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and this shall be done in the space of less than a example of the former of these is in a country life; minute.
and of the latter in monks and philosophers, and 290. The sudden generation and perishing of such as do continually enjoin themselves. sounds, must be one of these two ways. Either that the air suffereth some force by sound, and then
Experiment solitary touching appetite of union restoreth itself, as water doth; which being divided
in bodies. maketh many circles, till it restore itself to the na 293. It is certain that in all bodies there is an tural consistence: or otherwise, that the air doth appetite of union, and evitation of solution of contiwillingly imbibe the sound as grateful, but cannot nuity: and of this appetite there be many degrees; maintain it; for that the air hath, as it should seem, but the most remarkable and fit to be distinguished a secret and hidden appetite of receiving the sound are three. The first in liquors; the second in hard at the first; but then other gross and more materiate bodies; and the third in bodies cleaving or tenaqualities of the air straightways suffocate it; like cious. In liquors this appetite is weak : we see unto flame, which is generated with alacrity, but in liquors, the threading of them in stillicides, as straight quenched by the enmity of the air or other hath been said; the falling of them in round drops, ambient bodies.
which is the form of union ; and the staying of There be these differences in general, by which them for a little time in bubbles and froth. In the sounds are divided : 1. Musical, immusical. 2. second degree or kind, this appetite is strong ; as in Treble, base. 3. Flat, sharp. 4. Soft, loud. 5. Ex- iron, in stone, in wood, &c. In the third, this apterior, interior. 6. Clean, harsh, or purling. 7. Arti petite is in a medium between the other two: for culate, inarticulate.
such bodies do partly follow the touch of another We have laboured, as may appear, in this inquisi-body, and partly stick and continue to themselves; tion of sounds diligently; both because sound is and therefore they rope, and draw themselves in one of the most hidden portions of nature, as we threads; as we see in pitch, glue, bird-lime, &c. said in the beginning, and because it is a virtue But note, that all solid bodies are cleaving more or which may be called incorporeal and immateriate ; less : and that they love better the touch of somewhereof there be in nature but few. Besides, we what that is tangible, than of air. For water in were willing, now in these our first centuries, to small quantity cleaveth to any thing that is solid : make a pattern or precedent of an exact inquisition; and so would metal too, if the weight drew it not off. and we shall do the like hereafter in some other And therefore gold foliate, or any metal foliate, subjects which require it. For we desire that men cleaveth : but those bodies which are noted to be should learn and perceive, how severe a thing the clammy and cleaving, are such as have a more intrue inquisition of nature is; and should accustom different appetite at once to follow another body, themselves by the light of particulars to enlarge and to hold to themselves. And therefore they are their minds to the amplitude of the world, and not commonly bodies ill mixed; and which take more reduce the world to the narrowness of their minds. pleasure in a foreign body, than in preserving their Experiment solitary touching the orient colours in
own consistence; and which have little predomidissolution of metals.
nance in drought or moisture. 291. Metals give orient and fine colours in dis- Experiments solitary touching the like operations of
heat and time. solutions ; as gold giveth an excellent yellow ; quicksilver an excellent green; tin giveth an excel 294. Time and heat are fellows in many effects. lent azure: likewise in their putrefactions or rusts; Heat drieth bodies that do easily expire; as parchas vermilion, verdigrease, bise, cirrus, &c. and like- ment, leaves, roots, clay, &c. And so doth time or wise in their vitrifactions. The cause is, for that age arefy ; as in the same bodies, &c. Heat disby their strength of body they are able to endure solveth and melteth bodies that keep in their spirits ; the fire or strong waters, and to be put into an equal as in divers liquefactions: and so doth time in some posture ; and again to retain a part of their princi- bodies of a softer consistence, as is manifest in pal spirit: which two things, equal posture and honey, which by age waxeth more liquid, and the quick spirits, are required chiefly to make colours like in sugar; and so in old oil, which is ever more lightsome.
clear and more hot in medicinable use. Heat Experiment solitary touching prolongation of life.
causeth the spirits to search some issue out of the
body; as in the volatility of metals; and so doth 292. It conduceth unto long life, and to the time; as in the rust of metals. But generally heat more placid motion of the spirits, which thereby do doth that in small time which age doth in long. less prey and consume the juice of the body, either that men's actions be free and voluntary, that no
Experiment solitary touching the differing operathing be done invita Minerva, but secundum genium ;
tions of fire and time. or on the other side, that the actions of men be full 295. Some things which pass the fire are softest of regulation and commands within themselves : for at first, and by time grow hard, as the crumb of then the victory and performing of the command bread. Some are harder when they come from the giveth a good disposition to the spirits; especially fire, and afterwards give again, and grow soft, as if there be a proceeding from degree to degree; for the crust of bread, bisket, sweetmeats, salt
, &c. The then the sense of the victory is the greater. An cause is, for that in those things which wax hard
with time, the work of the fire is a kind of melting;
Experiment solitary touching exercise of the body. and in those that wax soft with time, contrariwise, the work of the fire is a kind of baking; and what 299. Much motion and exercise is good for some soever the fire baketh, time doth in some degree bodies; and sitting and less motion for others. If dissolve.
the body be hot and void of superfluous moistures,
too much motion hurteth: and it is an error in Experiment solitary touching motions by imitation. physicians, to call too much upon exercise. Like
wise men ought to beware, that they use not exercise 296. Motions pass from one man to another, not and a spare diet both; but if much exercise, then so much by exciting imagination as by invitation; a plentiful diet; and if sparing diet, then little exespecially if there be an aptness or inclination be-ercise. The benefits that come of exercise are, first, fore. Therefore gaping, or yawning, and stretch- that it sendeth nourishment into the parts more ing do pass from man to man; for that that causeth forcibly. Secondly, that it helpeth to excern by gaping and stretching is, when the spirits are a sweat, and so maketh the parts assimilate the more little heavy by any vapour, or the like. For then perfectly. Thirdly, that it maketh the substance of they strive, as it were, to wring out and expel that the body more solid and compact; and so less apt which loadeth them. So men drowsy, and desirous to be consumed and depredated by the spirits. The to sleep, or before the fit of an ague, do use to yawn evils that come of exercise are, first, that it maketh and stretch ; and do likewise yield a voice or sound, the spirits more hot and predatory. Secondly, that which is an interjection of expulsion; so that if it doth absorb likewise, and attenuate too much the another be apt and prepared to do the like, he fol- moisture of the body. Thirdly, that it maketh too loweth by the sight of another. So the laughing great concussion, especially if it be violent, of the of another maketh to laugh.
inward parts, which delight more in rest. But ge
nerally exercise, if it be much, is no friend to proExperiment solitary touching infectious diseases. longation of life; which is one cause why women
live longer than men, because they stir less. 297. There be some known diseases that are infectious; and others that are not. Those that are
Experiment solitary touching meats that induce infectious are, first, such as are chiefly in the spirits,
satiety. and not so much in the humours; and therefore 300. Some food we may use long, and much, withpass easily from body to body; such are pestilences, out glutting; as bread, flesh that is not fat or rank, lippitudes, and such like. Secondly, such as taint &c. Some other, though pleasant, glutteth sooner ; the breath, which we see passeth manifestly from as sweet-meats, fat meats, &c. The cause is, for that man to man; and not invisibly, as the effects of the appetite consisteth in the emptiness of the mouth of spirits do; such are consumptions of the lungs, &c. the stomach; or possessing it with somewhat that Thirdly, such as come forth to the skin, and there is astringent; and therefore cold and dry. But fore taint the air or the body adjacent; especially things that are sweet and fat are more filling ; and if they consist in an unctuous substance not apt to do swing and hang more about the mouth of the dissipate ; such are scabs and leprosy. Fourthly, stomach; and go not down so speedily: and again such as are merely in the humours, and not in the turn sooner to choler, which is hot, and ever abateth spirits, breath, or exhalations ; and therefore they the appetite. We see also that another cause of never infect but by touch only ; and such a touch satiety is an over-custom ; and of appetite is no
novelty; also as cometh within the epidermis ; as the venom and therefore meats if the same be continually taken, of the French pox, and the biting of a mad dog. induce loathing. To give the reason of the distaste
of satiety, and of the pleasure in novelty ; and to Experiment solitary touching the incorporation of
distinguish not only the meats and drinks, but also pouders and liquors.
in motions, loves, company, delights, studies, what 298. Most powders grow more close and coherent they be that custom maketh more grateful, and by mixture of water, than by mixture of oil, though what more tedious, were a large field. But for oil be the thicker body ; as meal, &c. The reason meats, the cause is attraction, which is quicker, and is the congruity of bodies; which if it be more, more excited towards that which is new, than tomaketh a perfecter imbibition and incorporation ; | wards that whereof there remaineth a relish by which in most powders is more between them and former use. And, generally, it is a rule, that whatwater, than between them and oil; but painters' soever is somewhat ingrate at first, is made gratecolours ground, and ashes, do better incorporate ful by custom ; but whatsoever is too pleasing at with oil.
first, groweth quickly to satiate.
Experiments in consort touching the clarification of work; for though the lees do make the liquor turbid, liquors, and the accelerating thereof.
yet they refine the spirits. Take therefore a vessel
of new beer, and take another vessel of new beer, ACCELERATION of time, in works of nature, may and rack the one vessel from the lees, and pour the well be esteemed inter magnalia naturæ. And even lees of the racked vessel into the unracked vessel, in divine miracles, accelerating of the time is next and see the effect : this instance is referred to the to the creating of the matter. We will now there. refining of the spirits. fore proceed to the inquiry of it: and for accelera 307. Take new beer, and put in some quantity of tion of germination, we will refer it over unto stale beer into it, and see whether it will not accethe place where we shall handle the subject of lerate the clarification, by opening the body of the plants generally; and will now begin with other beer, and cutting the grosser parts, whereby they accelerations.
may fall down into lees. And this instance again 301. Liquors are, many of them, at the first thick is referred to separation. and troubled; as muste, wort, juices of fruits, or 308. The longer malt or herbs, or the like, are herbs expressed, &c. and by time they settle and infused in liquor, the more thick and troubled the clarify. But to make them clear before the time is liquor is ; but the longer they be decocted in the a great work; for it is a spur to nature, and putteth liquor, the clearer it is. The reason is plain, beher out of her pace; and, besides, it is of good use cause in infusion, the longer it is, the greater is the for making drinks and sauces potable and service- part of the gross body that goeth into the liquor : able speedily. But to know the means of accelerating but in decoction, though more goeth forth, yet it clarification, we must first know the causes of clari- either purgeth at the top, or settleth at the bottom. fication. The first cause is, by the separation of And therefore the most exact way to clarify is, first, the grosser parts of the liquor from the finer. The to infuse, and then to take off the liquor and decoct second, by the equal distribution of the spirits of it; as they do in beer, which hath malt first infused the liquor with the tangible parts: for that ever in the liquor, and is afterwards boiled with the hop. representeth bodies clear and untroubled. The third | This also is referred to separation. by the refining the spirit itself, which thereby giveth 309. Take hot embers, and put them about a to the liquor more splendour and more lustre. bottle filled with new beer, almost to the very neck;
302. First, for separation, it is wrought by let the bottle be well stopped, lest it fly out: and weight, as in the ordinary residence or settlement continue it, renewing the embers every day, by the of liquors ; by heat, by motion, by precipitation, or space of ten days; and then compare it with another sublimation, that is, a calling of the several parts bottle of the same beer set by. Take also lime either up or down, which is a kind of attraction ; both quenched and unquenched, and set the bottles by adhesion, as when a body more viscous is in them, ut supra. This instance is referred both mingled and agitated with the liquor, which viscous to the even distribution, and also to the refining of body, afterwards severed, draweth with it the grosser the spirits by heat. parts of the liquor ; and lastly, by percolation or 310. Take bottles, and swing them, or carry them passage.
in a wheel-barrow upon rough ground twice in a 303. Secondly, for the even distribution of the day; but then you may not fill the bottles full, but spirits, it is wrought by gentle heat; and by agita- leave some air; for if the liquor come close to the tion or motion, for of time we speak not, because it stopple, it cannot play nor flower : and when you is that we would anticipate and represent; and it have shaken them well either way, pour the drink is wrought also by mixture of some other body into another bottle stopped close after the usual manwhich hath a virtue to open the liquor, and to make ner; for if it stay with much air in it, the drink the spirits the better pass through.
will pall; neither will it settle so perfectly in all the 304. Thirdly, for the refining of the spirit, it is parts. Let it stand some twenty-four hours: then wrought likewise by heat; by motion ; and by mix- take it, and put it again into a bottle with air, ut ture of some body which hath virtue to attenuate. supra : and thence into a bottle stopped, ut supra : So therefore, having shown the causes, for the acce and so repeat the same operation for seven days. lerating of clarification in general, and the inducing Note, that in the emptying of one bottle into another, of it, take these instances and trials.
you must do it swiftly lest the drink pall. It were 305. It is in common practice to draw wine or good also to try it in a bottle with a little air below beer from the lees, which we call racking, whereby the neck, without emptying. This instance is reit will clarify much the sooner; for the lees, though | ferred to the even distribution and refining of the they keep the drink in heart, and make it lasting, spirits by motion. yet withal they cast up some spissitude : and this 311. As for percolation inward and outward, instance is to be referred to separation.
which belongeth to separation, trial would be made 306. On the other side it were good to try, what of clarifying by adhesion, with milk put into new the adding to the liquor more lees than his own will beer, and stirred with it: for it may be that the
grosser part of the beer will cleave to the milk : the or in the bottom of a well within water; and best doubt is, whether the milk will sever well again; of all, the hanging of them in a deep well somewhat which is soon tried. And it is usual in clarifying above the water for some fortnight's space, is an hippocras to put in milk ; which after severeth and excellent means of making drink fresh and quick ; carrieth with it the grosser parts of the hippocras, for the cold doth not cause any exhaling of the as hath been said elsewhere. Also for the better spirits at all, as heat doth, though it rarifieth the clarification by percolation, when they tun new beer, rest that remain : but cold maketh the spirits vigorthey use to let it pass through a strainer; and it is ous, and irritateth them, whereby they incorporate like the finer the strainer is, the clearer it will be. the parts of the liquor perfectly.
316. As for the maturation of fruits; it is Experiments in consort touching maturation, and the wrought by the calling forth of the spirits of the accelerating thereof. And first, touching the ma
body outward, and so spreading them more smoothly: turation and quickening of drinks. And next, and likewise by digesting in some degree the grosser touching the maturation of fruits.
parts; and this is effected by heat, motion, attracThe accelerating of maturation we will now in- tion; and by a rudiment of putrefaction : for the quire of.
And of maturation itself. It is of three inception of putrefaction hath in it a maturation. natures. The maturation of fruits: the maturation 317. There were taken apples, and laid in straw ; of drinks : and the maturation of imposthumes and in hay; in flour; in chalk; in lime ; covered over ulcers. This last we refer to another place, where with onions; covered over with crabs ; closed up in we shall handle experiments medicinal. There be wax; shut in a box, &c. There was also an apple also other maturations, as of metals, &c. whereof we hanged up in smoke; of all which the experiment will speak as occasion serveth. But we will begin sorted in this manner. with that of drinks, because it hath such affinity 318. After a month's space, the apple enclosed with the clarification of liquors.
in wax was as green and fresh as at the first putting 312. For the maturation of drinks, it is wrought in, and the kernels continued white. The cause is, by the congregation of the spirits together, where for that all exclusion of open air, which is ever by they digest more perfectly the grosser parts: and predatory, maintaineth the body in its first freshness it is effected partly by the same means that clarifi and moisture : but the inconvenience is, that it cation is, whereof we spake before; but then note, tasteth a little of the wax; which I suppose, in a that an extreme clarification doth spread the spirits pomegranate, or some such thick-coated fruit, it so smooth, as they become dull, and the drink dead, would not do. which ought to have a little flowering. And there 319. The apple hanged in the smoke, turned like fore all your clear amber drink is flat.
an old mellow apple, wrinkled, dry, soft, sweet, yel313. We see the degrees of maturation of drinks ; low within. The cause is, for that such a degree in muste, in wine, as it is drunk, and in vinegar. of heat, which doth neither melt nor scorch, (for Whereof muste hath not the spirits well congre we see that in a great heat, a roast apple softeneth gated; wine hath them well united, so as they make and melteth; and pigs' feet, made of quarters of the parts somewhat more oily; vinegar hath them wardens, scorch and have a skin of cole,) doth melcongregated, but more jejune, and in smaller quan- low, and not adure: the smoke also maketh the tity, the greatest and finest spirit and part being ex-apple, as it were, sprinkled with soot, which helpeth haled: for we see vinegar is made by setting the to mature. We see that in drying of pears and vessel of wine against the hot sun ; and therefore prunes in the oven, and removing of them often as vinegar will not burn; for that much of the finer they begin to sweat, there is a like operation ; but parts is exhaled.
that is with a far more intense degree of heat. 314. The refreshing and quickening of drink pall 320. The apples covered in the lime and ashes ed or dead, is by enforcing the motion of the spirit: were well matured; as appeared both in their yelso we see that open weather relaxeth the spirit, and lowness and sweetness. The cause is, for that that maketh it more lively in motion. We see also bot- degree of heat which is in lime and ashes, being a tling of beer or ale, while it is new and full of spirit, smothering heat, is of all the rest most proper, for so that it spirteth when the stopple is taken forth, it doth neither liquefy nor arefy; and that is true maketh the drink more quick and windy. A pan maturation. Note, that the taste of those apples of coles in the cellar doth likewise good, and maketh was good; and therefore it is the experiment fittest the drink work again. New drink put to drink that for use. is dead provoketh it to work again: nay, which is 321. The apples covered with crabs and onions more, as some affirm, a brewing of new beer set by were likewise well matured. The cause is, not any old beer, maketh it work again. It were good also heat; but for that the crabs and the onions draw to enforce the spirits by some mixtures, that may forth the spirits of the apple, and spread them excite and quicken them; as by putting into the bot- equally throughout the body; which taketh away tles, nitre, chalk, lime, &c. We see cream is ma- hardness. So we see one apple ripeneth against tured, and made to rise more speedily by putting another. And therefore in making of cider they in cold water; which, as it seemeth, getteth down turn the apples first upon a heap. So one cluster the whey.
of grapes that toucheth another whilst it grow315. It is tried, that the burying of bottles of eth, ripeneth faster; “ botrus contra botrum citius drink well stopped, either in dry earth a good depth; | maturescit.”
322. The apples in hay and the straw ripened great effect. And we commend the wit of the Chiapparently, though not so much as the others; but nese, who despair of making of gold, but are mad the apple in the straw more. The cause is, for that upon the making of silver: for certain it is, that it is the hay and straw have a very low degree of heat, more difficult to make gold, which is the most ponbut yet close and smothering, and which drieth not. derous and materiate amongst metals, of other metals
323. The apple in the close box was ripened also: less ponderous and less materiate, than via versa, to the cause is, for that all air kept close hath a de- make silver of lead or quicksilver ; both which are gree of warmth : as we see in wool, fur, plush, &c. more ponderous than silver; so that they need rather Note, that all these were compared with another a farther degree of fixation, than any condensation. apple of the same kind, that lay of itself: and in In the mean time, by occasion of handling the axicomparison of that were more sweet and more oms touching maturation we will direct a trial yellow, and so appeared to be more ripe.
touching the maturing of metals, and thereby turn324. Take an apple, or pear, or other like fruit, ing some of them into gold : for we conceive indeed and roll it upon a table hard: we see in common that a perfect good concoction, or digestion, or maexperience, that the rolling doth soften and sweeten turation of some metals, will produce gold. And the fruit presently ; which is nothing but the smooth here we call to mind, that we knew a Dutchman, distribution of the spirits into the parts: for the that had wrought himself into the belief of a great unequal distribution of the spirits maketh the harsh- 'person, by undertaking that he could make gold : ness : but this hard rolling is between concoction, whose discourse was, that gold might be made; and a simple maturation ; therefore, if you should but that the alchemists over-fired the work : for, he roll them but gently, perhaps twice a day; and con- said, the making of gold did require a very tempertinue it some seven days, it is like they would ma ate heat, as being in nature a subterrany work, ture more finely, and like unto the natural maturation. where little heat cometh ; but yet more to the mak
325. Take an apple, and cut out a piece of the ing of gold than of any other metal; and therefore top, and cover it, to see whether that solution of that he would do it with a great lamp that should continuity will not hasten a maturation : we see that carry a temperate and equal heat: and that it was wher a wasp, or a fly, or a worm hath bitten, in a the work of many months. The device of the lamp grape, or any fruit, it will sweeten hastily.
was folly ; but the over-firing now used, and the 326. Take an apple, &c. and prick it with a pin equal heat to be required, and the making it a full of holes, not deep, and smear it a little with work of some good time, are no ill discourses. sack, or cinnamon water, or spirit of wine, every We resort therefore to our axioms of maturation, day for ten days, to see if the virtual heat of the in effect touched before. The first is, that there wine or strong waters will not mature it.
be used a temperate heat; for they are ever temperIn these trials also, as was used in the first, set ate heats that digest and mature : wherein we mean another of the same fruits by, to compare them; temperate according to the nature of the subject; and try them by their yellowness and by their for that may be temperate to fruits and liquors, which sweetness.
will not work at all upon metals. The second is,
that the spirit of the metal be quickened, and the Experiment solitary touching the making of gold.
tangible parts opened: for without those two operaThe world hath been much abused by the opinion tions, the spirit of the metal wrought upon will not of making of gold: the work itself I judge to be be able to digest the parts. The third is, that the possible; but the means, hitherto propounded, to spirits do spread themselves even, and move not effect it, are in the practice, full of error and im- subsultorily; for that will make the parts close and posture, and in the theory, full of unsound imagina- pliant. And this requireth a heat that doth not tions. For to say, that nature hath an intention to rise and fall, but continue as equal as may be. The make all metals gold; and that, if she were delivered fourth is, that no part of the spirit be emitted, but from impediments, she would perform her own detained : for if there be emission of spirit, the body work; and that, if the crudities, impurities, and le- of the metal will be hard and churlish. And this prosities of metals were cured, they would become will be performed, partly by the temper of the fire, gold; and that a little quantity of the medicine, in and partly by the closeness of the vessel. The the work of projection, will turn a sea of the baser fifth is, that there be choice made of the likeliest metal into gold by multiplying : all these are but and best prepared metal for the version; for that dreams; and so are many other grounds of alchemy. will facilitate the work. The sixth is, that you And to help the matter, the alchemists call in like give time enough for the work; not to prolong wise many vanities out of astrology, natural magic, hopes, as the alchemists do, but indeed to give nasuperstitious interpretations of Scriptures, auricular ture a convenient space to work in.
These printraditions, feigned testimonies of ancient authors, ciples are most certain and true; we will now deand the like. It is true, on the other side, they have rive a direction of trial out of them, which may, brought to light not a few profitable experiments, perhaps, by farther meditation be improved. and thereby made the world some amends. But we, 327. Let there be a small furnace made of a when we shall come to handle the version and trans- temperate heat; let the heat be such as may keep mutation of bodies, and the experiments concerning the metal perpetually molten, and no more; for that metals and minerals, will lay open the true ways above all importeth to the work. For the material, and passages of nature, which may lead to this take silver, which is the metal that in nature sym