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ment, and drawing it. And therefore gentle digging that the earth doth but keep the plant upright, and and loosening of the earth about the roots of trees; save it from over-heat and over-cold; and therefore and the removing herbs and flowers into new earth is a comfortable experiment for good drinkers. It once in two years, which is the same thing, for the proveth also that our former opinion, that drink new earth is ever looser, doth greatly further the incorporate with flesh or roots, as in capon-beer, prospering and earliness of plants.

&c. will nourish more easily, than meat and drink 407. But the most admirable acceleration by taken severally. facilitating the nourishment is that of water. For 412. The housing of plants, I conceive, will both a standard of a damask rose with the root on, was accelerate germination, and bring forth flowers and set in a chamber where no fire was, upright in an plants in the colder seasons: and as we house hotearthen pan, full of fair water, without any mixture, country plants, as lemons, oranges, myrtles, to save half a foot under the water, the standard being more them ; so we may house our own country plants, to than two foot high above the water : within the forward them, and make them come in the cold space of ten days the standard did put forth a fair seasons ; in such sort, that you may have violets, green leaf, and some other little buds, which stood strawberries, peas, all winter: so that you sow or at a stay, without any show of decay or withering, remove them at fit times. This experiment is to be more than seven days. But afterwards that leaf referred unto the comforting of the spirit of the faded, but the young buds did sprout on; which plant by warmth, as well as housing their boughs, afterward opened into fair leaves in the space of &c. So then the means to accelerate germination, three months; and continued so a while after, till are in particular eight, in general three. upon removal we left the trial. But note, that the leaves were somewhat paler and lighter-coloured

Experiments in consort touching the putting back than the leaves used to be abroad. Note, that the

or retardation of germination. first buds were in the end of October; and it is like. ly that if it had been in the spring time, would 413. To make roses, or other flowers come late, it have put forth with greater strength, and, it may be, is an experiment of pleasure. For the ancients to have grown on to bear flowe By this means esteemed much of the rosa sera. And indeed the you may have, as it seemeth, roses set in the midst November rose is the sweetest, having been less exof a pool, being supported with some stay; which is haled by the sun. The means are these. First, matter of rareness and pleasure, though of small use. the cutting off their tops immediately after they This is the more strange, for that the like rose have done bearing; and then they will come again standard was put at the same time into water mixed the same year about November: but they will not with horse-dung, the horse-dung about the fourth come just on the tops where they were cut, but out part to the water, and in four months' space, while of those shoots which were, as it were, water boughs. it was observed, put not forth any leaf, though The cause is, for that the sap, which otherwise divers buds at the first, as the other.

would have fed the top, though after bearing, will, 408. A Dutch flower that had a bulbous root, was by the discharge of that, divert unto the side likewise put at the same time all under water, some sprouts ; and they will come to bear, but later. two or three fingers deep; and within seven days 414. The second is the pulling off the buds of sprouted, and continued long after farther growing. the rose, when they are newly knotted; for then the There were also put in, a beet-root, a borage-root, side branches will bear. The cause is the same and a radish-root, which had all their leaves cut with the former; for cutting off the tops, and pulling almost close to the roots ; and within six weeks had off the buds, work the same effect, in retention of fair leaves ; and so continued till the end of the sap for a time, and diversion of it to the sprouts November.

that were not so forward. 409. Note, that if roots, or peas, or flowers, may 415. The third is the cutting off some few of the be accelerated in their coming and ripening, there top boughs in the spring time, but suffering the lower is a double profit; the one in the high price that boughs to grow on. The cause is, for that the those things bear when they come early; the other boughs do help to draw up the sap more strongly; in the swiftness of their returns : for in some grounds and we see that in polling of trees, many do use to which are strong, you shall have a radish, &c. come leave a bough or two on the top, to help to draw up in a month, that in other grounds will not come in the sap. And it is reported also, that if you graft two, and so make double returns.

upon the bough of a tree, and cut off some of the 410. Wheat also was put into the water, and old boughs, the new cions will perish. came not forth at all; so as it seemeth there 416. The fourth is by laying the roots bare about must be some strength and bulk in the body put into Christmas some days. The cause is plain, for that the water, as it is in roots; for grains, or seeds, the it doth arrest the sap from going upwards for a time; cold of the water will mortify. But casually some which arrest is afterwards released by the covering wheat lay under the pan, which was somewhat of the root again with earth ; and then the sap moistened by the suing of the pan; which in six getteth up, but later. weeks, as aforesaid, looked mouldy to the eye, but 417. The fifth is the removing of the tree some it was sprouted forth half a finger's length.

month before it buddeth. The cause is, for that 411. It seemeth by these instances of water, that some time will be required after the remove for the for nourishment the water is almost all in all, and re-settling, before it can draw the juice; and that

time being lost, the blossom must needs come forth their trees to keep them upright; but after a year's later.

rooting, then shaking doth the tree good, by loosen418. The sixth is the grafting of roses in May, ing of the earth, and, perhaps, by exercising, as it which commonly gardeners do not till July; and were, and stirring the sap of the tree. then they bear not till the next year ; but if you 424. Generally the cutting away of boughs and graft them in May, they will bear the same year, suckers at the root and body doth make trees grow but late.

high; and contrariwise, the polling and cutting of 419. The seventh is the girding of the body of the the top maketh them grow spread and bushy. As tree about with some pack-thread; for that also in we see in pollards, &c. a degree restraineth the sap, and maketh it come 425. It is reported, that to make hasty-growing up more late and more slowly.

coppice woods, the way is, to take willow, sallow, 420. The eighth is the planting of them in a poplar, alder, of some seven years' growth; and to shade, or in a hedge ; the cause is, partly the keep- set them, not upright, but aslope, a reasonable ing out of the sun, which hasteneth the sap to rise; depth under the ground ; and then instead of one root and partly the robbing them of nourishment by the they will put forth many, and so carry more shoots stuff in the hedge. These means may be practised upon a stem. upon other, both trees and flowers, mutatis mutandis. 426. When you would have many new roots of

421. Men have entertained a conceit that show fruit trees, take a low tree and bow it, and lay all eth prettily ; namely, that if you graft a late-com- its branches aflat upon the ground, and cast earth ing fruit upon a stock of a fruit-tree that cometh upon them; and every twig will take root. And early, the graft will bear early ; as a peach upon a this is a very profitable experiment for costly trees, cherry; and contrariwise, if an early-coming fruit for the boughs will make stocks without charge ; upon a stock of a fruit-tree that cometh late, the such as are apricots, peaches, almonds, cornelians, graft will bear fruit late ; as a cherry upon a peach. mulberries, figs, &c. The like is continually pracBut these are but imaginations, and untrue. The tised with vines, roses, musk-roses, &c. cause is, for that the cion overruleth the stock quite : 427. From May to July you may take off the and the stock is but passive only, and giveth aliment, bark of any bough, being of the bigness of three or but no motion to the graft.

four inches, and cover the bare place, somewhat

above and below, with loam well tempered with Experiments in consort touching the melioration of horse-dung, binding it fast down. Then cut off the fruits, trees, and plants.

bough about Allhollontide in the bare place, and set We will speak now, how to make fruits, flowers, it in the ground; and it will grow to be a fair tree and roots larger, in more plenty, and sweeter than in one year. The cause may be, for that the baring they use to be; and how to make the trees them from the bark keepeth the sap from descending toselves more tall, more spread, and more hasty and wards winter, and so holdeth it in the bough; and sudden than they use to be. Wherein there is no it may be also that the loam and horse-dung applied doubt but the former experiments of acceleration to the bare place do moisten it, and cherish it, and will serve much to these purposes. And again, that make it more apt to put forth the root. Note, that these experiments, which we shall now set down, do this may be a general means for keeping up the serve also for acceleration, because both effects pro- sap of trees in their boughs ; which may serve to ceed from the increase of vigour in the tree; but other effects. yet to avoid confusion, and because some of the 428. It hath been practised in trees that show means are more proper for the one effect, and some fair and bear not, to bore a hole through the heart for the other, we will handle them apart.

of the tree, and thereupon it will bear. Which may 422. It is an assured experience, that a heap of be, for that the tree before had too much repletion, flint or stone, laid about the bottom of a wild tree, and was oppressed with its own sap; for repletion is as an oak, elm, ash, &c.; upon the first planting, doth an enemy to generation. make it prosper double as much as without it. The 429. It hath been practised in trees that do not cause is, for that it retaineth the moisture which bear, to cleave two or three of the chief roots, and falleth at any time upon the tree, and suffereth it to put into the cleft a small pebble, which may not to be exhaled by the sun. Again, it keepeth the keep it open, and then it will bear.

The cause tree warm from cold blasts, and frosts, as it were in may be, for that a root of a tree may be, as it a house. It may be also there is somewhat in the were, hide-bound, no less than the body of the tree; keeping of it steady at the first. Query, If laying but it will not keep open without somewhat put of straw some height about the body of a tree, will into it. not make the tree forwards. For though the root 430. It is usually practised, to set trees that regiveth the sap, yet it is the body that draweth it. quire much sun upon walls against the south ; as But you must note, that if you lay stones about the apricots, peaches, plums, vines, figs, and the like. stalk of lettuce, or other plants that are more soft, It hath a double commodity : the one, the heat of it will over-moisten the roots, so as the worms will the wall by reflexion ; the other, the taking away eat them.

of the shade ; for when a tree groweth round, the 423. A tree, at the first setting, should not be upper boughs overshadow the lower ; but when it shaken, until it hath taken root fully : and therefore is spread upon a wall, the sun cometh alike upon some have put two little forks about the bottom of the upper and the lower branches.

It were

431. It hath also been practised by some, to pull | tread down any loose ground after they have sown off some leaves from the trees so spread, that the sun onions, or turnips, &c. may come upon the bough and fruit the better. 438. If panicum be laid below and about the There hath been practised also a curiosity, to set a bottom of a root, it will cause the root to grow to tree upon the north side of a wall, and at a little an excessive bigness. The cause is, for that being height to draw it through the wall, and spread it itself of a spongy substance, it draweth the moisture upon the south side : conceiving that the root and of the earth to it, and so feedeth the root. This is lower part of the stock should enjoy the freshness of of greatest use for onions, turnips, parsnips, and the shade ; and the upper boughs, and fruit, the carrots. comfort of the sun. But it sorted not; the cause is, 439. The shifting of ground is a means to better for that the root requireth some comfort from the the tree and fruit; but with this caution, that all sun, though under earth, as well as the body; and things do prosper best when they are advanced to the lower part of the body more than the upper, as the better: your nursery of stocks ought to be in a we see in compassing a tree below with straw. more barren ground than the ground is whereunto

432. The lowness of the bough where the fruit you remove them. So all graziers prefer their cattle cometh, maketh the fruit greater, and to ripen bet- from meaner pastures to better. We see also, that ter; for you shall ever see, in apricots, peaches, or hardness in youth lengtheneth life, because it leaveth melocotones upon a wall, the greatest fruits towards a cherishing to the better of the body in age : nay, the bottom. And in France, the grapes that make in exercises, it is good to begin with the hardest, as the wine, grow upon low vines bound to small stakes; dancing in thick shoes, &c. and the raised vines in arbours make but verjuice. 440. It hath been observed, that hacking of trees It is true, that in Italy and other countries where in their bark, both downright and across, so as you they have hotter sun, they raise them upon elms may make them rather in slices than in continued and trees; but I conceive, that if the French manner hacks, doth great good to trees; and especially deof planting low were brought in use there, their livereth them from being hide-bound, and killeth wines would be stronger and sweeter.

But it is their moss. more chargeable in respect of the props.

441. Shade to some plants conduceth to make good to try whether a tree grafted somewhat near them large and prosperous, more than sun; as in the ground, and the lower boughs only maintained, strawberries and bays, &c. Therefore among strawand the higher continually pruned off, would not berries sow here and there some borage seed; and make a larger fruit.

you shall find the strawberries under those leaves 433. To have fruit in great plenty, the way is to far more large than their fellows.

And bays you graft not only upon young stocks, but upon divers must plant to the north, or defend them from the boughs of an old tree; for they will bear great sun by a hedge-row; and when you sow the berries, numbers of fruit: whereas if you graft but upon one weed not the borders for the first half year; for the stock, the tree can bear but few.

weed giveth them shade. 434. The digging yearly about the roots of trees, 442. To increase the crops of plants, there would which is a great means both to the acceleration and be considered not only the increasing the lust of the melioration of fruits, is practised in nothing but in earth, or of the plant, but the saving also of that vines: which if it were transferred unto other trees which is spilt. So they have lately made a trial to and shrubs, as roses, &c. I conceive would advance set wheat; which nevertheless hath been left off, them likewise.

because of the trouble and pains : yet so much is 435. It hath been known, that a fruit tree hath true, that there is much saved by the setting, in been blown up, almost, by the roots, and set up comparison of that which is sown; both by keeping again, and the next year bear exceedingly. The it from being picked up by birds, and by avoiding cause of this was nothing but the loosening of the the shallow lying of it, whereby much that is sown earth, which comforteth any tree, and is fit to be taketh no root. practised more than it is in fruit-trees: for trees 443. It is prescribed by some of the ancients, cannot be so fitly removed into new grounds, as that you take small trees, upon which figs or other flowers and herbs may.

being yet unripe, and cover the trees in 436. To revive an old tree, the digging of it about the middle of autumn with dung until the spring; the roots, and applying new mould to the roots, is and then take them up in a warm day, and replant

We see also that draught oxen put into them in good ground; and by that means the former fresh pasture gather new and tender flesh; and in year's tree will be ripe, as by a new birth, when all things better nourishment than hath been used other trees of the same kind do but blossom. But doth help to renew ; especially if it be not only this seemeth to have no great probability. better, but changed and differing from the former. 444. It is reported, that if you take nitre, and

437. If an herb be cut off from the roots in the mingle it with water, to the thickness of honey, and beginning of winter, and then the earth be trodden therewith anoint the bud after the vine is cut, it and beaten down hard with the foot and spade, the will sprout forth within eight days. The cause is roots will become of very great magnitude in sum like to be, if the experiment be true, the opening of mer. The reason is, for that the moisture being the bud and of the parts contiguous, by the spirit forbidden to come up in the plant, stayeth longer of the nitre ; for nitre is, as it were, the life of in the root, and dilateth it. And gardeners use to vegetables.

fruit grow,

the way.

445. Take seed, or kernels of apples, pears, note well, that there be some trees that are said to oranges; or a peach, or a plum-stone, &c. and put come up more happily from the kernel than from them into a squill, which is like a great onion, and the graft; as the peach and melocotone. The cause they will come up much earlier than in the earth I suppose to be, for that those plants require a nouritself. This I conceive to be as a kind of graft-ishment of great moisture : and though the nourishing in the root; for as the stock of a graft yieldeth ment of the stock be finer and better prepared, yet better prepared nourishment to the graft, than the it is not so moist and plentiful as the nourishment crude earth; so the squill doth the like to the seed. of the earth. And indeed we see those fruits are And I suppose the same would be done, by putting very cold fruits in their nature. kernels into a turnip, or the like : save that the 453. It hath been received, that a smaller pear squill is more vigorous and hot. It may be tried grafted upon a stock that beareth a greater pear, also, with putting onion seed into an onion head, will become great. But I think it is as true as that which thereby, perhaps, will bring forth a larger of the prime fruit upon the late stock; and e conand earlier onion.

verso; which we rejected before ; for the cion will 446. The pricking of a fruit in several places, govern. Nevertheless, it is probable enough, that if when it is almost at its bigness, and before it ri- you can get a cion to grow upon a stock of another peneth, hath been practised with success, to ripen kind, that is much moister than its own stock, it the fruit more suddenly. We see the example of may make the fruit greater, because it will yield the biting of wasps or worms upon fruit, whereby more plentiful nourishment; though it is like it it manifestly ripeneth the sooner.

will make the fruit baser. But generally the graft447. It is reported, that alga marina, sea-weed, ing is upon a drier stock; as the apple upon a put under the roots of coleworts, and, perhaps, of crab; the pear upon a thorn, &c. Yet it is reported, other plants, will farther their growth. The virtue, that in the Low Countries they will graft an apple no doubt, hath relation to salt, which is a great help cion upon the stock of a colewort, and it will bear to fertility.

a great flaggy apple ; the kernel of which, if it be 448. It hath been practised, to cut off the stalks set, will be a colewort, and not an apple. It were of cucumbers, immediately after their bearing, close good to try whether an apple cion will prosper, if it by the earth; and then to cast a pretty quantity of be grafted upon a sallow, or upon a poplar, or upon earth upon the plant that remaineth, and they will an alder, or upon an elm, or upon a horse-plum, bear the next year fruit long before the ordinary which are the moistest of trees. I have heard that it time. The cause may be, for that the sap goeth hath been tried upon an elm, and succeeded. down the sooner, and is not spent in the stalk or 454. It is manifest by experience, that flowers leaf which remaineth after the fruit. Where note, removed wax greater, because the nourishment is that the dying in the winter of the roots of plants more easily come by in the loose earth. that are annual, seemeth to be partly caused by the be, that oft regrafting of the same cion may

likewise over expense of the sap into stalk and leaves; which make fruit greater ; as if you take a cion, and graft being prevented they will super-annuate, if they it upon a stock the first year; and then cut it off, warm.

and graft it upon another stock the second year; 449. The pulling off many of the blossoms from and so for a third or fourth year; and then let it a fruit-tree doth make the fruit fairer. The cause rest, it will yield afterward, when it beareth, the is manifest; for that the sap hath the less to nour

greater fruit. ish. And it is a common experience, that if you Of grafting there are many experiments worth do not pull off some blossoms the first time a tree the noting, but those we reserve to a proper place. bloometh, it will blossom itself to death.

455. It maketh figs better, if a fig-tree, when it 450. It were good to try, what would be the ef- beginneth to put forth leaves, have his top cut off. fect, if all the blossoms were pulled from a fruit. The cause is plain, for that the sap hath the less to tree; or the acorns and chestnut-buds, &c. from a feed, and the less way to mount : but it may be wild tree, for two years together. I suppose that the fig will come somewhat later, as was formerly the tree will either put forth the third year bigger touched. The same may be tried likewise in other and more plentiful fruit; or else the same years, larger leaves, because of the sap stored up.

456. It is reported, that mulberries will be fairer, 451. It hath been generally received that a plant and the trees more fruitful, if you bore the trunk of watered with warm water, will come up sooner and the tree through in several places, and thrust into better, than with cold water or with showers. But the places bored wedges of some hot trees, as turour experiment of watering wheat with warm water, pentine, mastic-tree, guaiacum, juniper, &c. The as hath been said, succeeded not; which may be, cause may be, for that adventive heat doth cheer because the trial was too late in the year, viz. in up the native juice of the tree. the end of October. For the cold then coming upon 457. It is reported, that trees will grow greater, the seed, after it was made more tender by the and bear better fruit, if you put salt, or lees of wine, warm water, might check it.

or blood to the root. The cause may be the in452. There is no doubt, but that grafting, for creasing the lust or spirit of the root; these things the most part, doth meliorate the fruit. The cause being more forcible than ordinary composts. is manifest; for that the nourishment is better


458. It is reported by one of the ancients, that pared in the stock, than in the crude earth : but yet | artichokes will be less prickly, and more tender,

It may


if the seeds have their tops dulled, or grated off! 465. The ancients for the dulcorating of fruit do upon a stone.

commend swine's dung above all other dung ; which 459. Herbs will be tenderer and fairer, if you may be because of the moisture of that beast, wheretake them out of beds, when they are newly come by the excrement hath less acrimony ; for we see up, and remove them into pots with better earth. swine's and pig's flesh is the moistest of fleshes. The remove from bed to bed was spoken of before ; 466. It is observed by some, that all herbs wax but that was in several years; this is upon the sudden. sweeter, both in smell and taste, if after they be The cause is the same with other removes formerly grown up some reasonable time, they be cut, and so mentioned.

you take the latter sprout. The cause may be, for 460. Coleworts are reported by one of the an that the longer the juice stayeth in the root and stalk, cients to prosper exceedingly, and to be better tasted, the better it concocteth. For one of the chief if they be sometimes watered with salt water; and causes why grains, seeds, and fruits, are more much more with water mixed with nitre; the nourishing than leaves, is the length of time in spirit of which is less adurent than salt.

which they grow to maturation. It were not amiss 461. It is reported that cucumbers will prove to keep back the sap of herbs, or the like, by some more tender and dainty, if their seeds be steeped a fit means, till the end of summer; whereby, it may little in milk; the cause may be, for that the seed be, they will be more nourishing. being mollified with the milk, will be too weak to 467. As grafting doth generally advance and draw the grosser juice of the earth, but only the meliorate fruits, above that which they would be if finer. The same experiment may be made in arti- they were set of kernels or stones, in regard the chokes and other seeds, when you would take away nourishment is better concocted; so, no doubt, even either their flashiness or bitterness. They speak in grafting, for the same cause, the choice of the also, that the like effect followeth of steeping in stock doth much; always provided, that it be somewater mixed with honey ; but that seemeth to me what inferior to the cion; for otherwise it dulleth it. not so probable, because honey hath too quick a spirit. They commend much the grafting of pears or apples

462. It is reported, that cucumbers will be less upon a quince. watery, and more melon-like, if in the pit where 468. Besides the means of melioration of fruits you set them, you fill it, half-way up, with chaff or before-mentioned, it is set down as tried, that a small sticks, and then pour earth upon them; for mixture of bran and swine's dung, or chaff and cucumbers, as it seemeth, do extremely affect swine's dung, especially laid up together for a month moisture, and over-drink themselves; which the to rot, is a very great nourisher and comforter to a chaff or chips forbiddeth. Nay, it is farther report- fruit-tree. ed, that if, when a cucumber is grown, you set a 469. It is delivered, that onions wax greater if pot of water about five or six inches distance from they be taken out of the earth, and laid a drying it, it will, in twenty-four hours, shoot so much out as twenty days, and then set again; and yet more, if to touch the pot; which, if it be true, is an experi- the outermost pill be taken off all over. ment of a higher nature than belongeth to this 470. It is delivered by some, that if one take the title : for it discovereth perception in plants, to bough of a low fruit-tree newly budded, and draw it move towards that which should help and comfort gently, without hurting it, into an earthen pot perthem, though it be at a distance. The ancient forate at the bottom to let in the plant, and then tradition of the vine is far more strange; it is, that cover the pot with earth, it will yield a very large if you set a stake or prop at some distance from it, fruit within the ground. Which experiment is noit will grow that way; which is far stranger, as is thing but potting of plants without removing, and said, than the other : for that water may work by a leaving the fruit in the earth. The like, they say, sympathy of attraction ; but this of the stake seem will be effected by an empty pot without earth in eth to be a reasonable discourse.

it put over a fruit, being propped up with a stake, 463. It hath been touched before, that terebration as it hangeth upon the tree; and the better, if some of trees doth make them prosper better. But it is few pertusions be made in the pot. Wherein, befound also, that it maketh the fruit sweeter and bet- sides the defending of the fruit from extremity of ter. The cause is, for that, notwithstanding the sun or weather, some give a reason, that the fruit terebration, they may receive aliment sufficient, and loving and coveting the open air and sun, is inyet no more than they can well turn and digest: vited by those pertusions to spread and approach as and withal do sweat out the coarsest and unpro near the open air as it can ; and so enlargeth in fitablest juice ; even as it is in living creatures, magnitude. which by moderate feeding, and exercise, and sweat, 471. All trees in high and sandy grounds are to attain the soundest habit of body.

be set deep; and in watery grounds more shallow. 464. As terebration doth meliorate fruit, so upon And in all trees, when they be removed, especially the like reason doth letting of plants blood ; as fruit-trees, care ought to be taken, that the sides of pricking vines, or other trees, after they be of some the trees be coasted, north and south, &c. as they growth; and thereby letting forth gum or tears; stood before. The same is said also of stone out of though this be not to continue, as it is in terebra- the quarry, to make it more durable ; though that tion, but at some seasons. And it is reported, that seemeth to have less reason ; because the stone licth by this artifice bitter almonds have been turned not so near the sun, as the tree groweth. into sweet.

472. Timber trees in a coppice wood do grow

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