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367. Consider well, whether the more speedy | they came to the wax, and then go out: of the other going forth of the flame be caused by the greater three, the thread consumed faster than the cotton, vigour of the flame in burning ; or by the resistance by a sixth part of time: the cotton next; then the of the body mixed, and the aversion thereof to take rush consumed slower than the cotton, by at least a flame : which will appear by the quantity of the third part of time. For the bigness of the flame, spirit of wine that remaineth after the going out of the cotton and thread cast a flame much alike; and the flame. And it seemeth clearly to be the latter; the rush much less and dimmer. Query, whether for that the mixture of things least apt to burn, is wood and wicks both, as in torches, consume faster the speediest in going out. And note, by the way, than the wicks simple ? that spirit of wine burned, till it go out of itself, 371. We have spoken of the several materials, will burn no more ; and tasteth nothing so hot in and the several wicks : but to the lasting of the the mouth as it did; no, nor yet sour, as if it were flame it importeth also, not only what the material a degree towards vinegar, which burnt wine doth; is, but in the same material whether it be hard, soft, but flat and dead.
&c. Good housewives, to make their 368. Note, that in the experiment of wax afore candles burn the longer, use to lay them, one by said, the wax dissolved in the burning, and yet did one, in bran or flour, which make them harder, and not incorporate itself with the spirit of wine, to pro so they consume the slower: insomuch as by this duce one fame; but wheresoever the wax floated, means they will outlast other candles of the same the flame forsook it, till at last it spread all over, stuff almost half in half. For bran and flour have a and put the flame quite out.
virtue to harden; so that both age, and lying in the 369. The experiments of the mixture of the bran, doth help to the lasting. And we see that spirit of wine inflamed, are things of discovery, and wax candles last longer than tallow candles, because not of use: but now we will speak of the continu- wax is more firm and hard. ance of flames, such as are used for candles, lamps, 372. The lasting of flame also dependeth upon or tapers ; consisting of inflammable matters, and of the easy drawing of the nourishment; as we see in a wick that provoketh inflammation. And this im the Court of England there is a service which they porteth not only discovery, but also use and profit ; call Allnight; which is as it were a great cake of for it is a great saving in all such lights, if they can wax, with the wick in the midst; whereby it cometh be made as fair and bright as others, and yet last to pass, that the wick fetcheth the nourishment longer. Wax pure made into a candle, and wax farther off. We see also that lamps last longer, bemixed severally into candle-stuff, with the particulars cause the vessel is far broader than the breadth of that follow ; viz. water, aqua vitæ, milk, bay-salt, oil,
a taper or candle. butter, nitre, brimstone, saw-dust, every of these 373. Take a turreted lamp of tin, made in the bearing a sixth part to the wax; and every of these form of a square; the height of the turret being candles mixed, being of the same weight and wick thrice as much as the length of the lower part with the wax pure, proved thus in the burning and whereupon the lamp standeth : make only one hole lasting. The swiftest in consuming was that with in it, at the end of the return farthest from the saw-dust; which first burned fair till some part of turret. Reverse it, and fill it full of oil by that the candle was consumed, and the dust gathered hole ; and then set it upright again; and put a wick about the snaste; but then it made the snaste big in at the hole, and lighten it: you shall find that it and long, and to burn duskishly, and the candle will burn slow, and a long time: which is caused, as wasted in half the time of the wax pure. The next was said last before, for that the flame fetcheth the in swiftness were the oil and butter, which consumed nourishment afar off. You shall find also, that as by a fifth part swifter than the pure wax. Then the oil wasteth and descendeth, so the top of the followed in swiftness the clear wax itself. Then turret by little and little filleth with air; which is the bay-sa!t, which lasted about an eighth part longer caused by the rarefaction of the oil by the heat. It than the clear wax. Then followed the aqua vitæ, were worthy the observation, to make a hole in the which lasted about a fifth part longer than the clear top of the turret, and to try when the oil is almost wax. Then followed the milk, and water, with little consumed, whether the air made of the oil, if you difference from the aqua vitæ, but the water slowest. put to it the flame of a candle, in the letting of it And in these four last, the wick would spit forth forth, will inflame. It were good also to have the little sparks. For the nitre, it would not hold light lamp made, not of tin, but of glass, that you may ed above some twelve pulses : but all the while it see how the vapour or air gathereth by degrees in would spit out portions of fame, which afterwards would go out into a vapour. For the brimstone, it 374. A fourth point that importeth the lasting of would hold lighted much about the same time with the flame, is the closeness of the air wherein the the nitre ; but then after a little while it would hard- flame burneth. We see that if wind bloweth upon en and cake about the snaste ; so that the mixture of a candle it wasteth apace. We see also it lasteth bay-salt with wax will win an eighth part of the longer in a lanthorn than at large. And there are time of lasting, and the water a fifth.
traditions of lamps and candles, that have burnt a 370. After the several materials were tried, trial very long time in caves and tombs. was likewise made of several wicks; as of ordinary 375. A fifth point that importeth the lasting of cotton, sewing thread, rush, silk, straw, and wood. the flame, is the nature of the air where the flame The silk, straw, and wood, would flame a little, till I burneth ; whether it be hot or cold, moist or dry.
The air, if it be very cold, irritateth the flame, and
Experiment solitary touching the effects in men's maketh it burn more fiercely, as fire scorcheth in
bodies from several winds. frosty weather, and so farthereth the consumption. The air once heated, I conceive, maketh the flame 381. Men's bodies are heavier, and less disposed burn more mildly, and so helpeth the continuance. to motion, when southern winds blow, than when The air, if it be dry, is indifferent: the air, if it be northern. The cause is, for that when the southern moist, doth in a degree quench the flame, as we see winds blow, the humours do, in some degree, melt lights will go out in the damps of mines, and how and wax fluid, and so flow into the parts; as it is soever maketh it burn more dully, and so helpeth seen in wood and other bodies, which when the the continuance.
southern winds blow, do swell. Besides, the motion
and activity of the body consisteth chiefly in the Experiments in consort touching burials or infusions sinews, which, when the southern wind bloweth, are of divers bodies in earth.
more relax. 376. Burials in earth serve for preservation; and for condensation; and for induration of bodies. And
Experiment solitary touching winter and summer
sicknesses. if you intend condensation or induration, you may bury the bodies so as earth may touch them: as if 382. It is commonly seen, that more are sick in you will make artificial porcelane, &c. And the the summer, and more die in the winter ; except it like you may do for conservation, if the bodies be be in pestilent diseases, which commonly reign in hard and solid ; as clay, wood, &c. But if you in summer or autumn. The reason is, because diseases tend preservation of bodies more soft and tender, are bred, indeed, chiefly by heat; but then they are then you must do one of these two: either you must cured most by sweat and purge ; which in the sumput them in cases, whereby they may not touch the mer cometh on or is provoked more easily. As for earth; or else you must vault the earth, whereby pestilent diseases, the reason why most die of them it may hang over them, and not touch them; for if in summer is, because they are bred most in the the earth touch them, it will do more hurt by the summer : for otherwise those that are touched are moisture, causing them to putrify, than good by the in most danger in the winter. virtual cold, to conserve them; except the earth be
Experiment solitary touching pestilential seasons. very dry and sandy.
377. An orange, lemon, and apple, wrapt in a 383. The general opinion is, that years hot and linen cloth, being buried for a fortnight's space four moist are most pestilent; upon the superficial ground feet deep within the earth, though it were in a that heat and moisture cause putrefaction. In Engmoist place, and a rainy time, yet came forth no land it is not found true ; for many times there have ways mouldy or rotten, but were become a little been great plagues in dry years. Whereof the cause harder than they were ; otherwise fresh in their may be, for that drought in the bodies of islanders colour ; but their juice somewhat flatted. But with habituate to moist airs, doth exasperate the humours, the burial of a fortnight more they became putrified. and maketh them more apt to putrify or inflame :
378. A bottle of beer, buried in like manner as besides, it tainteth the waters, commonly, and maketh before, became more lively, better tasted, and clearer them less wholesome. And again in Barbary, the than it was.
And a bottle of wine in like manner. plagues break up in the summer months, when the A bottle of vinegar so buried came forth more lively weather is hot and dry. and more odoriferous, smelling almost like a violet. And after the whole month's burial, all the three Experiment solitary touching an error received about came forth as fresh and lively, if not better than
epidemical diseases. before.
384. Many diseases, both epidemical and others, 379. It were a profitable experiment to preserve break forth at particular times. And the cause is oranges, lemons, and pomegranates, till summer : falsely imputed to the constitution of the air at that for then price will be mightily increased. This time when they break forth or reign; whereas it may be done, if you put them in a pot or vessel well proceedeth, indeed, from a precedent sequence and covered, that the moisture of the earth come not at series of the seasons of the year: and therefore them; or else by putting them in a conservatory of Hippocrates in his prognostics doth make good
And generally, whosoever will make experi- observations of the diseases that ensue upon the ments of cold, let him be provided of three things ; nature of the precedent four seasons of the year. a conservatory of snow; a good large vault, twenty Experiment solitary touching the alteration or prefeet at least under the ground; and a deep well. 380. There hath been a tradition, that pearl, and
servation of liquors in wells or deep vaults. coral, and turquois-stone, that have lost their colours, 385. Trial hath been made with earthen bottles may be recovered by burying in the earth; which well stopped, hanged in a well of twenty fathom is a thing of great profit, if it would sort : but upon deep at the least; and some of the bottles have bees trial of six weeks burial, there followed no effect. let down into the water, some others have hanged It were good to try it in a deep well, or in a conser above, within about a fathom of the water; and the vatory of snow; where the cold may be more con- liquors so tried have been beer, not new, but ready stringent; and so make the body more united, and for drinking, and wine, and milk. The proof hath thereby more resplendent.
been, that both the beer and the wine, as well within
water as above, have not been palled or deaded at roses, wall-flowers, gilly-flowers, pinks, woodbines, all; but as good or somewhat better than bottles of vine-flowers, apple-blooms, lime-tree-blooms, beanthe same drinks and staleness kept in a cellar. But blooms, &c. The cause is, for that where there is those which did hang above water were apparently heat and strength enough in the plant to make the best; and that beer did flower a little; whereas the leaves odorate, there the smell of the flower is that under water did not, though it were fresh. The rather evanid and weaker than that of the leaves ; milk soured and began to putrify. Nevertheless it as it is in rosemary flowers, lavender flowers, and is true, that there is a village near Blois, where in sweet-briar roses. But where there is less heat, deep caves they do thicken milk, in such sort that there the spirit of the plant is digested and refined, it becometh very pleasant : which was some cause and severed from the grosser juice, in the effloresof this trial of hanging milk in the well : but our cence, and not before. proof was naught; neither do I know whether that 390. Most odours smell best broken or crushed, milk in those caves be first boiled. It were good as hath been said; but flowers pressed or beaten do therefore to try it with milk sodden, and with cream; lose the freshness and sweetness of their odour. for that milk of itself is such a compound body, of The cause is, for that when they are crushed, the cream, curds, and whey, as it is easily turned and grosser and more earthy spirit cometh out with the dissolved. It were good also to try the beer when finer, and troubleth it ; whereas in stronger odours it is in wort, that it may be seen whether the hang- there are no such degrees of the issue of the smell. ing in the well will accelerate the ripening and
Experiments in consort touching the goodness and clarifying of it.
choice of water. Experiment solitary touching stutting.
391. It is a thing of very good use to discover 386. Divers, we see, do stut. The cause may the goodness of waters. The taste, to those that be, in most, the refrigeration of the tongue ; where- drink water only, doth somewhat: but other experiby it is less apt to move.
And therefore we see ments are more sure. First, try waters by weight; that naturals do generally stut: and we see that wherein you may find some difference, though not in those that stut, if they drink wine moderately, much; and the lighter you may account the better. they stut less, because it heateth: and so we see, that 392. Secondly, try them by boiling upon an equal they that stut do stut more in the first offer to speak fire; and that which consumeth away fastest you than in continuance; because the tongue is by mo may account the best. tion somewhat heated. In some also, it may be, 393. Thirdly, try them in several bottles or open though rarely, the dryness of the tongue ; which vessels, matches in every thing else, and see which likewise maketh it less apt to move as well as cold : of them last longest without stench or corruption. for it is an effect that cometh to some wise and great And that which holdeth unputrified longest, you men; as it did unto Moses, who was linguæ præpe- may likewise account the best. ditæ ; and many stutters, we find, are very choleric 394. Fourthly, try them by making drinks strongmen; choler inducing a dryness in the tongue. er or smaller, with the same quantity of malt; and Experiments in consort touching smells.
you may conclude, that that water which maketh
the stronger drink, is the more concocted and nour387. Smells and other odours are sweeter in the ishing ; though perhaps it be not so good for mediair at some distance, than near the nose; as hath cinal use. And such water commonly is the water been partly touched heretofore. The cause is double: of large and navigable rivers; and likewise in large first, the finer mixture or incorporation of the smell: and clean ponds of standing water; for upon
both for we see that in sounds likewise, they are sweet them the sun hath more power than upon fountains est when we cannot hear every part by itself. The or small rivers. And I conceive that chalk-water other reason is, for that all sweet smells have joined is next them the best for going farthest in drink : with them some earthy or crude odours; and at for that also helpeth concoction; so it be out of a some distance, the sweet which is the more spiritual, deep well; for then it cureth the rawness of the is perceived, and the earthy reacheth not so far. water ; but chalky water, towards the top of the
388. Sweet smells are most forcible in dry sub- earth, is too fretting; as it appeareth in laundry of stances when they are broken; and so likewise in clothes, which wear out apace if you use such waters. oranges and lemons, the nipping of their rind giveth 395. Fifthly, the housewives do find a difference out their smell more; and generally when bodies in waters, for the bearing or not bearing of soap : are moved or stirred, though not broken, they smell and it is likely that the more fat water will bear more; as a sweet-bag waved. The cause is double: soap best; for the hungry water doth kill the uncthe one, for that there is a greater emission of tuous nature of the soap. the spirit when way is made; and this holdeth in 396. Sixthly, you may make a judgment of wathe breaking, nipping, or crushing; it holdeth also, ters according to the place whence they spring or in some degree, in the moving : but in this last come: the rain-water is, by the physicians, esteemed there is a concurrence of the second cause, which the finest and the best; but yet it is said to putrify is the impulsion of the air, that bringeth the scent soonest; which is likely, because of the fineness of faster upon us.
the spirit: and in conservatories of rain-water, such 389. The daintiest smells of flowers are out of as they have in Venice, &c. they are found not so those plants whose leaves smell not; as violets, I choice waters ; the worse, perhaps, because they
are covered aloft, and kept from the sun. Snow- , and plump, and have great lips; all which betoken water is held unwholesome; insomuch as the people moisture retained, and not drawn out. We see also that dwell at the foot of the snow mountains, or that the Negroes are bred in countries that have otherwise upon the ascent, especially the women, plenty of water, by rivers or otherwise ; for Meroë, by drinking of snow-water, have great bags hanging which was the metropolis of Æthiopia, was upon a under their throats. Well-water, except it be upon great lake: and Congo, where the Negroes are, is chalk, or a very plentiful spring, maketh meat red ; full of rivers. And the confines of the river Niger, which is an ill sign. Springs on the tops of hills where the Negroes also are, are well watered: and are the best : for both they seem to have a light the region above Cape Verde is likewise moist, inness and appetite of mounting ; and besides, they somuch as it is pestilent through moisture : but the are most pure and unmingled; and again, are more countries of the Abyssenes, and Barbary, and Peru, percolated through a great space of earth. For where they are tawny, and olivaster, and pale, are waters in valleys join in effect under ground with all generally more sandy and dry. As for the Æthiopes, waters of the same level ; whereas springs on the as they are plump and fleshy, so, it may be, they tops of hills pass through a great deal of pure earth are sanguine and ruddy-coloured, if their black skin with less mixture of other waters.
would suffer it to be seen. 397. Seventhly, judgment may be made of waters by the soil whereupon the water runneth ; as pebble Experiment solitary touching motion after the instant is the cleanest and best tasted; and next to that,
of death. clay-water; and thirdly, water upon chalk; fourth 400. Some creatures do move a good while after ly, that upon sand; and worst of all upon mud. their head is off; as birds : some a very little time; Neither may you trust waters that taste sweet; for as men and all beasts : some move, though cut in they are commonly found in rising grounds of great several pieces; as snakes, eels, worms, flies, &c. cities; which must needs take in a great deal of First, therefore, it is certain, that the immediate filth.
cause of death is the resolution or extinguishment of
the spirits ; and that the destruction or corruption Experiment solitary touching the temperate heat of the organs is but the mediate cause. under the equinoctial.
organs are so peremptorily necessary, that the ex398. In Peru, and divers parts of the West In- tinguishment of the spirits doth speedily follow; but dies, though under the line, the heats are not so yet so as there is an interim of a small time. It is intolerable as they be in Barbary, and the skirts of reported by one of the ancients of credit, that a sathe torrid zone. The causes are, first the great crificed beast hath lowed after the heart hath been breezes which the motion of the air in great cir- severed: and it is a report also of credit, that the cles, such as are under the girdle of the world, pro- head of a pig hath been opened, and the brain put duceth ; which do refrigerate ; and therefore in into the palm of a man's hand, trembling, without those parts noon is nothing so hot, when the breezes breaking any part of it, or severing it from the marare great, as about nine or ten of the clock in the row of the back-bone ; during which time the pig forenoon. Another cause is, for that the length of hath been, in all appearance, stark dead, and without the night, and the dews thereof, do compensate the motion; and after a small time the brain hath been heat of the day. A third cause is the stay of the replaced, and the skull of the pig closed, and the sun; not in respect of day and night, for that we pig hath a little after gone about. And certain it is, spake of before, but in respect of the season; for that an eye upon revenge hath been thrust forth, so under the line the sun crosseth the line, and maketh as it hanged a pretty distance by the visual nerve; two summers and two winters, but in the skirts of and during that time the eye hath been without any the torrid zone it doubleth and goeth back again, power of sight; and yet after being replaced reand so maketh one long summer.
covered sight. Now the spirits are chiefly in the
head and cells of the brain, which in men and beasts Experiment solitary touching the coloration of black
are large; and therefore, when the head is off, they and tawny Moors.
move little or nothing. But birds have small heads, 399. The heat of the sun maketh men black in and therefore the spirits are a little more dispersed some countries, as in Æthiopia and Guinea, &c. in the sinews, whereby motion remaineth in them a Fire doth it not, as we see in glass-men, that are little longer; insomuch, as it is extant in story, that continually about the fire. The reason may be, be an emperor of Rome, to show the certainty of his cause fire doth lick up the spirits and blood of the hand, did shoot a great forked arrow at an ostrich, body, so as they exhale; so that it ever maketh men as she ran swiftly upon the stage, and struck off her look pale and sallow ; but the sun, which is a gen- head; and yet she continued the race a little way tler heat, doth but draw the blood to the outward with her head off. As for worms, and flies, and parts; and rather concocteth it than soaketh it; eels, the spirits are diffused almost all over; and and therefore we see that all Æthiopes are fleshy | therefore they move in their several pieces.
culture did rather retard than advance. As for those Experiments in consort touching the acceleration
that were steeped in malmsey, and spirit of wine, of germination.
they came not up at all. This is a rich experiment We will now inquire of plants or vegetables: and for profit; for the most of the steepings are cheap we shall do it with diligence. They are the prin- things ; and the goodness of the crop is a great matcipal part of the third day's work. They are the ter of gain; if the goodness of the crop answer the first producat, which is the word of animation : for earliness of the coming up, as it is like it will, both the other words are but the words of essence: and being from the vigour of the seed; which also they are of excellent and general use for food, partly appeared in the former experiments, as hath medicine, and a number of mechanical arts.
been said. This experiment would be tried in other 401. There were sown in a bed, turnip-seed, grains, seeds, and kernels; for it may be some steepradish-seed, wheat, cucumber-seed, and peas. The ing will agree best with some seeds. It would be bed we call a hot-bed, and the manner of it is this : tried also with roots steeped as before, but for longer there was taken horse-dung, old and well rotted ; time. It would be tried also in several seasons of this was laid upon a bank half a foot high, and sup- the year, especially the spring. ported round about with planks; and upon the top 403. Strawberries watered now and then, as once was cast sifted earth, some two fingers deep ; and in three days, with water wherein hath been steepthen the seed sprinkled upon it, having been ed sheeps-dung or pigeons-dung, will prevent and steeped all night in water mixed with cow-dung. come early. And it is like the same effect would The turnip-seed and the wheat came up half an follow in other berries, herbs, flowers, grains, or inch above ground within two days after, without trees. And therefore it is an experiment, though any watering. The rest the third day. The ex- vulgar in strawberries, yet not brought into use periment was made in October; and, it may be, in generally : for it is usual to help the ground with the spring, the accelerating would have been the muck; and likewise to recomfort it sometimes with speedier. This is a noble experiment; for without muck put to the roots; but to water it with muck this help they would have been four times as long water, which is like to be more forcible, is not in coming up. But there doth not occur to me, at practised. this present, any use thereof for profit ; except it 404. Dung, or chalk, or blood, applied in subshould be for sowing of peas, which have their price stance, seasonably, to the roots of trees, doth set very much increased by the early coming. It may them forwards. But to do it unto herbs, without be tried also with cherries, strawberries, and other mixture of water or earth, it may be these helps are fruit, which are dearest when they come early. too hot.
402. There was wheat steeped in water mixed 405. The former means of helping germination, with cow-dung; other in water mixed with horse are either by the goodness and strength of the dung; other in water mixed with pigeon-dung ; nourishment; or by the comforting and exciting the other in urine of man; other in water mixed with spirits in the plant to draw the nourishment better. chalk powdered; other in water mixed with soot; And of this latter kind, concerning the comforting other in water mixed with ashes; other in water of the spirits of the plant, are also the experiments mixed with bay-salt; other in claret wine; other in that follow; though they be not applications to the malmsey; other in spirit of wine. The proportion root or seed. The planting of trees warm upon a of the mixture was a fourth part of the ingredients wall against the south, or south-east sun, doth hasten to the water; save that there was not of the salt their coming on and ripening; and the south-east is above an eighth part. The urine, and wines, and found to be better than the south-west, though the spirit of wine, were simple without mixture of water. south-west be the hotter coast. But the cause is The time of the steeping was twelve hours. The chiefly, for that the heat of the morning succeedeth time of the year October. There was also other the cold of the night: and partly, because many wheat sown unsteeped, but watered twice a day with times the south-west sun is too parching. So likewarm water. There was also other wheat sown wise the planting of them upon the back of a simple, to compare it with the rest. The event chimney where a fire is kept, doth hasten their comwas, that those that were in the mixture of dung, ing on and ripening : nay more, the drawing of the and urine, and soot, chalk, ashes, and salt, came up boughs into the inside of a room where a fire is within six days; and those that afterwards proved continually kept, worketh the same effect; which the highest, thickest, and most lusty, were first the hath been tried with grapes; insomuch as they will urine; and then the dungs; next the chalk; next come a month earlier than the grapes abroad. the soot; next the ashes; next the salt; next the 406. Besides the two means of accelerating wheat simple of itself, unsteeped and unwatered; germination formerly described ; that is to say, the next the watered twice a day with warm water; mending of the nourishment, and comforting of the next the claret wine. So that these three last were spirit of the plant; there is a third, which is the slower than the ordinary wheat of itself; and this making way for the easy coming to the nourish