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and it may be, that the same means which, ap 520. Seeds if they be very cold, and yet have plied to the tree, doth extremely accelerate the sap strength enough to bring forth a plant, make the to rise and break forth, would make the tree spend plant degenerate. And therefore skilful gardeners itself in flowers, and those to become double : which make trial of the seeds before they buy them, whewere a great pleasure to see, especially in apple-ther they be good or no, by putting them into water trees, peach-trees, and almond-trees, that have blos- gently boiled : and if they be good, they will sprout soms blush-coloured.
within half an hour. 514. The making of fruits without core or stone, 521. It is strange which is reported, that basil is likewise a curiosity, and somewhat better: be too much exposed to the sun doth turn into wild cause whatsoever maketh them so, is like to make thyme ; although those two herbs seem to have them more tender and delicate. If a cion or shoot, small affinity : but basil is almost the only hot herb fit to be set in the ground, have the pith finely taken that hath fat and succulent leaves ; which oiliness, forth, and not altogether, but some of it left, the if it be drawn forth by the sun, it is like it will make better to save the life, it will bear a fruit with little a very great change. or no core or stone. And the like is said to be of 522. There is an old tradition, that boughs of oak dividing a quick tree down to the ground, and taking put into the earth will put forth wild vines : which out the pith, and then binding it up again.
if it be true, no doubt, it is not the oak that turneth 515. It is reported also, that a citron grafted upon into a vine, but the oak-bough putrifying, qualifieth a quince will have small or no seeds; and it is very the earth to put forth a vine of itself. probable that any sour fruit grafted upon a stock 523. It is not impossible, and I have heard it that beareth a sweeter fruit, may both make the verified, that upon cutting down of an old timber fruit sweeter, and more void of the harsh matter of tree, the stub hath put out sometimes a tree of ankernels or seeds.
other kind; as that beech hath put forth birch ; 516. It is reported, that not only the taking out which, if it be true, the cause may be, for that the of the pith, but the stopping of the juice of the pith old stub is too scant of juice to put forth the former from rising in the midst, and turning it to rise on tree ; and therefore putteth forth a tree of a smaller the outside, will make the fruit without core or kind, that needeth less nourishment. stone; as if you should bore a tree clean through, 524. There is an opinion in the country, that if and put a wedge in. It is true, there is some affinity the same ground be oft sown with the grain that between the pith and the kernel, because they are grew upon it, it will in the end grow to be of a both of a harsh substance, and both placed in the baser kind. midst.
525. It is certain, that in very sterile years corn 517. It is reported, that trees watered perpetu- sown will grow to another kind. ally with warm water, will make a fruit with little or no core or stone. And the rule is general, that
“Grandia sæpe quibus mandavimus hordea sulcis,
Infelix lolium, et steriles dominantur avena." whatsoever will make a wild tree a garden tree, will make a garden tree to have less core or stone. And generally it is a rule, that plants that are Experiments in consort touching the degenerating of into other species, than those that come of them
brought forth by culture, as corn, will sooner change plants, and of the transmutation of them one into another.
selves; for that culture giveth but an adventitious
nature, which is more easily put off. 518. The rule is certain, that plants for want of This work of the transmutation of plants one into culture degenerate to be baser in the same kind ; another, is inter magnalia naturæ; for the transand sometimes so far as to change into another mutation of species is, in the vulgar philosophy, kind. 1. The standing long, and not being removed, pronounced impossible: and certainly it is a thing maketh them degenerate. 2. Drought, unless the of difficulty, and requireth deep search into nature; earth of itself be moist, doth the like. 3. So doth but seeing there appear some manifest instances removing into worse earth, or forbearing to com- of it, the opinion of impossibility is to be rejected, post the earth; as we see that water mint turneth and the means thereof to be found out. We see, into field mint, and the colewort into rape, by neg- that in living creatures, that come of putrefaction, lect, &c.
there is much transmutation of one into another; 519. Whatsoever fruit useth to be set upon a root as caterpillars turn into flies, &c. And it should or a slip, if it be sown, will degenerate. Grapes seem probable, that whatsoever creature, having sown, figs, almonds, pomegranate kernels sown, | life, is generated without seed, that creature will make the fruits degenerate and become wild. And change out of one species into another. For it is again, most of those fruits that use to be grafted, if the seed, and the nature of it, which locketh and they be set of kernels, or stones, degenerate. It is boundeth in the creature, that it doth not expatiate. true that peaches, as hath been touched before, do So as we may well conclude, that seeing the earth better upon stones set than upon grafting : and the of itself doth put forth plants without seed, therefore rule of exception should seem to be this; that what plants may well have a transmigration of species. soever plant requireth much moisture, prospereth Wherefore, wanting instances which do occur, we better upon the stone or kernel, than upon the graft. shall give directions of the most likely trials : and For the stock, though it giveth a finer nourishment, generally we would not have those that read this yet it giveth a scanter than the earth at large. our work of “ Sylva sylvarum" account it strange,
or think that it is an over-haste, that we have set whereof you shall find some instances following, down particulars untried; for contrariwise, in our and sow in it purslane seed, or lettuce seed; for in own estimation, we account such particulars more these experiments, it is likely enough that the earth worthy than those that are already tried and known: being accustomed to send forth one kind of nourishfor these latter must be taken as you find them; ment, will alter the new seed. but the other do level point-blank at the inventing of 530. The fifth rule shall be, to make the herb causes and axioms.
grow contrary to its nature; as to make ground526. First therefore, you must make account, herbs rise in height: as for example, carry camothat if you will have one plant change into another, mile, or wild thyme, or the green strawberry, upon you must have the nourishment overrule the seed : sticks, as you do hops upon poles; and see what the and therefore you are to practise it by nourishment event will be. as contrary as may be to the nature of the herb, so 531. The sixth rule shall be, to make plants grow nevertheless as the herb may grow; and likewise out of the sun or open air; for that is a great muwith seeds that are of the weakest sort, and have tation in nature, and may induce a change in the least vigour. You shall do well, therefore, to take seed: as barrel up earth, and sow some seed in it, marsh-herbs, and plant them upon tops of hills and and put it in the bottom of a pond; or put it in some champaigns; and such plants as require much great hollow tree; try also the sowing of seeds in moisture, upon sandy and very dry grounds. As for the bottoms of caves, and pots with seeds sown, example, marsh-mallows and sedge, upon hills ; hanged up in wells some distance from the water, cucumber, and lettuce seeds, and coleworts, upon a and see what the event will be. sandy plot; so contrariwise, plant bushes, heath, ling, and brakes, upon a wet or marsh ground. This
Experiments in consort touching the procerity, and I conceive also, that all esculent and garden herbs,
lowness, and artificial dwarfing of trees. set upon the tops of hills, will prove more medicinal, 532. It is certain, that timber trees in coppice though less esculent, then they were before. And woods grow more upright, and more free from under it may be likewise, some wild herbs you may make boughs, than those that stand in the fields: the cause sallad herbs. This is the first rule for transmutation whereof is, for that plants have a natural motion to of plants.
get to the sun; and besides, they are not glutted 527. The second rule shall be, to bury some few with too much nourishment; for that the coppice seeds of the herb you would change, amongst other shareth with them; and repletion ever hindereth seeds; and then you shall see whether the juice of stature: lastly, they are kept warm; and that ever those other seeds do not so qualify the earth, as it in plants helpeth mounting. will alter the seed whereupon you work. As for 533. Trees that are of themselves full of heat, example, put parsley seed amongst onion seed, or which heat appeareth by their inflammable gums, lettuce seed amongst parsley seed, or basil seed as firs and pines, mount of themselves in height amongst thyme seed; and see the change of taste or without side boughs, till they come towards the top. otherwise. But you shall do well to put the seed | The cause is partly heat, and partly tenuity of juice, you would change into a little linen cloth, that it both which send the sap upwards. As for juniper, mingle not with the foreign seed.
it is but a shrub, and groweth not big enough in 528. The third rule shall be, the making of body to maintain a tall tree. some medley or mixture of earth with some other 534. It is reported, that a good strong canvass plants bruised or shaven either in leaf or root; as spread over a tree grafted low, soon after it putteth for example, make earth with a mixture of colewort forth, will dwarf it, and make it spread. The cause leaves stamped, and set in it artichokes or parsnips; is plain ; for that all things that grow, will grow as so take earth made with marjoram, or origanum, or they find room. wild thyme, bruised or stamped, and set in it fennel 535. Trees are generally set of roots or kernels ; seed, &c. In which operation the process of nature but if you set them of slips, as of some trees you still will be, as I conceive, not that the herb you may, by name the mulberry, some of the slips will work upon should draw the juice of the foreign take ; and those that take, as is reported, will be herb, for that opinion we have formerly rejected, dwarf trees. The cause is, for that a slip draweth but that there will be a new confection of mold, nourishment more weakly than either a root or which perhaps will alter the seed, and yet not to kernel. the kind of the former herb.
536. All plants that put forth their sap hastily, 529. The fourth rule shall be, to mark what herbs have their bodies not proportionable to their length; some earths do put forth of themselves ; and to take and therefore they are winders and creepers; as ivy, that earth, and to pot it, or to vessel it; and in that briony, hops, woodbine: whereas dwarfing requireth to set the seed you would change: as for example, a slow putting forth, and less vigour of mounting. take from under walls or the like, where nettles put forth in abundance, the earth which you shall there Experiments in consort touching the rudiments of find, without any string or root of the nettles; and
plants, and of the excrescences of plants, or superpot that earth, and set in it stock-gilly-flowers, or
plants. wall-flowers, &c. or sow in the seeds of them ; and The Scripture saith, that Solomon wrote a Natusee what the event will be: or take earth that you ral History, " from the cedar of Libanus, to the moss have prepared to put forth mushrooms of itself, | growing upon the wall :" for so the best translations
have it. And it is true that moss is but the rudi- | winds. It would also be tried, whether, if you cover ment of a plant; and, as it were, the mold of earth a tree somewhat thick upon the top after his poll
ing, it will not gather more moss. I think also the 537. Moss groweth chiefly upon ridges of houses watering of trees with cold fountain-water, will make tiled or thatched, and upon the crests of walls; and them grow full of moss. that moss is of a lightsome and pleasant green. 546. There is a moss the perfumers have which The growing upon slopes is caused, for that moss, cometh out of apple trees, that hath an excellent as on the one side it cometh of moisture and water, scent. Query, particularly for the manner of the so on the other side the water must but slide, and growth, and the nature of it. And for this experinot stand or pool. And the growing upon tiles, or ment's sake, being a thing of price, I have set down walls, &c. is caused, for that those dried earths, hav- the last experiment how to multiply and call on ing not moisture sufficient to put forth a plant, do practise germination by putting forth moss; though Next unto moss, I will speak of mushrooms; when, by age, or otherwise, they grow to relent which are likewise an imperfect plant. The mushand resolve, they sometimes put forth plants, as rooms have two strange properties; the one, that wall-flowers. And almost all moss hath here and they yield so delicious a meat; the other, that they there little stalks, besides the low thrum.
come up so hastily, as in a night; and yet they 538. Moss groweth upon alleys, especially such
And therefore such as are upstarts as lie cold and upon the north; as in divers terrasses : in state, they call in reproach mushrooms. It must and again, if they be much trodden ; or if they needs be, therefore, that they be made of much were at the first gravelled; for wheresoever plants moisture ; and that moisture fat, gross, and yet are kept down, the earth putteth forth moss.
somewhat concocted. And, indeed, we find that 539. Old ground, that hath been long unbroken mushrooms cause the accident which we call incuup, gathereth moss : and therefore husbandmen use bus, or the mare in the stomach. And therefore to cure their pasture grounds when they grow to the surfeit of them may suffocate and empoison. moss, by tilling them for a year or two: which also And this showeth that they are windy; and that dependeth upon the same cause ; for that the more windiness is gross and swelling, not sharp or griping. sparing and starving juice of the earth, insufficient And upon the same reason mushrooms are a venefor plants, doth breed moss.
rous meat. 540. Old trees are more mossy far than young ; 547. It is reported, that the bark of white or red for that the sap is not so frank as to rise all to the poplar, which are of the moistest of trees, cut small, boughs, but tireth by the way, and putteth out moss. and cast into furrows well dunged, will cause the
541. Fountains have moss growing upon the ground to put forth mushrooms at all seasons of the ground about them;
year fit to be eaten. Some add to the mixture leaven
of bread dissolved in water. “ Muscosi fontes:"
548. It is reported, that if a hilly field, where the The cause is, for that the fountains drain the water stubble is standing, be set on fire in a showery from the ground adjacent, and leave but sufficient season, it will put forth great store of mushrooms. moisture to breed moss: and besides the coldness 549. It is reported, that hartshorn shaven, or in of the water conduceth to the same.
small pieces, mixed with dung and watered, putteth 542. The moss of trees is a kind of hair; for it up mushrooms. And we know that hartshorn is of is the juice of the tree that is excerned, and doth a fat and clammy substance; and, it may be, ox-horn not assimilate. And upon great trees the moss would do the like. gathereth a figure like a leaf.
550. It hath been reported, though it be scarce 543. The moister sort of trees yield little moss; credible, that ivy hath grown out of a stag's horn ; as we see in asps, poplars, willows, beeches, &c. which they suppose did rather come from a confriwhich is partly caused for the reason that hath been cation of the horn upon the ivy, than from the horn given, of the frank putting up of the sap into the itself. There is not known any substance but earth, boughs; and partly for that the barks of those trees and the procedures of earth, as tile, stone, &c. that are more close and smooth than those of oaks and yieldeth any moss or herby substance. There may ashes; whereby the moss can the hardlier issue out. be trial made of some seeds, as that of fennel-seed,
544. In clay-grounds all fruit-trees grow full of mustard-seed, and rape-seed, put into some little moss,
both upon body and boughs; which is caused holes made in the horns of stags, or oxen, to see if partly by the coldness of the ground, whereby the they will grow. plants nourish less; and partly by the toughness of 551. There is also another imperfect plant, that the earth, whereby the sap is shut in, and cannot in show is like a great mushroom: and it is someget up to spread so frankly as it should do.
times as broad as one's hat; which they call a toad's 545. We have said heretofore, that if trees be stool; but it is not esculent; and it groweth, comhidebound, they wax less fruitful, and gather moss; monly, by a dead stub of a tree, and likewise about and that they are holpen by hacking, &c. And the roots of rotten trees: and therefore seemneth to therefore, by the reason of contraries, if trees be take his juice from wood putrified. Which showeth, bound in with cords, or some outward bands, they by the way, that wood putrified yieldeth a frank will put forth more moss : which, I think, happen- moisture. eth to trees that stand bleak, and upon the cold 552. There is a cake that groweth upon the side
of a dead tree, that hath gotten no name, but it is 557. This experiment of misseltoe may give light large, and of a chestnut colour, and hard and pithy: to other practices. Therefore trial would be made whereby it should seem, that even dead trees forget by ripping of the bough of a crab-tree in the bark ; not their putting forth ; no more than the carcasses and watering of the wound every day with warm of men's bodies, that put forth hair and nails for water dunged, to see if it would bring forth missela time.
toe, or any such like thing. But it were yet more 553. There is a cod, or bag, that groweth com- likely to try it with some other watering or anointmonly in the fields; that at the first is hard like a ing, that were not so natural to the tree as water is ; tennis-ball, and white; and after groweth of a mush as oil, or barm of drink, &c. so they be such things room colour, and full of light dust upon the break as kill not the bough. ing; and is thought to be dangerous for the eyes if 558. It were good to try what plants would put the powder get into them; and to be good for kibes. forth, if they be forbidden to put forth their natural Belike it hath a corrosive and fretting nature. boughs; poll therefore a tree, and cover it some
554. There is an herh called Jew's ear, that grow- thickness with clay on the top, and see what it will eth upon the roots and lower parts of the bodies of put forth. I suppose it will put forth roots; for so trees; especially of elders, and sometimes ashes. It will a cion, being turned down into clay: therefore, hath a strange property ; for in warm water it in this experiment also, the tree would be closed with swelleth, and openeth extremely. It is not green, somewhat that is not so natural to the plant as clay but of a dusky brown colour. And it is used for is. Try it with leather, or cloth, or painting, so it squinancies and inflammations in the throat; where be not hurtful to the tree. And it is certain, that a by it seemeth to have a mollifying and lenifying brake hath been known to grow out of a pollard. virtue.
559. A man may count the prickles of trees to be 555. There is a kind of spungy excrescence, which a kind of excrescence; for they will never be boughs, groweth chiefly upon the roots of the laser-tree ; nor bear leaves. The plants that have prickles are and sometimes upon cedar and other trees. It is thorns, black and white; brier, rose, lemon-trees, very white, and light, and friable; which we call crab-trees, gooseberry, berberry ; these have it in agaric. It is famous in physic for the purging of the bough: the plants that have prickles in the leaf tough phlegm. And it is also an excellent opener are, holly, juniper, whin-bush, thistle ; nettles also for the liver; but offensive to the stomach : and in have a small venomous prickle; so hath borage, but taste, it is at the first sweet, and after bitter. harmless. The cause must be hasty putting forth,
556. We find no super-plant that is a formed want of moisture, and the closeness of the bark; for plant, but misseltoe. They have an idle tradition, the haste of the spirit to put forth, and the want of that there is a bird called a missel bird, that feedeth nourishment to put forth a bough, and the closeness upon a seed, which many times she cannot digest, of the bark, cause prickles in boughs; and therefore and so expelleth it whole with her excrement: which they are ever like a pyramis, for that the moisture falling upon the bough of a tree that hath some spendeth after a little putting forth. And for rift, putteth forth the misseltoe. But this is a fable; prickles in leaves, they come also of putting forth for it is not probable that birds should feed upon more juice into the leaf than can spread in the leaf that they cannot digest. But allow that, yet it can smooth, and therefore the leaves otherwise are not be for other reasons : for first, it is found but rough, as borage and nettles are. As for the leaves upon certain trees; and those trees bear no such of holly, they are smooth, but never plain, but as it fruit, as may allure that bird to sit and feed upon were with folds, for the same cause. them. It may be, that bird feedeth upon the mis 560. There be also plants, that though they have seltoe-berries, and so is often found there ; which no prickles, yet they have a kind of downy or velvet may have given occasion to the tale. But that rind upon their leaves; as rose-campion, stockwhich maketh an end of the question is, that missel gilly-flowers, colt’s-foot; which down or nap cometh toe hath been found to put forth under the boughs, of a subtil spirit, in a soft or fat substance. For it and not only above the boughs; so it cannot be any is certain, that both stock-gilly-flowers and rosething that falleth upon the bough. Misseltoe campions, stamped, have been applied with success groweth chiefly upon crab-trees, apple-trees, some to the wrists of those that have had tertian or times upon hazels, and rarely upon oaks; the mis quartan agues; and the vapour of colt's-foot hath a seltoe whereof is counted very medicinal. It is sanative virtue towards the lungs; and the leaf also ever green winter and summer; and beareth a white is healing in surgery. glistering berry: and it is a plant utterly differing 561. Another kind of excrescence is an exudation from the plant upon which it groweth. Two things of plants joined with putrefaction; as we see in oaktherefore may be certainly set down : first, that apples, which are found chiefly upon the leaves of superfætation must be by abundance of sap in the oaks, and the like upon willows: and country peobough that putteth it forth : secondly, that that sap ple have a kind of prediction, that if the oak-apple must be such as the tree doth excern, and cannot broken be full of worms, it is a sign of a pestilent assimilate; for else it would go into a bough; and year; which is a likely thing, because they grow of besides, it seemeth to be more fat and unctuous corruption. than the ordinary sap of the tree; both by the berry, 562. There is also upon sweet, or other brier, a which is clammy; and by that it continueth green fine tuft or brush of moss of divers colours; which winter and summer, which the tree doth not. if you cut you shall ever find full of little white worms.
much as when they grow big, they will disjoin the Experiments in consort touching the producing
stone, And besides, it is doubtful whether the of perfect plants without seed.
mortar itself putteth it forth, or whether some seeds 563. It is certain that earth taken out of the be not let fall by birds. There be likewise rockfoundations of vaults and houses, and bottoms of herbs ; but I suppose those are where there is some wells, and then put into pots, will put forth sundry mold or earth. It hath likewise been found, kinds of herbs : but some time is required for the that great trees growing upon quarries have put germination : for if it be taken but from a fathom down their root into the stone. deep, it will put forth the first year; if much deep 571. In some mines in Germany, as is reported, er, not till after a year or two.
there grow in the bottom vegetables ; and the work564. The nature of the plants growing out of folks use to say they have magical virtue, and will earth so taken up, doth follow the nature of the not suffer men to gather them. mold itself; as if the mold be soft and fine, it put 572. The sea sands seldom bear plants. Whereof teth forth soft herbs; as grass, plantain, and the the cause is yielded by some of the ancients, for like; if the earth be harder and coarser, it putteth that the sun exhaleth the moisture before it can forth herbs more rough, as thistles, firs, &c. incorporate with the earth, and yield a nourishment
565. It is common experience, that where alleys for the plant. And it is affirmed also that sand are close gravelled, the earth putteth forth the first hath always its root in clay ; and that there be no year knot grass, and after spire grass.
veins of sand any great depth within the earth. is, for that the hard gravel or pebble at the first 573. It is certain that some plants put forth for laying will not suffer the grass to come forth up- a time of their own store, without any nourishment right, but turneth it to find his way where it can; from earth, water, stone, &c. of which vide the exbut after that the earth is somewhat loosened at the periment 29. top, the ordinary grass cometh up. 566. It is reported, that earth being taken out of
Experiments in consort touching foreign plants. shady and watery woods some depth, and potted, 574. It is reported that earth that was brought will put forth herbs of a fat and juicy substance; out of the Indies and other remote counties, for balas penny-wort, purslane, houseleek, penny-royal, &c. last of ships, cast upon some grounds in Italy, did
567. The water also doth send forth plants that put forth foreign herbs, to us in Europe not known; have no roots fixed in the bottom; but they are less and, that which is more, that of their roots, barks, perfect plants, being almost but leaves, and those and seeds contused together, and mingled with other small ones ; such is that we call duck weed, which earth, and well watered with warm water, there hath a leaf no bigger than a thyme leaf, but of a came forth herbs much like the other. fresher green, and putteth forth a little string 575. Plants brought out of hot countries will eninto the water far from the bottom.
As for the deavour to put forth at the same time that they water lily it hath a root in the ground; and so have usually do in their own climate; and therefore to a number of other herbs that grow in ponds. preserve them, there is no more required, than to
568. It is reported by some of the ancients, and keep them from the injury of putting back by cold. some modern testimony likewise, that there be some It is reported also, that grain out of the hotter counplants that grow upon the top of the sea, being sup- tries translated into the colder, will be more forward posed to grow of some concretion of slime from the than the ordinary grain of the cold country. It is water, where the sun beateth hot, and where the likely that this will prove better in grains than in sea stirreth little. As for alga marina, sea weed, trees, for that grains are but annual, and so the and eryngium, sea thistle, both have roots; but the virtue of the seed is not worn out; whereas in a sea weed under the water, the sea thistle but upon tree it is embased by the ground to which it is the shore.
removed. 569. The ancients have noted, that there are 576. Many plants which grow in the hotter counsome herbs that grow out of snow laid up close to-tries, being set in the colder, will nevertheless, even gether and putrified, and that they are all bitter ; in those cold countries, being sown of seeds late in and they name one specially, flomus, which we call the spring, come up and abide most part of the summoth-mullein. It is certain, that worms are found mer; as we find it in orange and lemon seeds, &c. in snow commonly, like earth-worms; and there the seeds whereof sown in the end of April will fore it is not unlike, that it may likewise put forth bring forth excellent sallads, mingled with other plants.
herbs. And I doubt not, but the seeds of clove 570. The ancients have affirmed, that there are trees, and pepper seeds, &c. if they could come some herbs that grow out of stone ; which may be, hither green enough to be sown, would do the like. for that it is certain that toads have been found in the middle of a free-stone. We see also that flints,
Experiments in consort touching the seasons in lying above ground, gather moss; and wall-flowers,
which plants come forth. and some other flowers, grow upon walls ; but 577. There be some flowers, blossoms, grains, and whether upon the main brick or stone, or whether fruits, which come more early, and others which out of the lime or chinks, is not well observed: for come more late in the year. The flowers that come elders and ashes have been seen to grow out of stee-early with us are primroses, violets, anemonies, ples; but they manifestly grow out of clefts; inso- l water-daffodillies, crocus vernus, and some early