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did before irrigate the parts, is drawn down to the to a sextuple bore; and so mark what fall of tone spermatical vessels, it leaveth the body more hot everyone giveth. But still in these three last than it was; whence cometh the dilatation of the instances, you must diligently observe, what length pipes : for we see plainly all effects of heat do of string, or distance of stop, or concave of air, then come on; as pilosity, more roughness of the maketh what rise of sound. As in the last of these, skin, hardness of the flesh, &c.
which, as we said, is that which giveth the aptest 181. The industry of the musician hath produced demonstration, you must set down what increase of two other means of straining or intension of strings, concave goeth to the making of a note higher; and besides their winding up. The one is the stopping what of two notes; and what of three notes ; and of the string with the finger; as in the necks of so up to the diapason : for then the great secret of lutes, viols, &c. The other is the shortness of the numbers and proportions will appear. It is not string, as in harps, virginals, &c. Both these have unlike that those that make recorders, &c. know one and the same reason ; for they cause the string this already : for that they make them in sets; and to give a quicker start.
likewise bell-founders, in fitting the tune of their 182. In the straining of a string, the farther it is bells. So that inquiry may save trial. Surely it strained, the less superstraining goeth to a note; for hath been observed by one of the ancients, that an it requireth good winding of a string before it will empty barrel knocked upon with the finger, giveth make any note at all; and in the stops of lutes, &c. a diapason to the sound of the like barrel full; but the higher they go, the less distance is between the how that should be I do not well understand ; for frets.
that the knocking of a barrel full or empty, doth 183. If you fill a drinking glass with water, scarce give any tone. especially one sharp below, and wide above, and 187. There is required some sensible difference fillip upon the brim or outside ; and after empty in the proportion of creating a note, towards the part of the water, and so more and more, and still sound itself, which is the passive: and that it be try the tone by filliping; you shall find the tone fall not too near, but at a distance. For in a recorder, and be more base, as the glass is more empty. the three uppermost holes yield one tone ; which is
a note lower than the tone of the first three. And Experiments in consort touching the proportion of
the like, no doubt, is required in the winding or treble and base tones.
stopping of strings. The just and measured proportion of the air percussed, towards the baseness or trebleness of tones,
Experiments in consort touching exterior and interior
sounds. is one of the greatest secrets in the contemplation of sounds. For it discovereth the true coincidence There is another difference of sounds, which we of tones into diapasons; which is the return of the will call exterior and interior. It is not soft nor same sound. And so of the concords and discords loud : nor it is not base nor treble: nor it is not between the unison and the diapason, which we musical nor immusical : though it be true, that there have touched before in the experiments of music ; can be no tone in an interior sound; but on the but think fit to resume it here as a principal part of other side, in an exterior sound there may be both our inquiry touching the nature of sounds. It may musical and immusical. We shall therefore enumebe found out in the proportion of the winding of rate them, rather than precisely distinguish them ; strings; in the proportion of the distance of frets ; though, to make some adumbration of that we mean, and in proportion of the concave of pipes, &c. but the interior is rather an impulsion or contusion of most commodiously in the last of these.
the air, than an elision or section of the same : so 184. Try therefore the winding of a string once as the percussion of the one towards the other difabout, as soon as it is brought to that extension as fereth as a blow differeth from a cut. will give a tone; and then of twice about, and thrice 188. In speech of man, the whispering, which about, &c. and mark the scale or difference of the they call susurrus in Latin, whether it be louder or rise of the tone: whereby you shall discover, in one, softer, is an interior sound; but the speaking out is two effects: both the proportion of the sound towards an exterior sound; and therefore you can never the dimension of the winding; and the proportion make a tone, nor sing in whispering; but in speech likewise of the sound towards the string, as it is you may: so breathing, or blowing by the mouth, more or less strained. But note that to measure bellows, or wind, though loud, is an interior sound; this, the way will be, take the length in a right but the blowing through a pipe or concave, though line of the string, upon any winding about of soft, is an exterior. So likewise the greatest winds,
if they have no coarctation, or blow not hollow, give 185. As for the stops, you are to take the num an interior sound; the whistling or hollow wind ber of frets; and principally the length of the line, yieldeth a singing, or exterior sound; the former from the first stop of the string, unto such a stop as being pent by some other body; the latter being shall produce a diapason to the former stop upon pent in by its own density: and therefore we see, the same string.
that when the wind bloweth hollow, it is a sign of 186. But it will best, as it is said, appear in the rain. The flame, as it moveth within itself or is bores of wind-instruments: and therefore cause blown by a bellows, giveth a murmur or interior some half dozen pipes to be made, in length and all sound. things else alike, with a single, double, and so on 189. There is no hard body, but struck against
another hard body will yield an exterior sound are more confused, though the gross of the sound be greater or lesser: insomuch as if the percussion be greater. over-soft, it may induce a nullity of sound; but 198. The motions of the tongue, lips, throat, never an interior sound; as when one treadeth so palate, &c. which go to the making of the several softly that he is not heard.
alphabetical letters, are worthy inquiry, and perti190. Where the air is the percutient, pent or not nent to the present inquisition of sounds: but because pent, against a hard body, it never giveth an exte- they are subtle, and long to describe, we will refer rior sound; as if you blow strongly with a bellows them over, and place them amongst the experiments against a wall.
of speech. The Hebrews have been diligent in it, 191. Sounds, both exterior and interior, may be and have assigned which letters are labial, which made as well by suction as by emission of the dental, which guttural, &c. As for the Latins and breath: as in whistling or breathing.
Grecians, they have distinguished between semi
vowels and mutes; and in mutes between mutæ Experiments in consort, touching articulation of tenues, media, and aspiratæ ; not amiss, but yet not sounds.
diligently enough. For the special strokes and
motions that create those sounds, they have little 192. It is evident, and it is one of the strangest inquired: as, that the letters B, P, F, M, are not secrets in sounds, that the whole sound is not in the expressed, but with the contracting or shutting of whole air only; but the whole sound is also in the mouth ; that the letters N and B, cannot be every small part of the air. So that all the curious pronounced but that the letter N will turn into M; diversity of articulate sounds, of the voice of man as hecatonba will be hecatomba. That M and T or birds, will enter at a small cranny inconfused. cannot be pronounced together, but P will come
193. The unequal agitation of the winds and the between ; as emtus is pronounced emptus; and a like, though they be material to the carriage of the number of the like. So that if you inquire to the sounds farther or less way; yet they do not con full, you will find, that to the making of the whole found the articulation of them at all, within that alphabet there will be fewer simple motions required distance that they can be heard; though, it may be, than there are letters. they make them to be heard less way than in a still; · 199. The lungs are the most spungy part of the as hath been partly touched.
body ; and therefore ablest to contract and dilate 194. Over-great distance confoundeth the articu- itself: and where it contracteth itself, it expelleth lation of sounds; as we see, that you may hear the the air ; which through the artery, throat, and sound of a preacher's voice, or the like, when you month, maketh the voice: but yet articulation is not cannot distinguish what he saith. And one articu- made but with the help of the tongue, palate, and late sound will confound another, as when many the rest of those they call instruments of voice. speak at once.
200. There is found a similitude between the 195. In the experiment of speaking under water, sound that is made by inanimate bodies, or by aniwhen the voice is reduced to such an extreme ex mate bodies, that have no voice articulate, and ility, yet the articulate sounds, which are the words, divers letters of articulate voices; and commonly are not confounded as hath been said.
men have given such names to those sounds, as do 196. I conceive, that an extreme small or an ex allude unto the articulate letters; as trembling of treme great sound cannot be articulate; but that water hath resemblance with the letter L; quenchthe articulation requireth a mediocrity of sound : ing of hot metals with the letter Z ; snarling of dogs for that the extreme small sound confoundeth the with the letter R; the noise of screech-owls with articulation by contracting; and the great sound by the letter Sh; voice of cats with the diphthong Eu; dispersing: and although, as was formerly said, a voice of cuckows with the diphthong Ou; sounds of sound articulate, already created, will be contracted strings with the letter Ng; so that if a man, for into a small cranny; yet the first articulation re- curiosity or strangeness' sake, would make a puppet quireth more dimension.
or other dead body to pronounce a word, let him 197. It hath been observed, that in a room, or in consider, on the one part, the motion of the instrua chapel, vaulted below and vaulted likewise in the ments of voice; and on the other part, the like roof, a preacher cannot be heard so well, as in the sounds made in inanimate bodies; and what conlike places, not so vaulted. The cause is, for that formity there is that causeth the similitude of the subsequent words come on before the precedent sounds; and by that he may minister light to that words vanish ; and therefore the articulate sounds | effect.
Erperiments in consort touching the motions of let the other speak below, keeping the same propor
laying his ear close to the trunk: then via versa, sounds, in what lines they are circular, oblique, tion of softness; and let him in the chamber lay his straight, upuards, downwards, forwards, back
ear to the trunk: and this may be the aptest means uards.
to make a judgment, whether sounds descend or 201. All sounds whatsoever move round; that ascend better. is to say, on all sides ; upwards, downwards, forwards, and backwards. This appeareth in all in- Experiments in consort touching the lasting and stances.
perishing of sounds; and touching the time they 202. Sounds do not require to be conveyed to
require to their generation or delation. the sense in a right line, as visibles do, but may be 207. After that sound is created, which is in a arched; though it be true, they move strongest in a moment, we find it continueth some small time, right line; which nevertheless is not caused by the melting by little and little. In this there is a wonrightness of the line, but by the shortness of the derful error amongst men, who take this to be a distance ; linea recta brevissima. And therefore continuance of the first sound ; whereas, in truth, it we see if a wall be between, and you speak on the is a renovation, and not a continuance; for the body one side, you hear it on the other; which is not be percussed hath, by reason of the percussion, a trecause the sound passeth through the wall, but pidation wrought in the minuto parts, and so renewarcheth over the wall.
eth the percussion of the air. This appeareth ma203. If the sound be stopped and repercussed, it nifestly, because that the melting sound of a bell, cometh about on the other side in an oblique line. or of a string strucken, which is thought to be a So, if in a coach one side of the boot be down, and continuance, ceaseth, as soon as the bell or string are the other up, and a beggar beg on the close side ; touched. As in a virginal, as soon as ever the jack you will think that he were on the open side. So falleth, and toucheth the string, the sound ceaseth ; likewise, if a bell or clock be, for example, on the and in a bell, after you have chimed upon it, if you north side of a chamber, and the window of that touch the bell, the sound ceaseth. And in this you chamber be upon the south; he that is in the cham- must distinguish that there are two trepidations : the ber will think the sound came from the south. one manifest and local; as of the bell when it is
204. Sounds, though they spread round, so that pensile : the other secret, of the minute parts; such there is an orb or spherical area of the sound, yet as is described in the ninth instance. But it is true, they move strongest, and go farthest in the fore-lines, that the local helpeth the secret greatly. We see from the first local impulsion of the air. And there likewise that in pipes, and other wind-instruments, fore in preaching, you shall hear the preacher's the sound lasteth no longer than the breath bloweth. voice better before the pulpit than behind it, or on It is true, that in organs there is a confused murmur the sides, though it stand open. So a harquebuss, or for a while after you have played; but that is but ordnance, will be farther heard forwards from the while the bellows are in falling. mouth of the piece, than backwards, or on the sides. 208. It is certain, that in the noise of great ord
205. It may be doubted, that sounds do movenance, where many are shot off together, the sound better downwards than upwards. Pulpits are placed will be carried, at the least, twenty miles upon the high above the people. And when the ancient land, and much farther upon the water. But then generals spake to their armies, they had ever a it will come to the ear, not in the instant of the mount of turf cast up, whereupon they stood; but shooting off, but it will come an hour or more later. this may be imputed to the stops and obstacles which This must needs be a continuance of the first sound; the voice meeteth with, when one speaketh upon for there is no trepidation which should renew it. the level. But there seemeth to be more in it; for And the touching of the ordnance would not extinit may be that spiritual species, both of things visible guish the sound the sooner: so that in great sounds and sounds, do move better downwards than up- the continuance is more than momentary. wards. It is a strange thing, that to men standing 209. To try exactly the time wherein sound is below on the ground, those that be on the top of delated, let a man stand in a steeple, and have with Paul's seem much less than they are, and cannot be him a taper; and let some vail be put before the known; but to men above, those below seem nothing taper; and let another man stand in the field a mile so much lessened, and may be known : yet it is true, off. Then let him in the steeple strike the bell; and that all things to them above seem also somewhat in the same instant withdraw the vail; and so let contracted, and better collected into figure : as knots him in the field tell by his pulse what distance of in gardens show best from an upper window or terras. time there is between the light seen, and the sound
206. But to make an exact trial of it, let a man heard: for it is certain that the delation of light is stand in a chamber not much above the ground, and in instant. This may be tried in far greater speak out at the window, through a trunk, to one distances, allowing greater lights and sounds. standing on the ground, as softly as he can, the other 210. It is generally known and observed that
light, and the object of sight, move swifter than | distance from the wall, will be heard if you stand sound: for we see the flash of a piece is seen sooner close under the wall. than the noise is heard. And in hewing wood, if 215. Soft and foraminous bodies, in the first creone be some distance off, he shall see the arm lifted ation of the sound, will dead it; for the striking up for a second stroke, before he hear the noise of against cloth or fur will make little sound; as hath the first. And the greater the distance, the greater been said: but in the passage of the sound, they is the prevention : as we see in thunder which is will admit it better than harder bodies; as we see far off, where the lightning precedeth the crack a that curtains and hangings will not stay the sound good space.
much ; but glass windows, if they be very close, 211. Colours, when they represent themselves to will check a sound more than the like thickness of the eye, fade not, nor melt not by degrees, but ap- cloth. We see also in the rumbling of the belly, pear still in the same strength ; but sounds melt and how easily the sound passeth through the guts and vanish by little and little. The cause is, for that skin. colours participate nothing with the motion of the 216. It is worthy the inquiry, whether great air, but sounds do. And it is a plain argument, that sounds, as of ordnance or bells, become not more sound participateth of some local motion of the air, weak and exile when they pass through small cranas a cause sine qua non, in that it perisheth so sud-nies. For the subtilties of articulate sounds, it may denly; for in every section or impulsion of the air, be, may pass through small crannies not confused; the air doth suddenly restore and reunite itself; but the magnitude of the sound, perhaps, not so well. which the water also doth, but nothing so swiftly.
Experiments in consort touching the medium Experiments in consort touching the passage and
of sounds. interceptions of sounds,
217. The mediums of sounds are air; soft and In the trials of the passage, or not passage of porous bodies; also water. And hard bodies refuse sounds, you must take heed you mistake not the not altogether to be mediums of sounds. But all of passing by the sides of the body, for the passing them are dull and unapt deferents, except the air. through a body; and therefore you must make the 218. In air, the thinner drier air carrieth not intercepting body very close ; for sound will pass the sound so well as the more dense; as appeareth through a small chink.
in night sounds, and evening sounds, and sounds in 212. Where sound passeth through a hard or close moist weather and southern winds. The reason is body, as through water; through a wall ; through already mentioned in the title of majoration of metal, as in hawks' bells stopped, &c.; the hard or sounds; being for that thin air is better pierced ; close body must be but thin and small; for else it but thick air preserveth the sound better from waste: deadeth and extinguisheth the sound utterly. And let further trial be made by hollowing in mists and therefore in the experiment of speaking in air under gentle showers ; for, it may be, that will somewhat water, the voice must not be very deep within the dead the sound. water ; for then the sound pierceth not.
219. How far forth flame may be a medium of speak on the farther side of a close wall, if the wall sounds, especially of such sounds as are created by be very thick you shall not be heard ; and if there air, and not betwixt hard bodies, let it be tried in were a hogshead empty, whereof the sides were speaking where a bonfire is between ; but then you some two foot thick, and the bung-hole stopped; I must allow for some disturbance the noise that the conceive the resounding sound, by the communication flame itself maketh. of the outward air with the air within, would be 220. Whether any other liquors, being made melittle or none : but only you shall hear the noise of diums, cause a diversity of sound from water, it the outward knock, as if the vessel were full. may be tried: as by the knapping of the tongs; or
213. It is certain, that in the passage of sounds striking of the bottom of a vessel, filled either with through hard bodies the spirit or pneumatical part of milk or with oil; which though they be more light, the hard body itself doth co-operate; but much yet are they more unequal bodies than air. better when the sides of that hard body are struck, Of the nature of the mediums we have now than when the percussion is only within, without spoken; as for the disposition of the said mediums, touch of the sides. Take therefore a hawk's bell, it doth consist in the penning, or not penning of the the holes stopped up, and hang it by a thread within air; of which we have spoken before in the title of a bottle glass, and stop the mouth of the glass very delation of sounds: it consisteth also in the figure close with wax; and then shake the glass, and see of the concave through which it passeth ; of which whether the bell give any sound at all, or how weak: we will speak next. but note, that you must instead of the thread take a wire; or else let the glass have a great belly; Experiments in consort, what the figures of the pipes, lest when you shake the bell, it dash upon the sides
or concaves, or the bodies deferent, conduce to the of the glass.
sounds. 214. It is plain, that a very long and downright How the figures of pipes, or concaves, through arch for the sound to pass, will extinguish the sound which sounds pass, or of other bodies deferent, conquite ; so that that sound, which would be heard duce to the variety and alteration of the sounds; over a wall, will not be heard over a church ; nor either in respect of the greater quantity, or less that sound, which will be heard if you stand some quantity of air, which the concaves receive ; or in
So if you
respect of the carrying of sounds longer and shorter | parts, one of them would utterly confound the other. way; or in respect of many other circumstances ; So we see, that voices or consorts of music do make they have been touched, as falling into other titles. a harmony by mixture, which colours do not. It But those figures which we now are to speak of, we is true nevertheless that a great light drowneth a intend to be, as they concern the lines through which smaller, that it cannot be seen; as the sun that of the sound passeth; as straight, crooked, angular, a glow-worm; as well as a great sound drowneth a circular, &c.
And I suppose likewise, that if there were 221. The figure of a bell partaketh of the pyra- two lanthorns of glass, the one a crimson, and the mis, but yet coming off and dilating more suddenly. other an azure, and a candle within either of them, The figure of a hunter's horn and cornet is oblique; those coloured lights would mingle, and cast upon a yet they have likewise straight horns; which if they white paper a purple colour. And even in colours, be of the same bore with the oblique, differ little in they yield'a faint and weak mixture : for white walls sound, save that the straight require somewhat a make rooms more lightsome than black, &c. but the stronger blast. The figures of recorders, and flutes, cause of the confusion in sounds, and the inconfuand pipes, are straight; but the recorder hath a less sion in species visible, is, for that the sight worketh bore and a greater, above and below. The trumpet in right lines, and maketh several cones; and so hath the figure of the letter S: which maketh that there can be no coincidence in the eye or visual purling sound, &c. Generally the straight line hath point: but sounds, that move in oblique and arcuate the cleanest and roundest sound, and the crooked, lines, must needs encounter and disturb the one the the more hoarse and jarring.
other. 222. Of a sinuous pipe that may have some four 225. The sweetest and best harmony is, when flexions, trial would be made. Likewise of a pipe every part or instrument is not heard by itself, but made like a cross, open in the midst. And so like a conflation of them all; which requireth to stand wise of an angular pipe: and see what will be some distance off, even as it is in the mixture of the effects of these several sounds. And so again perfumes; or the taking of the smells of several of a circular pipe ; as if you take a pipe perfect flowers in the air. round, and make a hole whereinto you shall blow, 226. The disposition of the air in other qualities, and another hole not far from that; but with a tra- except it be joined with sound, hath no great operaverse or stop between them; so that your breath tion upon sounds : for whether the air be lightsome may go the round of the circle, and come forth at or dark, hot or cold, quiet or stirring, except it be the second hole. You may try likewise percussions with noise, sweet-smelling, or stinking, or the like; of solid bodies of several figures; as globes, flats, it importeth not much ; some petty alteration or cubes, crosses, triangles, &c. and their combinations, difference it may make. as flat against flat, and convex against convex, and 227. But sounds do disturb and alter the one the convex against flat, &c, and mark well the diversi-other: sometimes the one drowning the other, and ties of the sounds. Try also the difference in sound making it not heard; sometimes the one jarring of several crassitudes of hard bodies percussed; and and discording with the other, and making a confutake knowledge of the diversities of the sounds. I sion; sometimes the one mingling and compoundmyself have tried, that a bell of gold yieldeth an ing with the other, and making a harmony. excellent sound not inferior to that of silver or brass, 228. Two voices of like loudness will not be but rather better; yet we see that a piece of money heard twice as far as one of them alone ; and two canof gold soundeth far more flat than a piece of money dles of like light will not make things seen twice as of silver.
far off as one. The cause is profound; but it seem223. The harp hath the concave not along the eth that the impressions from the objects of the strings, but across the strings: and no instrument senses do mingle respectively, every one with his hath the sound so melting and prolonged, as the kind; but not in proportion, as is before demonIrish harp. So as I suppose, that if a virginal were strated : and the reason may be, because the first made with a double concave, the one all the length, impression, which is from privative to active, as as the virginal hath ; the other at the end of the from silence to noise, or from darkness to light, is a strings, as the harp hath; it must needs make the greater degree than from less noise to more noise, sound perfecter, and not so shallow and jarring. You or from less light to more light. And the reason may try it without any sound-board along, but only of that again may be, for that the air, after it hath harp-wise at one end of the strings; or lastly, with received a charge, doth not receive a surcharge, or a double concave at each end of the strings one. greater charge, with like appetite as it doth the first
charge. As for the increase of virtue generally, Experiments in consort touching the mixture of
what proportion it beareth to the increase of the sounds.
matter, it is a large field, and to be handled by itself. 224. There is an apparent diversity between the species visible and audible in this, that the visible
Experiments in consort touching melioration of
sounds. doth not mingle in the medium, but the audible doth. For if we look abroad, we see heaven, a 229. All reflexions concurrent do make sounds number of stars, trees, hills, men, beasts, at once. greater; but if the body that createth either the ori. And the species of the one doth not confound the ginal sound, or the reflexion, be clean and smooth, other. But if so many sounds came from several | it maketh them sweeter. Trial may be made of a