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bolizeth most with gold ; put in also with the silver, already putrified, is added to other bodies. And this a tenth part of quicksilver, and a twelfth part of is also notably seen in church-yards where they nitre, by weight: both these to quicken and open bury much, where the earth will consume the corpse the body of the metal : and so let the work be con in far shorter time than other earth will.

I wish also, that there be at some times an injection which detaineth the spirits in prison more than they of some oiled substance ; such as they use in the would; and thereby irritateth them to seek issue; recovering of gold, which by vexing with separa as in corn and clothes which wax musty; and tions hath been made churlish: and this is to lay therefore open air, which they call aër perflabilis, the parts more close and smooth, which is the main doth preserve: and this doth appear more evidently work. For gold, as we see, is the closest and there in agues, which come, most of them, of obstructions, fore the heaviest, of metals; and is likewise the and penning the humours, which thereupon putrify. most flexible and tensible. Note, that to think to 332. The fourth is by solution of continuity; as make gold of quicksilver, because it is the heaviest, we see an apple will rot sooner if it be cut or is a thing not to be hoped ; for quicksilver will not pierced; and so will wood, &c. And so the flesh of endure the manage of the fire. Next to silver, I creatures alive, where they have received any wound. think copper were fittest to be the material.

333. The fifth is either by the exhaling or by the

driving back of the principal spirits which preserve Experiment solitary touching the nature of gold.

the consistence of the body; so that when their 328. Gold hath these natures ; greatness of government is dissolved, every part returneth to his weight; closeness of parts; fixation; pliantness, or nature or homogeny. And this appeareth in urine softness ; immunity from rust; colour or tincture of and blood when they cool, and thereby break : it yellow. Therefore the sure way, though most appeareth also in the gangrene, or mortification of about, to make gold, is to know the causes of the flesh, either by opiates or by intense colds. I conseveral natures before rehearsed, and the axioms ceive also the same effect is in pestilences; for that concerning the same. For if a man can make a the malignity of the infecting vapour danceth the metal that hath all these properties, let men dispute principal spirits, and maketh them fly and leave their whether it be gold or no.

regiment; and then the humours, flesh, and secondary

spirits, do dissolve and break, as in an anarchy. Experiments in consort touching the inducing and

334. The sixth is when a foreign spirit, stronger accelerating of putrefaction.

and more eager than the spirit of the body, entereth The inducing and accelerating of putrefaction, is the body; as in the stinging of serpents. And this a subject of a very universal inquiry : for corruption is the cause, generally, that upon all poisons followis a reciprocal to generation : and they two are as eth swelling: and we see swelling followeth also nature's two terms or boundaries ; and the guides to when the spirits of the body itself congregate too life and death. Putrefaction is the work of the much, as upon blows and bruises; or when they are spirits of bodies, which ever are unquiet to get forth pent in too much, as in swelling upon cold. And and congregate with the air, and to enjoy the sun we see also, that the spirits coming of putrefaction beams. The getting forth, or spreading of the of humours in agues, &c. which may be counted as spirits, which is a degree of getting forth, hath five foreign spirits, though they be bred within the differing operations. If the spirits be detained body, do extinguish and suffocate the natural spirits within the body, and move more violently, there fol and heat. loweth colliquation, as in metals, &c.

If more

335. The seventh is by such a weak degree of mildly, there followeth digestion, or maturation ; as heat, as setteth the spirits in a little motion, but is in drinks and fruits. If the spirits be not merely not able either to digest the parts, or to issue the detained, but protrude a little, and that motion be spirits ; as is seen in flesh kept in a room, that is conftised and inordinate, there followeth putrefac- not cool : whereas in a cool and wet larder it will tion; which ever dissolveth the consistence of the keep longer. And we see that vivification, whereof body into much inequality; as in flesh, rotten fruits, putrefaction is the bastard brother, is effected by shining wood, &c. and also in the rust of metals. such soft heats; as the hatching of eggs, the heat But if that motion be in a certain order, there fol- of the womb, &c. loweth vivification and figuration ; as both in living 336. The eighth is by the releasing of the spirits, creatures bred of putrefaction, and in living creatures which before were close kept by the solidness of their perfect. But if the spirits issue out of the body, coverture, and thereby their appetite of issuing there followeth desiccation, induration, consumption, checked; as in the artificial rusts induced by strong &c. as in brick, evaporation of bodies liquid, &c. waters in iron, lead, &c., and therefore wetting

329. The means to induce and accelerate putre- hasteneth rust or putrefaction of any thing, because faction, are, first, by adding some crude or watery it softeneth the crust for the spirits to come forth. moisture; as in wetting of any flesh, fruit, wood, with 337. The ninth is by the interchange of heat and water, &c. for contrariwise unctuous and oily sub-cold, or wet and dry; as we see in the mouldering stances preserve.

of earth in frosts and sun; and in the more hasty 330. The second is by invitation or excitation ; rotting of wood, that is sometimes wet, someas when a rotten apple lieth close to another apple times dry. that is sound; or when dung, which is a substance 338. The tenth is by time, and the work and pro

cedure of the spirits themselves, which cannot keep the diversity is, that in bodies that need detention their station; especially if they be left to them of spirits, the exclusion of the air doth good; as selves, and there be not agitation or local motion. in drinks and corn: but in bodies that need emisAs we see in corn not stirred; and men's bodies not sion of spirits to discharge some of the superfluexercised.

ous moisture, it doth hurt, for they require airing. 339. All moulds are inceptions of putrefaction ; 344. The fourth is motion and stirring; for puas the moulds of pies and flesh; the moulds of trefaction asketh rest: for the subtle motion which oranges and lemons, which moulds afterwards turn putrefaction requireth, is disturbed by any agitation; into worms, or more odious putrefactions : and there and all local motion keepeth bodies integral, and fore, commonly, prove to be of ill odour. And if their parts together; as we see that turning over of the body be liquid, and not apt to putrify totally, it corn in a garner, or letting it run like an hour-glass, will cast up a mother in the top, as the mothers of from an upper-room into a lower, doth keep it distilled waters.

sweet; and running waters putrify not: and in 340. Moss is a kind of mould of the earth and men's bodies, exercise hindereth putrefaction; and trees. But it may be better sorted as a rudiment of contrariwise, rest and want of motion, or stoppings, germination; to which we refer it.

whereby the run of humours, or the motion of perExperiments in consort touching prohibiting and

spiration is stayed, further putrefaction; as we

partly touched a little before. preventing putrefaction.

345. The fifth is the breathing forth of the adIt is an inquiry of excellent use, to inquire of the ventitious moisture in bodies ; for as wetting doth means of preventing or staying putrefaction; for hasten putrefaction, so convenient drying, whereby therein consisteth the means of conservation of bo the more radical moisture is only kept in, putteth dies: for bodies have two kinds of dissolutions; the back putrefaction; so we see that herbs and flowers, one by consumption and desiccation; the other by if they be dried in the shade, or dried in the hot putrefaction. But as for the putrefactions of the sun for a small time, keep best. For the emission bodies of men and living creatures, as in agues, of the loose and adventitious moisture doth beworms, consumptions of the lungs, imposthumes, and tray the radical moisture; and carrieth it out for ulcers both inwards and outwards, they are a great company. part of physic and surgery; and therefore we will 346. The sixth is the strengthening of the spirits reserve the inquiry of them to the proper place, of bodies; for as a great heat keepeth bodies from where we shall handle medical experiments of all putrefaction, but a tepid heat inclineth them to pusorts. Of the rest we will now enter into an in- trefaction; so a strong spirit likewise preserveth, quiry: wherein much light may be taken from that and a weak or faint spirit disposeth to corruption. which hath been said of the means to induce or So we find that salt water corrupteth not so soon as accelerate putrefactions; or the removing that which fresh : and salting of oysters, and powdering of caused putrefaction, doth prevent and avoid putre-meat, keepeth them from putrefaction. It would be faction.

tried also, whether chalk put into water or drink, 341. The first means of prohibiting or checking doth not preserve it from putrifying or speedy sourputrefaction, is cold : for so we see that meat and ing. So we see that strong beer will last longer drink will last longer unputrified or unsoured, in than small; and all things that are hot and arowinter than in summer : and we see that flowers matical, do help to preserve liquors, or powders, and fruits, put in conservatories of snow, keep fresh. &c. which they do as well by strengthening the And this worketh by the detention of the spirits, spirits, as by soaking out the loose moisture. and constipation of the tangible parts.

347. The seventh is separation of the cruder 342. The second is astriction : for astriction pro- parts, and thereby making the body more equal; for hibiteth' dissolution: as we see generally in medi- all imperfect mixture is apt to putrify; and watery cines, whereof such as are astringents do inhibit substances are more apt to putrify than oily. So putrefaction: and by the same reason of astringency, we see distilled waters will last longer than raw some small quantity of oil of vitriol will keep fresh waters; and things that have passed the fire do water long from putrifying. And this astriction is last longer than those that have not passed the fire; in a substance that hath a virtual cold: and it as dried pears, &c. worketh partly by the same means that cold doth. 348. The eighth is the drawing forth continually

343. The third is the excluding of the air ; and of that part where the putrefaction beginneth ; again, the exposing to the air: for these contraries, which is commonly, the loose and watery moisture; as it cometh often to pass, work the same effect, ac not only for the reason before given, that it procording to the nature of the subject matter.

voketh the radical moisture to come forth with it; see, that beer or wine, in bottles close stopped, last but because being detained in the body, the putrelong; that the garners under ground keep corn faction taking hold of it, infecteth the rest: as we longer than those above ground; and that fruit see in the embalming of dead bodies; and the same closed in wax keepeth fresh; and likewise bodies reason is of preserving herbs, or fruits, or flowers, put in honey and flour keep more fresh : and liquors, in bran or meal. drinks, and juices, with a little oil cast on the top, 349. The ninth is the commixture of any thing keep fresh. Contrariwise, we see that cloth and that is more oily or sweet; for such bodies are least apparel not aired do breed moths and mould ; and apt to putrify, the air working little upon them;

So we

and they not putrifying, preserve the rest. And , house, within five or six days lost the shining; and therefore we see syrups and ointments will last laid abroad again, recovered the shining. 9. Shinlonger than juices.

ing woods being laid in a dry room, within a seven350. The tenth is the commixture of somewhat night lost their shining ; but being laid in a cellar, that is dry; for putrefaction beginneth first from or dark room, kept the shining. 10. The boring of the spirits, and then from the moisture: and that holes in that kind of wood, and then laying it abroad, that is dry is unapt to putrify: and therefore smoke seemeth to conduce to make it shine : the cause is, preserveth flesh; as we see in bacon and neats' for that all solution of continuity doth help on putongues, and Martlemas beef, &c.

trefaction, as was touched before. 11. No wood 351. The opinion of some of the ancients, that hath been yet tried to shine, that was cut down alive, blown airs do preserve bodies longer than other but such as was rotted both in stock and root while airs, seemeth to me probable; for that the blown it grew. 12. Part of the wood that shined was airs, being overcharged and compressed, will hardly steeped in oil, and retained the shining a fortnight. receive the exhaling of any thing, but rather re 13. The like succeeded in some steeped in water, pulse it. It was tried in a blown bladder, whereinto and much better. 14. How long the shining will flesh was put, and likewise a flower; and it sorted continue, if the wood be laid abroad every night, and not: for dry bladders will not blow; and new blad- taken in and sprinkled with water in the day, is not ders rather farther putrefaction: the way were there yet tried. 15. Trial was made of laying it abroad fore to blow strongly with a pair of bellows into a in frosty weather, which hurt it not. 16. There hogshead, putting into the hogshead, before, that was a great piece of a root which did shine, and the which you would have preserved; and in the in- shining part was cut off till no more shined; yet stant that you withdraw the bellows stop the hole after two nights, though it were kept in a dry room, close.

it got a shining. Experiment solitary touching wood shining in the

Experiments solitary touching the acceleration of dark.

birth. 352. The experiment of wood that shineth in the 353. The bringing forth of living creatures may be dark, we have diligently driven and pursued; the accelerated in two respects ; the one, if the embryo rather, for that of all things that give light here ripeneth and perfecteth sooner; the other, if there be below, it is the most durable, and hath least apparent some cause from the mother's body, of expulsion motion. Fire and flame are in continual expense; or putting it down : whereof the former is good, sugar shineth only while it is in scraping; and salt- and argueth strength; the latter is ill, and cometh water while it is in dashing; glow-worms have their by accident or disease. And therefore the ancient shining while they live, or a little after; only scales observation is true, that the child born in the seventh of fishes putrified seem to be of the same nature month doth commonly well; but born in the eighth with shining wood: and it is true, that all putrefac- month, doth for the most part die. But the cause tion hath with it an inward motion, as well as fire assigned is fabulous ; which is, that in the eighth or light. The trial sorted thus : 1. The shining is should be the return of the reign of the planet Saturn, in some pieces more bright, in some more dim; which, as they say, is a planet malign; whereas in but the most bright of all doth not attain to the the seventh is the reign of the moon, which is a light of a glow-worm. 2. The woods that have planet propitious. But the true cause is, for that been tried to shine, are chiefly sallow and willow ; where there is so great prevention of the ordinary also the ash and hazel; it may be it holdeth in others. time, it is the lustiness of the child; but when it is 3. Both roots and bodies do shine, but the roots less, it is some indisposition of the mother. better. 4. The colour of the shining part, by daylight, is in some pieces white, in some pieces inclin

Experiment solitary touching the acceleration of ing to red; which in the country they call the white

growth and stature. and red garret.

5. The part that shineth is, for 354. To accelerate growth or stature, it must the most part, somewhat soft, and moist to feel to; proceed either from the plenty of the nourishment; but some was found to be firm and hard, so as it or from the nature of the nourishment; or from the might be figured into a cross, or into beads, &c. quickening and exciting of the natural heat. For But you must not look to have an image, or the like, the first, excess of nourishment is hurtful; for it in any thing that is lightsome : for even a face in maketh the child corpulent; and growing in breadth iron red-hot will not be seen, the light confounding rather than in height. And you may take an exthe small differences, of lightsome and darksome, periment from plants, which if they spread much which show the figure. 6. There was the shining are seldom tall. As for the nature of the nourishpart pared off, till you came to that that did not ment; first, it may not be too dry, and therefore shine; but within two days the part contiguous be- children in dairy countries do wax more tall, than gan also to shine, being laid abroad in the dew ; so where they feed more upon bread and flesh. There as it seemeth the putrefaction spreadeth. 7. There is also a received tale ; that boiling of daisy roots was other dead wood of like kind that was laid in milk, which it is certain are great driers, will abroad, which shined not at first; but after a night's make dogs little. But so much is true, that an overlying abroad began to shine. 8. There was other dry nourishment in childhood putteth back stature. wood that did first shine; and being laid dry in the Secondly, the nourishment must be of an opening

nature ; for that attenuateth the juice, and farthereth 356. The second is in the assimilation of nourishthe motion of the spirits upwards. Neither is it ment, made in the bodies of plants and living without cause, that Xenophon, in the nurture of the creatures; whereof plants turn the juice of mere Persian children, doth so much commend their feed- water and earth into a great deal of oily matter : ing upon cardamon ; which, he saith, made them living creatures, though much of their fat and flesh grow better, and be of a more active habit. Car- are out of oily aliments, as meat and bread, yet they damon is in Latin nasturtium ; and with us water- assimilate also in a measure their drink of water, cresses; which, it is certain, is a herb that, whilst &c. But these two ways of version of water into oil, it is young, is friendly to life. As for the quicken- namely, by mixture and by assimilation, are by ing of natural heat, it must be done chiefly with many passages and percolations, and by long conexercise ; and therefore no doubt much going to tinuance of soft heats, and by circuits of time. school, where they sit so much, hindereth the 357. The third is in the inception of putrefaction: growth of children; whereas country people that as in water corrupted, and the mothers of waters go not to school, are commonly of better stature. distilled; both which have a kind of fatness or oil. And again men must beware how they give children 358. The fourth is in the dulcoration of some any thing that is cold in operation ; for even long metals: as saccharum Saturni, &c. sucking doth hinder both wit and stature. This 359. The intention of version of water into a more hath been tried, that a whelp that hath been fed oily substance is by digestion ; for oil is almost nowith nitre in milk, hath become very little, but ex- thing else but water digested ; and this digestion is treme lively: for the spirit of nitre is cold. And principally by heat; which heat must be either outthough it be an excellent medicine in strength of. ward or inward: again, it may be by provocation years for prolongation of life; yet it is in children and or excitation; which is caused by the mingling of young creatures an enemy to growth : and all for bodies already oily or digested; for they will somethe same reason ; for heat is requisite to growth ; | what communicate their nature with the rest. but after a man is come to his middle age, heat con- Digestion also is strongly effected by direct assimisumeth the spirits; which the coldness of the spirit lation of bodies crude into bodies digested ; as in of nitre doth help to condense and correct.

plants and living creatures, whose nourishment is Experiments in consort touching sulphur and mer

far more crude than their bodies : but this digestion

is by a great compass, as hath been said. As for cury, two of Paracelsus's principles.

the more full handling of these two principles, There be two great families of things; you may whereof this is but a taste, the inquiry of which is term them by several names; sulphureous and mer one of the profoundest inquiries of nature, we leave curial, which are the chemists' words, for as for their it to the title of version of bodies; and likewise to sal, which is their third principle, it is a compound the title of the first congregations of matter; which, of the other two; inflammable and not inflammable; | like a general assembly of estates, doth give law to mature and crude ; oily and watery. For we see that all bodies. in subterranies there are, as the fathers of their tribes, brimstone and mercury; in vegetables and

Experiment solitary touching chameleons. living creatures there is water and oil; in the in 360. A chameleon is a creature about the bigness ferior order of pneumaticals there is air and flame ; of an ordinary lizard : his head unproportionably and in the superior there is the body of the star and big: his eyes great: he moveth his head without the pure sky. And these pairs, though they be un the writhing of his neck, which is inflexible, as a like in the primitive differences of matter, yet they hog doth : his back crooked ; his skin spotted with seem to have many consents: for mercury and sul little tumours, less eminent near the belly ; his tail phur are principal materials of metals; water and slender and long : on each foot he hath five fingers ; oil are principal materials of vegetables and ani- three on the outside, and two on the inside : his mals; and seem to differ but in maturation or con tongue of a marvellous length in respect of his body, coction: flame, in vulgar opinion, is but air incensed; and hollow at the end; which he will launch out to and they both have quickness of motion, and facility prey upon flies. Of colour green, and of a dusky of cession, much alike: and the interstellar sky, yellow, brighter and whiter towards the belly; yet though the opinion be vain, that the star is the spotted with blue, white, and red. If he be laid upon denser part of his orb, hath notwithstanding so much green, the green predominateth ; if upon yellow, the affinity with the star, that there is a rotation of that, yellow ; not so if he be laid upon blue, or red, or as well as of the star. Therefore it is one of the white ; only the green spots receive a more orient greatest magnalia naturæ, to turn water or watery lustre ; laid upon black, he looketh all black, though juice into oil or oily juice : greater in nature, than not without a mixture of green. He feedeth not to turn silver or quicksilver into gold.

only upon air, though that be his principal suste355. The instances we have wherein crude and nance, for sometimes he taketh flies, as was said; watery substance turneth into fat and oily, are of yet some that have kept chameleons a whole year four kinds. First in the mixture of earth and together, could never perceive that ever they fed water; which mingled by the help of the sun gather upon any thing else but air; and might observe their a nitrous fatness, more than either of them have bellies to swell after they had exhausted the air severally; as we see in that they put forth plants, and closed their jaws; which they open commonly which need both juices.

against the rays of the sun. They have a foolish

tradition in magic, that if a chameleon be burnt upon the earth narrower at the bottom than at the top, the top of a house, it will raise a tempest; sup- in fashion of a sugar-loaf reversed, it will help the posing, according to their vain dreams of sympathies, experiment. For it will make the ice, where it isbecause he nourisheth with air, his body should sueth, less in bulk ; and evermore smallness of have great virtue to make impression upon the air. quantity is a help to version. Experiment solitary touching subterrany fires. Experiment solitary touching preserving of rose

leaves both in colour and smell. 361. It is reported by one of the ancients, that in part of Media there are eruptions of flames out of 365. Take damask roses, and pull them; then plains; and that those flames are clear, and cast not dry them upon the top of a house, upon a lead or forth such smoke, and ashes, and pumice, as moun. terras, in the hot sun, in a clear day, between the tain flames do. The reason, no doubt, is, because hours only of twelve and two, or thereabouts. Then the flame is not pent as it is in mountains and earth- put them into a sweet dry earthen bottle, or a glass, quakes which cast flame. There be also some blind with narrow mouths, stuffing them close together, fires under stone, which flame not out, but oil being but without bruising: stop the bottle or glass close, poured upon them they flame out.

The cause

and these roses will retain not only their smell perwhereof is, for that it seemeth that the fire is so fect, but their colour fresh for a year at least. Note, choked, as not able to remove the stone, it is heat that nothing do so much destroy any plant, or other rather than flame; which nevertheless is sufficient body, either by putrefaction or arefaction, as the to inflame the oil.

adventitious moisture which hangeth loose in the Experiment solitary touching nitre.

body, if it be not drawn out. For it betrayeth and

tolleth forth the innate and radical moisture along 362. It is reported, that in some lakes the water with it, when itself goeth forth. And therefore in is so nitrous, as, if foul clothes be put into it, it | living creatures, moderate sweat doth preserve the scoureth them of itself: and if they stay any whit juice of the body. Note, that these roses, when long, they moulder away. And the scouring virtue you take them from the drying, have little or no of nitre is the more to be noted, because it is a body smell; so that the smell is a second smell, that iscold; and we see warm water scoureth better than sueth out of the flower afterwards. cold. But the cause is, for that it hath a subtle spirit, which severeth and divideth any thing that is Experiments in consort touching the continuance of foul and viscous, and sticketh upon a body.

flame.

366. The continuance of flame, according unto Experiment solitary touching congealing of air.

the diversity of the body inflamed, and other cir363. Take a bladder, the greatest you can get : cumstances, is worthy the inquiry ; chiefly, for that fill it full of wind, and tie it about the neck with though flame be almost of a momentary lasting, yet a silk thread waxed; and upon that put likewise it receiveth the more and the less : we will first wax very close ; so that when the neck of the blad- therefore speak at large of bodies inflamed wholly der drieth, no air may possibly get in or out. Then and immediately, without any wick to help the inbury it three or four foot under the earth in a vault, flammation. A spoonful of spirit of wine, a little or in a conservatory of snow, the snow being made heated, was taken, and it burnt as long as came to hollow about the bladder; and after some fortnight's a hundred and sixteen pulses. The same quantity distance, see whether the bladder be shrunk; for if of spirit of wine, mixed with the sixth part of a it be, then it is plain that the coldness of the earth spoonful of nitre, burnt but to the space of ninetyor snow hath condensed the air, and brought it a four pulses. Mixed with the like quantity of baydegree nearer to water: which is an experiment of salt, eighty-three pulses. Mixed with the like great consequence.

quantity of gunpowder, which dissolved into a black

water, one hundred and ten pulses. A cube or pelExperiment solitary touching congealing of water

let of yellow wax was taken, as much as half the into crystal.

spirit of wine, and set in the midst, and it burnt only 364. It is a report of some good credit, that in to the space of eighty-seven pulses. Mixed with deep caves there are pensile crystals, and degrees of the sixth part of a spoonful of milk, it burnt to the crystal that drop from above; and in some other, space of one hundred pulses; and the milk was though more rarely, that rise from below: which curdled. Mixed with the sixth part of a spoonful though it be chiefly the work of cold, yet it may of water, it burnt to the space of eighty-six pulses; be that water that passeth through the earth, ga- with an equal quantity of water, only to the space thereth a nature more clammy and fitter to congeal of four pulses. A small pebble was laid in the and become solid than water of itself. Therefore midst, and the spirit of wine burnt to the space of trial would be made, to lay a heap of earth, in great ninety-four pulses. A piece of wood of the bigness frosts, upon a hollow vessel, putting a canvass be of an arrow, and about a finger's length, was set up tween, that it falleth not in : and pour water upon in the midst, and the spirit of wine burnt to the it, in such quantity as will be sure to soak through; space of ninety-four pulses. So that the spirit of and see whether it will not make a harder ice in wine simple endured the longest; and the spirit of the bottom of the vessel, and less apt to dissolve wine with the bay-salt, and the equal quantity of than ordinarily. I suppose also, that if you make water, were the shortest.

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