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lute or viol, with the belly of polished brass instead | attentively considered, how children, and some of wood. We see that even in the open air, the birds, learn to imitate speech. They take no mark wire-string is sweeter than the string of guts. And at all of the motion of the mouth of him that speakwe see that for reflexion water excelleth; as in eth, for birds are as well taught in the dark as by music near the water, or in echos.
light. The sounds of speech are very curious and 230. It hath been tried, that a pipe a little moist. exquisite : so one would think it were a lesson hard ened on the inside, but yet so as there be no drops to learn. It is true that it is done with time, and left, maketh a more solemn sound, than if the pipe by little and little, and with many essays and proffers, were dry: but yet with a sweet degree of sibilation but all this dischargeth not the wonder. It would or purling; as we touched it before in the title of make a man think, though this which we shall say equality. The cause is, for that all things porous may seem exceeding strange, that there is some being superficially wet, and, as it were, between dry transmission of spirits ; and that the spirits of the and wet, become a little more even and smooth ; but teacher put in motion should work with the spirits the purling which must needs proceed of inequality, of the learner a predisposition to offer to imitate ; I take to be bred between the smoothness of the in- and so to perfect the imitation by degrees. But ward surface of the pipe, which is wet, and the rest touching operations by transmissions of spirits, of the wood of the pipe unto which the wet cometh which is one of the highest secrets in nature, we not, but it remaineth dry.
shall speak in due place; chiefly when we come to 231. In frosty weather music within doors sound inquire of imagination. But as for imitation, it is eth better. Which may be by reason not of the certain, that there is in men and other creatures a disposition of the air, but of the wood or string of predisposition to imitate. We see how ready apes the instrument, which is made more crisp, and so and monkeys are to imitate all motions of man; and more porous and hollow : and we see that old lutes in the catching of dottrels, we see how the foolish sound better than new for the same reason. And bird playeth the ape in gestures: and no man, in so do lute-strings that have been kept long. effect, doth accompany with others, but he learneth,
232. Sound is likewise meliorated by the ming ere he is aware, some gesture, or voice, or fashion ling of open air with pent air; therefore trial may of the other. be made of a lute or viol with a double belly; 237. In imitation of sounds, that man should be making another belly with a knot ever the strings; the teacher is no part of the matter ; for birds will yet so, as there be room enough for the strings, learn one of another; and there is no reward by and room enough to play below that belly. Trial feeding, or the like, given them for the imitation ; may be made also of an Irish harp, with a concave and besides, you shall have parrots that will not on both sides : whereas it useth to have it but on only imitate voices, but laughing, knocking, squeakone side. The doubt may be, lest it should make ing of a door upon the hinges, or of a cart-wheel : too much resounding ; whereby one note would and, in effect, any other noise they hear. overtake another.
238. No beast can imitate the speech of man, 233. If you sing in the hole of a drum, it maketh but birds only; for the ape itself, that is so ready the singing more sweet. And so I conceive it to imitate otherwise, attaineth not any degree of would, if it were a song in parts sung into several imitation of speech. It is true that I have known drums; and for handsomeness and strangeness sake, a dog, that if one howled in his ear, he would fall a it would not be amiss to have a curtain between the howling a great while. What should be the aptplace where the drums are and the hearers. ness of birds in comparison of beasts to imitate the
234. When a sound is created in a wind instru- speech of man, may be farther inquired. We see that ment between the breath and the air, yet if the beasts have those parts which they count the instrusound be communicated with a more equal body of ments of speech, as lips, teeth, &c. liker unto man the pipe, it meliorateth the sound. For, no doubt, than birds. As for the neck, by which the throat there would be a differing sound in a trumpet or pipe passeth, we see many beasts have it for the length of wood ; and again in a trumpet or pipe of brass. as much as birds. What better gorge or artery It were good to try recorders and hunters' horns of birds have, may be farther inquired. The birds brass, what the sound would be.
that are known to be speakers, are parrots, pies, 235. Sounds are meliorated by the intension of jays, daws, and ravens. Of which parrots have an the sense, where the common sense is collected adunque bill, but the rest not. most to the particular sense of hearing, and the 239. But I conceive, that the aptness of birds is sight suspended : and therefore sounds are sweeter, not so much in the conformity of the organs of as well as greater, in the night than in the day; speech, as in their attention. For speech must and I suppose they are sweeter to blind men than come by hearing and learning; and birds give more to others: and it is manifest, that between sleeping heed, and mark sounds more than beasts; because and waking, when all the senses are bound and sus- naturally they are more delighted with them, and pended, music is far sweeter than when one is fully practise them more, as appeareth in their singing. waking.
We see also, that those that teach birds to sing, do
keep them waking to increase their attention. Experiments in consort touching the imitation of
see also, that cock birds amongst singing birds are sounds.
ever the better singers : which may be because they 236. It is a thing strange in nature when it is are more lively and listen more.
240. Labour and intention to imitate voices, doth long, not full upon the surface, the rebound will be conduce much to imitation : and therefore we see as much the contrary way: whether there be any that there be certain pantomimi, that will represent such resilience in echos, that is, whether a man the voices of players of interludes so to life, as if shall hear better if he stand aside the body reperyou see them not you would think they were those cussing, than if he stand where he speaketh, or any players themselves; and so the voices of other men where in a right line between, may be tried. Trial that they hear.
likewise would be made by standing nearer the place 241. There have been some that could counter of repercussing, than he that speaketh; and again, feit the distance of voices, which is a secondary by standing farther off than he that speaketh; and object of hearing, in such sort, as when they stand so knowledge would be taken, whether echos, as fast by you, you would think the speech came from well as original sounds, be not strongest near hand. afar off, in a fearful manner. How this is done 246. There be many places where you shall hear may be farther inquired. But I see no great use of a number of echos one after another : and it is it but for imposture, in counterfeiting ghosts or when there is variety of hills or woods, some nearer, spirits.
some farther off : so that the return from the farExperiments in consort touching the reflexion of
ther, being last created, will be likewise last heard.
247. As the voice goeth round, as well towards sounds.
the back, as towards the front of him that speaketh; There be three kinds of reflexions of sounds; a so likewise doth the echo: for you
back reflexion concurrent, a reflexion iterant, which we echos to the place where you stand. call echo; and a super-reflexion, or an echo of an 248. To make an echo that will report three, or echo: whereof the first hath been handled in the four, or five words distinctly, it is requisite that the title of magnitude of sounds : the latter two we will body repercussing be a good distance off: for if it now speak of.
be near, and yet not so near as to make a concur242. The reflexion of species visible by mirrors rent echo, it choppeth with you upon the sudden. you may command ; because passing in right lines It is requisite likewise that the air be not much they may be guided to any point: but the reflexion pent: for air at a great distance pent, worketh the of sounds is harder to master; because the sound same effect with air at large in a small distance. filling great spaces in arched lines, cannot be so And therefore in the trial of speaking in the well, guided : and therefore we see there hath not been though the well was deep, the voice came back sudpractised any means to make artificial echos. And denly, and would bear the report but of two words. no echo already known returneth in a very narrow 249. For echos upon echos, there is a rare inroom.
stance thereof in a place which I will now exactly 243. The natural echos are made upon walls, describe. It is some three or four miles from Paris, woods, rocks, hills, and banks; as for waters, being near a town called Pont-Charenton : and some birdnear, they make a concurrent echo; but being far bolt shot or more from the river of Sein. The room ther off, as upon a large river, they make an iterant is a chapel or small church. The walls all standecho: for there is no difference between the con- ing, both at the sides and at the ends. Two rows current echo and the iterant, but the quickness or of pillars, after the manner of aisles of churches, also slowness of the return. But there is no doubt but standing ; the roof all open, not so much as any water doth help the delation of echo; as well as it embowment near any of the walls left. There was helpeth the delation of original sounds.
against every pillar a stack of billets above a man's 244. It is certain, as hath been formerly touched, height; which the watermen that bring wood down that if you speak through a trunk stopped at the the Sein in stacks, and not in boats, laid there, as it farther end, you shall find a blast return upon your seemeth, for their ease. Speaking at the one end, mouth, but no sound at all. The cause is, for that I did hear it return the voice thirteen several times; the closeness which preserveth the original, is not and I have heard of others, that it would return able to preserve the reflected sound : besides that sixteen times : for I was there about three of the echos are seldom created but by loud sounds. And clock in the afternoon: and it is best, as all other therefore there is less hope of artificial echos in air echos are, in the evening. It is manifest that it is pent in a narrow concave. Nevertheless it hath not echos from several places, but a tossing of the been tried, that one leaning over a well of twenty- voice, as a ball, to and fro; like to reflections in five fathom deep, and speaking, though but softly, looking-glasses, where if you place one glass before yet not so soft as a whisper, the water returned a and another behind, you shall see the glass behind good audible echo. It would be tried whether speak- with the image, within the glass before ; and again, ing in caves, where there is no issue, save where the glass before in that; and divers such superyou speak, will not yield echos, as wells do. reflections, till the species speciei at last die. For
245. The echo cometh as the original sound doth, it is every return weaker and more shady. In like in a round orb of air : it were good to try the cre manner the voice in that chapel createth speciem ating of the echo where the body repercussing mak- speciei, and maketh succeeding super-reflexions ; eth an angle ; as against the return of a wall, &c. for it melteth by degrees, and every reflexion is Also we see that in mirrors there is the like angle weaker than the former: so that if you speak three of incidence, from the object to the glass, and from words, it will, perhaps, some three times report you the glass to the eye. And if you strike a ball side- the whole three words; and then the two latter
words for some times; and then the last word alone fusion : as we see ordinarily in levels, as to the eye; for some times; still fading and growing weaker. and in crannies or chinks, as to the sound. And whereas in echos of one return, it is much to 257. Both of them are of a sudden and easy hear four or five words; in this echo of so many generation and delation; and likewise perish swiftly returns upon the matter, you hear above twenty and suddenly; as if you remove the light, or touch words for three.
the bodies that give the sound. 250. The like echo upon echo, but only with two 258. Both of them do receive and carry exquisite reports, hath been observed to be, if you stand be- and accurate differences; as of colours, figures, motween a house and a hill, and lure towards the hill. tions, distances, in visibles; and of articulate voices, For the house will give a back echo; one taking it tones, songs, and quaverings, in audibles. from the other, and the latter the weaker.
259. Both of them, in their virtue and working, 251. There are certain letters that an echo will do not appear to emit any corporal substance into hardly express; as S for one, especially being prin- | their mediums, or the orb of their virtue ; neither cipal in a word. I remember well, that when I again to raise or stir any evident local motion in their went to the echo at Pont-Charenton, there was an mediums as they pass ; but only to carry certain old Parisian, that took it to be work of spirits, and spiritual species ; the perfect knowledge of the cause of good spirits. For, said he, call Satan, and the whereof, being hitherto scarcely attained, we shall echo will not deliver back the devil's name; but will search and handle in due place. say, va t'en; which is as much in French as apage, 260. Both of them seem not to generate or proor avoid. And thereby I did hap to find, that an duce any other effect in nature, but such as apperecho would not return S, being but a hissing and taineth to their proper objects and senses, and are an interior sound.
otherwise barren. 252. Echos are some more sudden, and chop
261. But both of them, in their own proper again as soon as the voice is delivered; as hath action, do work three manifest effects. The first, been partly said : others are more deliberate, that is, in that the stronger species drowneth the lesser ; as give more space between the voice and the echo; the light of the sun, the light of a glow-worm; the which is caused by the local nearness or distance : report of an ordnance, the voice : the second, in that some will report a longer train of words, and some an object of surcharge or excess destroyeth the a shorter ; some more loud, full as loud as the sense; as the light of the sun, the eye; a violent original, and sometimes more loud, and some sound near the ear, the hearing: the third, in that weaker and fainter.
both of them will be reverberate; as in mirrors, and 253. Where echos come from several parts at in echos. the same distance, they must needs make, as it were, 262. Neither of them doth destroy or hinder the a choir of echos, and so make the report greater, species of the other, although they encounter in the and even a continued echo; which you shall find in same medium; as light or colour hinder not sound, some hills that stand encompassed theatre-like. nor e contra.
254. It doth not yet appear that there is refrac 263. Both of them affect the sense in living tion in sounds, as well as in species visible. For I creatures, and yield objects of pleasure and dislike: do not think, that if a sound should pass through yet nevertheless the objects of them do also, if it be divers mediums, as air, cloth, wood, it would deliver well observed, affect and work upon dead things ; the sound in a different place from that unto which namely, such as have some conformity with the it is deferred; which is the proper effect of refrac-organs of the two senses; as visibles work upon a tion. But majoration, which is also the work of looking-glass, which is like the pupil of the eye; refraction, appeareth plainly in sounds, as hath been and audibles upon the places of echo, which rehandled at full , but it is not by diversity of mediums. semble in some sort the cavern and structure of
the ear. Experiments in consort touching the consent and
264. Both of them do diversly work, as they dissent between visibles and audibles. have their medium diversly disposed. So a trem
bling medium, as smoke, maketh the object seem to We have obiter, for demonstration's sake, used tremble, and a rising or falling medium, as winds, in divers instances the examples of the sight and maketh the sounds to rise or fall. things visible, to illustrate the nature of sounds : but 265. To both, the medium, which is the most we think good now to prosecute that comparison propitious and conducible, is air ; for glass or water, more fully.
&c. are not comparable.
266. In both of them, where the object is fine Consent of visibles and audibles.
and accurate, it conduceth much to have the sense 255. Both of them spread themselves in round, intentive and erect; insomuch as you contract your and fill a whole floor or orb unto certain limits; and eye when you would see sharply ; and erect your are carried a great way: and do languish and lessen ear when you would hear attentively; which in beasts by degrees, according to the distance of the objects that have ears movable is most manifest. from the sensories.
267. The beams of light, when they are multi256. Both of them have the whole species in plied and conglomerate, generate heat; which is a every small portion of the air, or medium, so as the different action from the action of sight : and the species do pass through small crannies without con- multiplication and conglomeration of sounds doth
do 276. In visibles
great light, if you come
generate an extreme rarefaction of the air; which , a little from the organ : and so nevertheless there is is an action materiate, differing from the action of some distance required in both. sound; if it be true, which is anciently reported, that 273. Visibles are swiftlier carried to the sense birds with great shouts have fallen down.
than audibles; as appeareth in thunder and light
ning, flame and report of a piece, motion of the air Dissents of visibles and audibles.
in hewing of wood. All which have been set down 268. The species of visibles seem to be emissions heretofore, but are proper for this title. of beams from the objects seen, almost like odours, 274. I conceive also, that the species of audibles save that they are more incorporeal: but the species do hang longer in the air than those of visibles : of audibles seem to participate more with local mo for although even those of visibles do hang some time, tion, like percussions, or impressions made upon the as we see in rings turned, that show like spheres; air. So that whereas all bodies do seem to work in in lutestrings filliped; a fire-brand carried along, two manners, either by the communication of their which leaveth a train of light behind it; and in the natures, or by the impressions and signatures of their twilight; and the like : yet I conceive that sounds motions; the diffusion of species visible seemeth to stay longer, because they are carried up and down participate more of the former operation, and the with the wind; and because of the distance of the species audible of the latter.
time in ordnance discharged, and heard twenty 269. The species of audibles seem to be carried miles off. more manifestly through the air than the species of 275. In visibles there are not found objects so visibles; for I conceive that a contrary strong wind odious and ingrate to the sense as in audibles. For will not much hinder the sight of visibles, as it will foul sights do rather displease, in that they excite the do the hearing of sounds.
memory of foul things, than in the immediate objects. 270. There is one difference above all others be- And therefore in pictures, those foul sights do not tween visibles and audibles, that is the most re much offend; but in audibles, the grating of a saw, markable, as that whereupon many smaller differ- when it is sharpened, doth offend so much, as it ences depend: namely, that visibles, except lights, setteth the teeth on edge. And any of the harsh are carried in right lines, and audibles in arcuate discords in music the air doth straightways refuse. lines. Hence it cometh to pass, that visibles do not intermingle and confound one another, as hath suddenly into the dark, or contrariwise, out of the been said before ; but sounds do. Hence it com- dark into a glaring light, the eye is dazzled for a eth, that the solidity of bodies doth not much time, and the sight confused; but whether any such hinder the sight, so that the bodies be clear, and the effect be after great sounds, or after a deep silence, pores in a right line, as in glass, crystal, diamonds, may be better inquired. It is an old tradition, that water, &c. but a thin scarf or handkerchief, though those that dwell near the cataracts of Nilus, are they be bodies nothing so solid, hinder the sight: strucken deaf : but we find no such effect in cannonwhereas contrariwise, these porous bodies do not iers, nor millers, nor those that dwell upon bridges. much hinder the hearing, but solid bodies do al. 277. It seemeth that the impression of colour is most stop it, or at the least attenuate it. Hence so weak, as it worketh not but by a cone of direct also it cometh, that to the reflexion of visibles small beams, or right lines, whereof the basis is in the glasses suffice; but to the reverberation of audibles object, and the vertical point in the eye; so as there are required greater spaces, as hath likewise been is a corradiation and conjunction of beams : and said before.
those beams so sent forth, yet are not of any force 271. Visibles are seen farther off than sounds to beget the like borrowed or second beams, except are heard ; allowing nevertheless the rate of their it be by reflexion, whereof we speak not. For the bigness; for otherwise a great sound will be heard beams pass, and give little tincture to that air which farther off than a small body seen.
is adjacent; which if they did, we should see colours 272. Visibles require, generally, some distance out of a right line. But as this is in colours, so between the object and the eye, to be better seen; otherwise it is in the body of light. For when whereas in audibles, the nearer the approach of the there is a skreen between the candle and the eye, sound is to the sense, the better. But in this there yet the light passeth to the paper whereon one may be a double error. The one, because to seeing writeth ; so that the light is seen where the body there is required light; and any thing that touch of the flame is not seen, and where any colour, if it eth the pupil of the eye all over excludeth the light. were placed where the body of the flame is, would For I have heard of a person very credible, who not be seen. I judge that sound is of this latter himself was cured of a cataract in one of his eyes, nature ; for when two are placed on both sides of that while the silver needle did work upon the sight a wall, and the voice is heard, I judge it is not only of his eye, to remove the film of the cataract, he the original sound which passeth in an arched line ; never saw any thing more clear or perfect than that but the sou which passeth above the wall in a white needle : which, no doubt, was, because the right line, begetteth the like motion round about it needle was lesser than the pupil of the eye, and so as the first did, though more weak. took not the light from it. The other error may be, for that the object of sight doth strike upon the Experiments in consort touching the sympathy or pupil of the eye directly without any interception ;
antipathy of sounds one with another. whereas the cave of the ear doth hold off the sound 278. All concords and discords of music are, no
doubt, sympathies and antipathies of sounds. And a sound afar off men hold their breath. The cause so, likewise, in that music which we call broken is, for that in all expiration the motion is outwards ; music, or consort music, some consorts of instruments and therefore rather driveth away the voice than are sweeter than others, a thing not sufficiently yet draweth it: and besides we see, that in all labour to observed : as the Irish harp and base viol agree do things with any strength, we hold the breath ; well: the recorder and stringed music agree well : and listening after any sound that is heard with diforgans and the voice agree well, &c. But the vir- ficulty, is a kind of labour. ginals and the lute; or the Welsh harp and Irish 285. Let it be tried, for the help of the hearing, harp; or the voice and pipes alone, agree not so well: and I conceive it likely to succeed, to make an inbut for the melioration of music, there is yet much strument like a tunnel; the narrow part whereof left, in this point of exquisite consorts, to try and may be of the bigness of the hole of the ear; and inquire.
the broader end much larger, like a bell at the 279. There is a common observation, that if a skirts; and the length half a foot or more. And let lute or viol be laid upon the back, with a small the narrow end of it be set close to the ear: and straw upon one of the strings; and another lute or mark whether any sound, abroad in the open air, viol be laid by it; and in the other lute or viol the will not be heard distinctly from farther distance, unison to that string be strucken, it will make the than without that instrument; being, as it were, an string move; which will appear both to the eye, ear-spectacle. And I have heard there is in Spain and by the straw's falling off. The like will be, if an instrument in use to be set to the ear, that helpthe diapason or eighth to that string be strucken, eth somewhat those that are thick of hearing. either in the same lute or viol, or in others lying 286. If the mouth be shut close, nevertheless by: but in none of these there is any report of there is yielded by the roof of the mouth a murmur; sound that can be discerned, but only motion. such as is used by dumb men. But if the nostrils
280. It was devised, that a viol should have a lay be likewise stopped, no such murmur can be made : of wire-strings below, as close to the belly as a lute; except it be in the bottom of the palate towards the and then the strings of guts mounted upon a bridge throat. Whereby it appeareth manifestly that a as in ordinary viols; to the end that by this means sound in the mouth, except such as aforesaid, if the the upper strings strucken should make the lower mouth be stopped, passeth from the palate through resound by sympathy, and so make the music the the nostrils. better; which if it be to purpose, then sympathy
Experiments in consort touching the spiritual and worketh as well by report of sound as by motion. But this device I conceive to be of no use, because
fine nature of sounds. the upper strings, which are stopped in great 287. The repercussion of sounds, which we call variety, cannot maintain a diapason or unison with echo, is a great argument of the spiritual essence of the lower, which are never stopped. But if it sounds. For if it were corporeal, the repercussion should be of use at all, it must be in instruments should be created in the same manner, and by like which have no stops, as virginals and harps; where-instruments, with the original sound: but we see in trial may be made of two rows of strings, distant what a number of exquisite instruments must conthe one from the other.
cur in speaking of words, whereof there is no such 281. The experiment of sympathy may be trans matter in the returning of them, but only a plain ferred, perhaps, from instruments of strings to other stop and repercussion. instruments of sound. As to try, if there were in 288. The exquisite differences of articulate one steeple two bells of unison, whether the striking sounds, carried along in the air, show that they of the one would move the other, more than if it cannot be signatures or impressions in the air, as were another accord : and so in pipes, if they be of hath been well refuted by the ancients. For it is equal bore and sound, whether a little straw or true, that seals make excellent impressions; and so feather would move in the one pipe, when the other it may be thought of sounds in their first generais blown at an unison.
tion : but then the delation and continuance of them 282. It seemeth, both in ear and eye, the instru- without any new sealing, show apparently they can. ment of sense hath a sympathy or similitude with not be impressions. that which giveth the reflexion, as hath been touch 289. All sounds are suddenly made, and do suded before : for as the sight of the eye is like a crys-denly perish: but neither that, nor the exquisite diftal, or glass, or water; so is the ear a sinuous cave, ferences of them, is matter of so great admiration : with a hard bone to stop and reverberate the sound : for the quaverings and warblings in lutes and pipes which is like to the places that report echos.
are as swift; and the tongue, which is no very fine
instrument, doth in speech make no fewer motions Experiments in consort touching the hindering or
than there be letters in all the words which are helping of the hearing.
uttered. But that sounds should not only be so 283. When a man yawneth, he cannot hear so speedily generated, but carried so far every way in well. The cause is, for that the membrane of the such a momentary time, deserveth more admiration. ear is extended ; and so rather casteth off the sound As for example, if a man stand in the middle of a than draweth it to.
field and speak aloud, he shall be heard a furlong in 284. We hear better when we hold our breath round; and that shall be in articulate sounds; and than contrary : insomuch as in all listening to attain those shall be entire in every little portion of the air;