn come not up And the same cause is, that wild trees last longer till late spring, yet their harvest is as early as ours. than garden trees; and in the same kind, those The cause is, for that the strength of the ground is whose fruit is acid, more than those whose fruit is kept in with the snow; and we see with us, that if sweet. it be a long winter, it is commonly a more plentiful 586. Nothing procureth the lasting of trees, year: and after those kind of winters likewise, the bushes, and herbs, so much as often cutting : for flowers and corn, which are earlier and later, do come every cutting causeth a renovation of the juice of commonly at once, and at the same time; which the plant ; that it neither goeth so far, nor riseth tronbleth the husbandman many times; for you so faintly, as when the plant is not cut; insomuch shall have red roses and damask roses come together; as annual plants, if you cut them seasonably, and will and likewise the harvest of wheat and barley. spare the use of them, and suffer them to come up But this happeneth ever, for that the earlier stayeth still young, will last more years than one, as hath for the later ; and not that the later cometh sooner. been partly touched; such as is lettuce, purslane,
581. There be divers fruit trees in the hot coun cucumber, and the like. And for great trees, we see tries, which have blossoms, and young fruit, and ripe almost all overgrowing trees in churchyards, or fruit, almost all the year, succeeding one another. And near ancient buildings, and the like, are pollards, or it is said the orange hath the like with us, for a dottards, and not trees at their full height. great part of summer; and so also hath the fig. And 587. Some experiment would be made, how by no doubt the natural motion of plants is to have so; art to make plants more lasting than their ordinary but that either they want juice to spend ; or they period : as to make a stalk of wheat, &c. last a meet with the cold of the winter: and therefore this whole year. You must ever presuppose, that you circle of ripening cannot be but in succulent plants, handle it so as the winter killeth it not; for we speak and hot countries.
only of prolonging the natural period. I conceive 582. Some herbs are but annual, and die, root that the rule will hold, that whatsoever maketh the
herb come later than at its time, will make it last the jagging of pinks and gilly-flowers, to be like the longer time: it were good to try it in a stalk of inequality of oak leaves, or vine leaves, or the like: wheat, &c. set in the shade, and encompassed with but they seldom or never have any small purls. a case of wood, not touching the straw, to keep out
Experiments in consort touching some principal As for the preservation of fruits and plants, as
differences in plants. well upon the tree or stalk, as gathered, we shall 591. Of plants, some few put forth their blossoms handle it under the title of conservation of bodies. before their leaves; as almonds, peaches, cornelians, Experiments in consort touching the several figures before their blossoms ; as apples, pears, plums,
black thorn, &c.; but most put forth some leaves of plants.
cherries, white thorn, &c. The cause is, for that 588. The particular figures of plants we leave to those that put forth their blossoms first, have either their descriptions; but some few things in general | an acute and sharp spirit, and therefore commonly we will observe. Trees and herbs, in the growing they all put forth early in the spring, and ripen forth of their boughs and branches, are not figured, very late; as most of the particulars before menand keep no order. The cause is, for that the sap tioned, or else an oily juice, which is apter to put being restrained in the rind and bark, breaketh not out flowers than leaves. forth at all, as in the bodies of trees, and stalks of 592. Of plants, some are green all winter; others herbs, till they begin to branch ; and then when cast their leaves. There are green all winter, holly, they make an eruption, they break forth casually, ivy, box, fir, yew, cypress, juniper, bays, rosemary, where they find best way in the bark or rind. It is &c. The cause of the holding green, is the close and true, that some trees are more scattered in their compact substance of their leaves, and the pedicles boughs; as sallow-trees, warden-trees, quince-trees, of them. And the cause of that again is either the medlar-trees, lemon-trees, &c.; some are more in the tough and viscous juice of the plant, or the strength form of a pyramis, and come almost to todd; as the and heat thereof. Of the first sort is holly; which pear-tree, which the critics will have to borrow his is of so viscous a juice, as they make birdlime of the name of Tūp, fire, orange-trees, fir-trees, service-trees, bark of it. The stalk of ivy is tough, and not fralime-trees, &c.; and some are more spread and broad; gile, as we see in other small twigs dry. Fir yieldeth as beeches, hornbeam, &c.; the rest are more indif- pitch. Box is a fast and heavy wood, as we see it ferent. The cause of scattering the boughs, is the in bowls. Yew is a strong and tough wood, as we hasty breaking forth of the sap; and therefore those see it in bows. Of the second sort is juniper, which trees rise not in a body of any height, but branch is a wood odorate; and maketh a hot fire. Bays is near the ground. The cause of the pyramis is the likewise a hot and aromatical wood; and so is rosekeeping in of the sap long before it branch; and mary for a shrub. As for the leaves, their density the spending of it, when it beginneth to branch, by appeareth, in that either they are smooth and shinequal degrees. The spreading is caused by the car- ing, as in bays, holly, ivy, box, &c. or in that they are rying up of the sap plentifully without expense; hard and spiry, as in the rest. And trial would be and then putting it forth speedily and at once. made of grafting of rosemary, and bays, and box, upon
589. There be divers herbs, but no trees, that a holly-stock ; because they are plants that come all may be said to have some kind of order in the put- winter. It were good to try it also with grafts of ting forth of their leaves : for they have joints or other trees, either fruit trees, or wild trees; to see knuckles, as it were stops in their germination ; as whether they will not yield their fruit, or bear their have gilly-flowers, pinks, fennel, corn, reeds, and leaves later and longer in the winter ; because the
The cause whereof is, for that the sap as sap of the holly putteth forth most in the winter. cendeth unequally, and doth, as it were, tire and It may be also a mezerion-tree, grafted upon a holly, stop by the way. And it seemeth they have some will prove both an earlier and a greater tree. closeness and hardness in their stalk, which hin 593. There be some plants that bear no flower, dereth the sap from going up, until it hath gathered and yet bear fruit: there be some that bear flowers into a knot, and so is more urged to put forth. And and no fruit: there be some that bear neither flowers therefore they are most of them hollow when the nor fruit. Most of the great timber trees, as oaks, stalk is dry, as fennel-stalk, stubble, and canes. beeches, &c. bear no apparent flowers; some few
590. Flowers have all exquisite figures ; and the likewise of the fruit trees; as mulberry, walnut, &c. flower numbers are chiefly five, and four; as in and some shrubs, as juniper, holly, &c. bear no primroses, brier-roses, single musk-roses, single flowers. Divers herbs also bear seeds, which is as pinks, and gilly-flowers, &c. which have five leaves : the fruit, and yet bear no flowers ; as purslane, &c. lilies, flower-de-luces, borage, bugloss, &c. which | Those that bear flowers and no fruit are few, as the have four leaves. But some put forth leaves not double cherry, the sallow, &c. But for the cherry, numbered; but they are ever small ones; as mary- it is doubtful whether it be not by art or culture ; golds, trefoils, &c. We see also, that the sockets for if it be by art, then trial would be made, whether and supporters of flowers are figured; as in the five apple, and other fruit blossoms, may not be doubled. brethren of the rose, sockets of gilly-flowers, &c. There are some few that bear neither fruit nor Leaves also are all figured; some round; some flower; as the elm, the poplars, box, brakes, &c. long; none square; and many jagged on the sides ; 594. There be some plants that shoot still upwhich leaves of flowers seldom are. For I account | wards, and can support themselves; as the greatest
part of trees and plants: there be some other that 597. The third help of ground is, by some other creep along the ground; or wind about other trees substances that have a virtue to make ground fertile, or props, and cannot support themselves; as vines, though they be not merely earth; wherein ashes ivy, brier, briony, woodbines, hops, climatis, camo-excel; insomuch as the countries about Ætna and mile, &c. The cause is, as hath been partly touch- | Vesuvius have a kind of amends made them, for the ed, for that all plants naturally move upwards; but mischief the eruptions many times do, by the exif the sap put up too fast, it maketh a slender stalk, ceeding fruitfulness of the soil, caused by the ashes which will not support the weight: and therefore scattered about. Soot also, though thin spread in a these latter sort are all swift and hasty comers. field or garden, is tried to be a very good compost.
For salt, it is too costly; but it is tried, that mingled Experiments in consort touching all manner of
with seed-corn, and sown together, it doth good : composts, and helps of ground.
and I am of opinion, that chalk in powder, mingled 595. The first and most ordinary help is stercora with seed-corn, would do good; perhaps as much as tion. The sheep's dung is one of the best; and next chalking the ground all over. As for the steeping the dung of kine : and thirdly, that of horses, which of the seeds in several mixtures with water to give is held to be somewhat too hot unless it be mingled. them vigour, or watering grounds with compostThat of pigeons for a garden, or a small quantity of water, we have spoken of them before. ground, excelleth. The ordering of dung is, if the 598. The fourth help of ground is, the suffering ground be arable, to spread it immediately before the of vegetables to die into the ground, and so to fatten ploughing and sowing; and so to plough it in: for if it; as the stubble of corn, especially peas. Brakes you spread it long before, the sun will draw out much cast upon the ground in the beginning of winter, of the fatness of the dung: if the ground be grazing will make it very fruitful. It were good also to try ground, to spread it somewhat late towards winter; whether leaves of trees swept together, with some that the sun may have the less power to dry it up. chalk and dung mixed, to give them more heart, As for special composts for gardens, as a hot bed, &c. would not make a good compost; for there is nothing we have handled them before.
lost so much as leaves of trees; and as they lie 596. The second kind of compost is, the spreading scattered, and without mixture, they rather make of divers kinds of earths ; as marle, chalk, sea-sand, the ground sour than otherwise. earth upon earth, pond earth: and the mixtures of 599. The fifth help of ground is, heat and warmth. them. Marle is thought to be the best, as having It hath been anciently practised to burn heath, and most fatness; and not heating the ground too much. ling, and sedge, with the vantage of the wind, upon The next is sea sand, which no doubt obtaineth a the ground. We see that warmth of walls and special virtue by the salt: for salt is the first rudi- enclosures mendeth ground: we see also, that lying ment of life. Chalk over-heateth the ground a open to the south mendeth ground: we see again, little ; and therefore is best upon cold clay grounds, that the foldings of sheep help ground, as well by or moist grounds: but I heard a great husband say their warmth as by their compost: and it may be that it was a common error, to think that chalk doubted, whether the covering of the ground with helpeth arable grounds, but helpeth not grazing brakes in the beginning of the winter, whereof we grounds; whereas indeed it helpeth grass as well as spake in the last experiment, helpeth it not, by corn: but that which breedeth the error is, because reason of the warmth. Nay, some very good husafter the chalking of the ground they wear it out bands do suspect, that the gathering up of flints in with many crops without rest; and then indeed flinty ground, and laying them on heaps, which is afterwards it will bear little grass, because the ground much used, is no good husbandry, for that they would is tired out. It were good to try the laying of chalk keep the ground warm. upon arable grounds a little while before ploughing; 600. The sixth help of ground is by watering and to plough it in as they do the dung; but then and irrigation ; which is in two manners; the one it must be friable first by rain or lying. As for by letting in and shutting out waters at seasonable earth, it composteth itself; for I knew a great times : for water at some seasons, and with reasongarden that had a field, in a manner, poured upon able stay, doth good; but at some other seasons, it; and it did bear fruit excellently the first year of and with too long stay, doth hurt : and this serveth the planting: for the surface of the earth is ever the only for meadows which are along some river. The fruitfullest. And earth so prepared hath a double other way is, to bring water from some hanging surface. But it is true, as I conceive, that such grounds, where there are springs, into the lower earth as hath salt-petre bred in it, if you can pro- grounds, carrying it in some long furrows; and from cure it without too much charge, doth excel. The those furrows, drawing it traverse to spread the way to hasten the breeding of salt-petre, is to forbid water. And this maketh an excellent improvement, the sun, and the growth of vegetables. And there both for corn and grass. It is the richer, if those fore if you make a large hovel, thatched, over some hanging grounds be fruitful, because it washeth off quantity of ground; nay, if you do but plank the some of the fatness of the earth; but howsoever it ground over, it will breed salt-petre. As for pond profiteth much. Generally where there are great earth, or river earth, it is a very good compost; overflows in fens, or the like, the drowning of them especially if the pond have been long uncleansed, in the winter maketh the summer following more and so the water be not too hungry: and I judge it fruitful: the cause may be, for that it keepeth the will be yet better if there be some mixture of chalk. ground warm, and nourisheth it. But the fen-men
hold, that the sewers must be kept so as the water purpose that year. Thus much for irrigation. But may not stay too long in the spring till the weeds for avoidances, and drainings of water, where there and sedge be grown up; for then the ground will is too much, and the helps of ground in that kind, be like a wood, which keepeth out the sun, and so we shall speak of them in another place. continueth the wet; whereby it will never graze to
of the nature of plants and metals both; coral is one Experiments in consort touching the affinities and
of the nearest of both kinds : another is vitriol, for differences between plants and inanimate bodies.
that is aptest to sprout with moisture. 601. The differences between animate and inani. 605. Another special affinity is between plants mate bodies, we shall handle fully under the title of and mould or putrefaction: for all putrefaction, if it life, and living spirits, and powers. We shall there- dissolve not in arefaction, will in the end issue into fore make but a brief mention of them in this place. plants or living creatures bred of putrefaction. I The main differences are two. All bodies have account moss, and mushrooms, and agaric, and other spirits, and pneumatical parts within them; but the of those kinds, to be but moulds of the ground, walls, main differences between animate and inanimate, and trees, and the like. As for flesh, and fish, and are two: the first is, that the spirits of things ani- plants themselves, and a number of other things, mate are all continued within themselves, and are after a mouldiness, or rottenness, or corrupting, they branched in veins, and secret canals, as blood is : will fall to breed worms. These putrefactions, which and in living creatures, the spirits have not only have affinity with plants, have this difference from branches, but certain cells or seats, where the prin-them; that they have no succession or propagation, cipal spirits do reside, and whereunto the rest do though they nourish, and have a period of life, and resort : but the spirits in things inanimate are shut have likewise some figure. in, and cut off by the tangible parts, and are not 606. I left once by chance a citron cut, in a pervious one to another, as air is in snow. The close room, for three summer months that I was second main difference is, that the spirits of ani- absent; and at my return there were grown forth, mate bodies are all in some degree, more or less, out of the pith cut, tufts of hairs an inch long, with kindled and inflamed; and have a fine commixture | little black heads, as if they would have been some of flame, and an aërial substance. But inanimate herb. bodies have their spirits no whit inflamed or kindled. And this difference consisteth not in the heat Experiments in consort touching the affinities and or coolness of spirits ; for cloves and other spices,
differences of plants and living creatures, and the naptha and petroleum, have exceeding hot spirits,
confiners and participles of them. hotter a great deal than oil, wax, or tallow, &c. but 607. The affinities and differences between plants not inflamed. And when any of those weak and and living creatures are these that follow. They temperate bodies come to be inflamed, then they have both of them spirits continued, and branched, gather a much greater heat than others have unin- and also inflamed. But first, in living creatures, the flamed, besides their light and motion, &c.
spirits have a cell or seat, which plants have not; 602. The differences, which are secondary, and as was also formerly said. And secondly, the spirits proceed from these two radical differences, are, first, of living creatures hold more of flame than the plants are all figurate and determinate, which inan- spirits of plants do. And these two are the radical imate bodies are not: for look how far the spirit is differences. For the secondary differences, they are
able to spread and continue itself, so far goeth the as follow : First, plants are all fixed to the earth,
shape or figure, and then is determined. Secondly, whereas all living creatures are severed, and of plants do nourish; inanimate bodies do not: they themselves. Secondly, living creatures have local have an accretion, but no alimentation. Thirdly, motion, plants have not. Thirdly, living creatures plants have a period of life, which inanimate bodies nourish from their upper parts, by the mouth chiefly; have not. Fourthly, they have a succession and plants nourish from below, namely, from the roots. propagation of their kind, which is not in bodies Fourthly, plants have their seed and seminal parts inanimate.
uppermost ; living creatures have them lowermost : 603. The differences between plants, and metals and therefore it was said, not elegantly alone but or fossils, besides those four before mentioned, for philosophically: “ Homo est planta inversa ;" Man metals I hold inanimate, are these : first, metals are is like a plant turned upwards: for the root in plants more durable than plants : secondly, they are more is as the head in living creatures. Fifthly, living solid and hard : thirdly, they are wholly subterrany; creatures have a more exact figure than plants. whereas plants are part above earth, and part under Sixthly, living creatures have more diversity of the earth.
organs within their bodies, and, as it were, inward 604. There be very few creatures that participate figures, than plants have. Seventhly, living creatures
have sense, which plants have not. Eighthly, I there be found herbs with far greater leaves than living creatures have voluntary motion, which plants any tree; as the bur, gourd, cucumber, and colewort. have not.
The cause is, like to that of the Indian fig, the hasty 608. For the difference of sexes in plants, they and plentiful putting forth of the sap. are oftentimes by name distinguished; as male 612. There be three things in use for sweetness; piony, female-piony; male-rosemary, female-rose- sugar, honey, manna. For sugar, to the ancients it mary; he-holly, she-holly, &c. but generation by was scarce known, and little used. It is found in copulation certainly extendeth not to plants. The canes: Query, whether to the first knuckle, or farther nearest approach of it is between the he-palm and up ? And whether the very bark of the cane itself the she-palm, which as they report, if they grow do yield sugar or no ? For honey, the bee maketh near, incline the one to the other; insomuch as, it, or gathereth it; but I have heard from one that that which is more strange, they doubt not to re was industrious in husbandry, that the labour of the port, that to keep the trees upright from bending, bee is about the wax; and that he hath known in they tie ropes or lines from the one to the other, the beginning of May honeycombs empty of honey; that the contact might be enjoyed by the contact of and within a fortnight, when the sweet dews fall, a middle body. But this may be feigned, or at least filled like a cellar. It is reported also by some of amplified. Nevertheless I am apt enough to think, the ancients, that there is a tree alled occhus, in that this same binarium of a stronger and a weaker, the vallies of Hyrcania, that distilleth honey in the like unto masculine and feminine, doth hold in all mornings. It is not unlike that the sap and tears of living bodies. It is confounded sometimes; as in some trees may be sweet. It may be also, that some some creatures of putrefaction, wherein no marks of sweet juices, fit for many uses, may be concocted distinction appear; and it is doubled sometimes, as out of fruits, to the thickness of honey, or perhaps in hermaphrodites; but generally there is a degree of sugar : the likeliest are raisins of the sun, figs, of strength in most species.
and currants; the means may be inquired. 609. The participles or confiners between plants 613. The ancients report of a tree by the Persian and living creatures, are such chiefly as are fixed, sea, upon the shore sands, which is nourished with and have no local motion of remove, though they the salt water ; and when the tide ebbeth, you shall have a motion in their parts ; such as are oysters, see the roots as it were bare without bark, being as cockles, and such like. There is a fabulous narration, it seemeth corroded by the salt, and grasping the that in the northern countries, there should be an herb sands like a crab; which nevertheless beareth a that groweth in the likeness of a lamb, and feedeth fruit. It were good to try some hard trees, as a upon the grass, in such sort as it will bare the grass service-tree, or fir-tree, by setting them within the round about. But I suppose that the figure maketh sands. the fable; for so, we see, there be bee-flowers, &c. 614. There be of plants which they use for garAnd as for the grass, it seemeth the plant having a ments, these that follow : hemp, flax, cotton, nettles, great stalk and top doth prey upon the grass a good whereof they make nettle-cloth, scricum, which is way about, by drawing the juice of the earth from it. a growing silk ; they make also cables of the bark
of lime-trees. It is the stalk that maketh the filaExperiments promiscuous touching plants.
ceous matter commonly ; and sometimes the down 610. The Indian fig boweth its roots down so low that groweth above. in one year, as of itself it taketh root again : and so 615. They have in some countries a plant of a multiplieth from root to root, making of one tree a rosy colour, which shutteth in the night, openeth in kind of wood. The cause is the plenty of the sap, the morning, and openeth wide at noon ; which the and the softness of the stalk, which maketh the inhabitants of those countries say is a plant that bough, being over-loaden, and not stimy upheld, sleepeth. There be sleepers enough then ; for alweigh down. It hath leaves as broad as a little most all flowers do the like. target, but the fruit no bigger than beans. The 616. Some plants there are, but rare, that have cause is, for that the continual shade increaseth the a mossy or downy root; and likewise that have a leaves, and abateth the fruit, which nevertheless is number of threads, like beards; as mandrakes ; of a pleasant taste. And that no doubt is caused whereof witches and impostors make an ugly image, by the suppleness and gentleness of the juice of that giving it the form of a face at the top of the root, plant, being that which maketh the boughs also so and leaving those strings to make a broad beard flexible.
down to the foot. Also there is a kind of nard in 611. It is reported by one of the ancients, that Crete, being a kind of phu, that hath a root hairy, there is a certain Indian tree, having few but very like a rough-footed dove's foot. So as you may sec, great leaves, three cubits long and two broad; and there are of roots, bulbous roots, fibrous roots, and that the fruit, being of good taste, groweth out of hirsute roots. And, I take it, in the bulbous, the the bark. It may be, there be plants that pour out sap hasteneth most to the air and sun; in the the sap so fast, as they have no leisure either to fibrous, the sap delighteth more in the earth, and divide into many leaves, or to put forth stalks to the therefore putteth downward; and the hirsute is a fruit. With us, trees, generally, have small leaves middle between both, that besides the putting forth in comparison. The fig hath the greatest; and upwards and downwards, putteth forth in round. next it the vine, mulberry, and sycamore; and the 617. There are some tears of trees, which are least are those of the willow, birch, and thorn. But combed from the beards of goats: for when the