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as a diverse loudness: but they do not so; for received, that extreme applauses, and shouting of though the sound of the one be louder, and of the people assembled in great multitudes, have so rariother softer, yet the tone is the same. Besides, in fied and broken the air, that birds flying over have echoes, whereof some are as loud as the original fallen down, the air being not able to support them. voice, there is no new elision, but a repercussion And it is believed by some, that great ringing of only. But that which convinceth it most of all is, bells in populous cities hath chased away thunder ; that sounds are generated where there is no air at and also dissipated pestilent air : all which may be all. But these and the like conceits, when men also from the concussion of the air, and not from have cleared their understanding by the light of the sound. experience, will scatter and break up like a mist. 128. A very great sound, near hand, hath strucken

125. It is certain, that sound is not produced at many deaf; and at the instant they have found, as the first, but with some local motion of the air, or it were, the breaking of a skin or parchment in flame, or some other medium ; nor yet without their ear: and myself standing near one that lured some resistance, either in the air or the body per- loud and shrill, had suddenly an offence, as if somecussed. For if there be a mere yielding or cession, what had broken or been dislocated in my ear; and it produceth no sound; as hath been said. And immediately after a loud ringing, not an orditherein sounds differ from light and colours, which nary singing or hissing, but far louder and differing, pass through the air, or other bodies, without any so as I feared some deafness. But after some half local motion of the air ; either at the first, or after. quarter of an hour it vanished. This effect may be But you must attentively distinguish between the truly referred unto the sound : for, as is commonly local motion of the air; which is but vehiculum received, an over-potent object doth destroy the causæ, a carrier of the sounds, and the sounds sense; and spiritual species, both visible and audithemselves, conveyed in the air. For as to the ble, will work upon the sensories, though they former, we see manifestly, that no sound is produced, move not any other body. no not by air itself against other air, as in organs, 129. In dilation of sounds, the enclosure of them &c. but with a perceptible blast of the air; and preserveth them, and causeth them to be heard farwith some resistance of the air strucken. For even ther. And we find in rolls of parchment or trunks, all speech, which is one of the gentlest motions of the mouth being laid to the one end of the roll of air, is with expulsion of a little breath. And all parchment or trunk, and the ear to the other, the pipes have a blast, as well as a sound. We see sound is heard much farther than in the open air. also manifestly, that sounds are carried with wind: The cause is, for that the sound spendeth, and is and therefore sounds will be heard farther with the dissipated in the open air; but in such concave it is wind, than against the wind; and likewise do rise conserved and contracted. So also in a piece of and fall with the intension or remission of the wind. ordnance, if you speak in the touch-hole, and But for the impression of the sound, it is quite another lay his ear to the mouth of the piece, the another thing, and is utterly without any local mo sound passeth and is far better heard than in the tion of the air, perceptible; and in that resembleth open air. the species visible : for after a man hath lured, or 130. It is further to be considered, how it proveth a bell is rung, we cannot discern any perceptible and worketh when the sound is not enclosed all the motion at all in the air along as the sound goeth ; length of its way, but passeth partly through open but only at the first. Neither doth the wind, as far air; as where you speak some distance from a as it carrieth a voice, with the motion thereof, con trunk; or where the ear is some distance from the found any of the delicate and articulate figurations trunk at the other end; or where both month and of the air, in variety of words. And if a man speak ear are distant from the trunk. And it is tried, that a good loudness against the flame of a candle, it will in a long trunk of some eight or ten 'foot, the sound not make it tremble much; though most when those is holpen, though both the mouth and the ear be a letters are pronounced which contract the mouth; handful or more from the ends of the trunk; and as F, S, V, and some others. But gentle breathing, somewhat more holpen, when the ear of the hearer or blowing without speaking, will move the candle is near, than when the mouth of the speaker. And

And it is the more probable, that sound it is certain, that the voice is better heard in a is without any local motion of the air, because as it chamber from abroad, than abroad from within the differeth from the sight, in that it needeth a local chamber. motion of the air at first; so it paralleleth in so 131. As the enclosure that is round about and many other things with the sight, and radiation of entire, preserveth the sound; so doth a semi-conthings visible; which, without all question, induce cave, though in a less degree. And therefore, if no local motion in the air, as hath been said. you divide a trunk or a cane into two, and one

126. Nevertheless it is true, that upon the noise speak at the one end, and you lay your ear at the of thunder, and great ordnance, glass windows will other, it will carry the voice farther, than in the air shake; and fishes are thought to be frayed with the at large. Nay farther, if it be not a full semi-conmotion caused by noise upon the water. But these cave, but if you do the like upon the mast of a ship, effects are from the local motion of the air, which or a long pole, or a piece of ordnance, though one is a concomitant of the sound, as hath been said, speak upon the surface of the ordnance, and not at and not from the sound.

any of the bores, the voice will be heard farther 127. It hath been anciently reported, and is still than in the air at large.

far more.

132. It would be tried, how, and with what pro- | itself in round, and so spendeth itself; but if the portion of disadvantage the voice will be carried in sound, which would scatter in open air, be made to a horn, which is a line arched; or in a trumpet, go all into a canal, it must needs give greater force which is a line retorted; or in some pipe that were to the sound. And so you may note, that enclosures sinuous.

do not only preserve sound, but also increase and 133. It is certain, howsoever it cross the received sharpen it. opinion, that sounds may be created without air, 139. A hunter's horn being greater at one end though air be the most favourable deferent of sounds. than at the other, doth increase the sound more than Take a vessel of water, and knap a pair of tongs if the horn were all of an equal bore. The cause is, some depth within the water, and you shall hear for that the air and sound being first contracted at the sound of the tongs well, and not much dimin- the lesser end, and afterwards having more room to ished ; and yet there is no air at all present. spread at the greater end, do dilate themselves; and

134. Take one vessel of silver, and another of in coming out strike more air ; whereby the sound wood, and fill each of them full of water, and then is the greater and baser. And even hunters' horns, knap the tongs together, as before, about a hand- which are sometimes made straight, and not oblique, ful from the bottom, and you shall find the sound are ever greater at the lower end. It would be much more resounding from the vessel of silver, tried also in pipes, being made far larger at the than from that of wood : and yet if there be no lower end; or being made with a belly towards the water in the vessel, so that you knap the tongs in lower end, and then issuing into a straight concave the air, you shall find no difference between the sil- again. ver and the wooden vessel. Whereby, beside the 140. There is in St. James's fields a conduit of main point of creating sound without air, you may brick, unto which joineth a low vault; and at the collect two things: the one, that the sound commu end of that a round house of stone: and in the brick nicateth with the bottom of the vessel; the other, conduit there is a window; and in the round house that such a communication passeth far better through a slit or rift of some little breadth: if you cry out water than air.

in the rift, it will make a fearful roaring at the 135. Strike any hard bodies together in the midst window. The cause is the same with the former; of a flame; and you shall hear the sound with little for that all concaves, that proceed from more narrow difference from the sound in the air.

to more broad, do amplify the sound at the coming 136. The pneumatical part which is in all tangi- out. ble bodies, and hath some affinity with the air, per 141. Hawks' bells, that have holes in the sides, formeth, in some degree, the parts of the air ; as give a greater ring, than if the pellet did strike upon when you knock upon an empty barrel, the sound is brass in the open air. The cause is the same with in part created by the air on the outside, and in the first instance of the trunk; namely, for that the part by the air in the inside: for the sound will be sound enclosed with the sides of the bell cometh greater or lesser, as the barrel is more empty or forth at the holes unspent and more strong. more full; but yet the sound participateth also with 142. In drums, the closeness round about, that the spirit in the wood through which it passeth, from preserveth the sound from dispersing, maketh the the outside to the inside: and so it cometh to pass noise come out at the drum-hole far more loud and in the chiming of bells on the outside ; where also strong than if you should strike upon the like skin the sound passeth to the inside : and a number of extended in the open air. The cause is the same other like instances, whereof we shall speak more with the two precedent. when we handle the communication of sounds.

143. Sounds are better heard, and farther off, in 137. It were extreme grossness to think, as we an evening or in the night, than at the noon or in have partly touched before, that the sound in strings the day. The cause is, for that in the day, when is made or produced between the hand and the the air is more thin, no doubt, the sound pierceth string, or the quill and the string, or the bow and better ; but when the air is more thick, as in the the string, for those are but vehicula motus, passages night, the sound spendeth and spreadeth abroad less : to the creation of the sound, the sound being pro- and so it is a degree of enclosure. As for the night, duced between the string and the air : and that not it is true also that the general silence helpeth. by any impulsion of the air from the first motion of 144. There be two kinds of reflexions of sounds; the string; but by the return or result of the string, the one at distance, which is the echo; wherein which was strained by the touch, to his former place: the original is heard distinctly, and the reflection which motion of result is quick and sharp; whereas also distinctly; of which we shall speak hereafter : the first motion is soft and dull. So the bow tor the other in concurrence; when the sound reflecttureth the string continually, and thereby holdeth it ing, the reflexion being near at hand, returneth in a continual trepidation.

immediately upon the original, and so iterateth it Experiments in consort touching the magnitude and music upon the water soundeth more ; and so like

. Therefore we see, that exility and damps of sounds.

wise music is better in chambers wainscotted than 138. Take a trunk, and let one whistle at the one hanged. end, and hold your ear at the other, and you shall 145. The strings of a lute, or viol, or virginals, find the sound strike so sharp as you can scarce do give a far greater sound, by reason of the knot, endure it. The cause is, for that sound diffuseth I and board, and concave underneath, than if there

were nothing but only the flat of a board, without 152. The sound which is made by buckets in a that hollow and knot, to let in the upper air into the well, when they touch upon the water, or when they lower. The cause is the communication of the strike upon the side of the well, or when two buckets upper air with the lower, and penning of both from dash the one against the other, these sounds are expense or dispersing.

deeper and fuller than if the like percussion were 146. An Irish harp hath open air on both sides made in the open air. The cause is the penning of the strings: and it hath the concave or belly not and enclosure of the air in the concave of the well. along the strings, but at the end of the strings. It 153. Barrels placed in a room under the floor of maketh a more resounding sound than a bandora, a chamber, make all noises in the same chamber more orpharion, or cittern, which have likewise wire-strings. full and resounding. I judge the cause to be, for that open air on both So that there be five ways, in general, of majorasides helpeth, so that there be a concave; which is tion of sounds: enclosure simple ; enclosure with ditherefore best placed at the end.

latation; communication ; reflexion concurrent; and 147. In a virginal, when the lid is down, it mak- approach to the sensory. eth a more exile sound than when the lid is open. 154. For exility of the voice or other sounds; it The cause is, for that all shutting in of air, where is certain that the voice doth pass through solid and there is no competent vent, dampeth the sound : hard bodies if they be not too thick; and through which maintaineth likewise the former instance; water, which is likewise a very close body, and such for the belly of the lute or viol doth pen the air a one as letteth not in air. But then the voice, or somewhat.

other sound, is reduced by such passage to a great 148. There is a church at Gloucester, and, as I weakness or exility. If therefore you stop the holes have heard, the like is in some other places, where of a hawk's bell, it will make no ring, but a flat if you speak against a wall softly, another shall hear noise or rattle. And so doth aëtites or eagle-stone, your voice better a good way off, than near at hand. which hath a little stone within it. Inquire more particularly of the frame of that place. 155. And as for water, it is a certain trial: let a I suppose there is some vault, or hollow, or aisle, man go into a bath, and take a pail, and turn the behind the wall, and some passage to it towards the bottom upward, and carry the mouth of it, even, farther end of that wall against which you speak; down to the level of the water, and so press it down so as the voice of him that speaketh slideth along under the water some handful and a half, still the wall, and then entereth at some passage, and keeping it even, that it may not tilt on either side, communicateth with the air of the hollow ; for it is and so the air get out: then let him that is in the preserved somewhat by the plain wall; but that is bath dive with his head so far under water, as he too weak to give a sound audible, till it hath com may put his head into the pail, and there will come municated with the back air.

as much air bubbling forth, as will make room for 149. Strike upon a bow-string, and lay the horn his head. Then let him speak, and any that shall of the bow near your ear, and it will increase the stand without shall hear his voice plainly ; but yet sound, and make a degree of a tone. The cause is, made extreme sharp and exile, like the voice of for that the sensory, by reason of the close holding, puppets: but yet the articulate sounds of the words is percussed before the air disperseth. The like is, will not be confounded. Note, that it may be much if you hold the horn betwixt your teeth : but that is more handsomely done, if the pail be put over the a plain delation of the sound from the teeth to the man's head above water, and then he cower down, instrument of hearing; for there is a great inter- and the pail be pressed down with him. Note, that course between those two parts; as appeareth by a man must kneel or sit, that he may be lower than this, that a harsh grating tune setteth the teeth on the water. A man would think that the Sicilian edge. The like falleth out, if the horn of the bow poet had knowledge of this experiment; for he saith, be put upon the temples; but that is but the slide that Hercules's page, Hylas, went with a water pot of the sound from thence to the ear.

to fill it at a pleasant fountain that was near the 150. If you take a rod of iron or brass, and hold shore, and that the nymphs of the fountain fell in the one end to your ear, and strike upon the other, love with the boy, and pulled him under water, it maketh a far greater sound than the like stroke keeping him alive ; and that Hercules missing his upon the rod, made not so contiguous to the ear. By page, called him by his name aloud, that all the which, and by some other instances that have been shore rang of it; and that Hylas from within the partly touched, it should appear, that sounds do not water answered his master, but, that which is to the only slide upon the surface of a smooth body, but do present purpose, with so small and exile a voice, as also communicate with the spirits, that are in the Hercules thought he had been three miles off, when pores of the body.

the fountain, indeed, was fast by. 151. I remember in Trinity College, in Cam 156. In lutes and instruments of strings, if you bridge, there was an upper chamber, which, being stop a string high, whereby it hath less scope to thought weak in the roof of it, was supported by a tremble, the sound is more treble, but yet more dead. pillar of iron of the bigness of one's arm in the 157. Take two saucers, and strike the edge of the midst of the chamber; which if you had struck, it one against the bottom of the other, within a pail of would make a little flat noise in the room where it water; and you shall find, that as you put the was struck, but it would make a great bomb in the saucers lower and lower, the sound groweth more chamber beneath.

flat; even while part of the saucer is above the

of sounds.

water; but that flatness of sound is joined with a hand-bell harder or softer, &c. And the strength of harshness of sound; which no doubt is caused by this percussion consisteth as much or more in the the inequality of the sound which cometh from the hardness of the body percussed, as in the force of part of the saucer under the water, and from the the body percussing : for if you strike against a part above. But when the saucer is wholly under cloth, it will give a less sound; if against wood, a the water, the sound becometh more clear, but far greater ; if against metal, yet a greater; and in more low, and as if the sound came from afar off. metals, if you strike against gold, which is the more

158. A soft body dampeth the sound much more pliant, it giveth the flatter sound; if against silver than a hard; as if a bell hath cloth or silk wrapped or brass, the more ringing sound. As for air, where about it, it deadeth the sound more than if it were it is strongly pent, it matcheth a hard body. And wood. And therefore in clericals the keys are lined: therefore we see in discharging of a piece, what a and in colleges they used to line the tablemen. great noise it maketh. We see also, that the charge

159. Trial was made in a recorder after these with bullet, or with paper wet and hard stopped, or several manners. The bottom of it was set against with powder alone rammed in hard, maketh no great the palm of the hand; stopped with wax round difference in the loudness of the report. about; set against a damask cushion ; thrust into 165. The sharpness or quickness of the percussand; into ashes; into water, half an inch under sion, is a great cause of the loudness, as well as the the water; close to the bottom of a silver bason ; strength; as in a whip or wand, if you strike the and still the tone remained: but the bottom of it air with it; the sharper and quicker you strike it, was set against a woollen carpet ; a lining of plush; the louder sound it giveth. And in playing upon a lock of wool, though loosely put in; against the lute or virginals, the quick stroke or touch is a snow; and the sound of it was quite deaded, and great life to the sound. The cause is, for that the but breath.

quick striking cutteth the air speedily ; whereas 160. Iron hot produceth not so full a sound as the soft striking doth rather beat than cut. when it is cold ; for while it is hot, it appeareth to be more soft and less resounding. So likewise warm

Experiments in consort touching the communication water, when it falleth, make not so full a sound as cold; and I conceive it is softer, and nearer the The communication of sounds, as in bellies of nature of oil; for it is more slippery, as may be lutes, empty vessels, &c. hath been touched obiter perceived in that it scoureth better.

in the majoration of sounds; but it is fit also to 161. Let there be a recorder made with two fip- make a title of it apart. ples, at each end one ; the trunk of it of the length 166. The experiment for greatest demonstration of two recorders, and the holes answerable towards of communication of sounds, is the chiming of bells; each end; and let two play the same lesson upon it where if you strike with a hammer upon the upper at an unison ; and let it be noted whether the sound part, and then upon the midst, and then upon the be confounded, or amplified, or dulled. So likewise lower, you shall find the sound to be more treble and let a cross be made of two trunks, throughout, hol more base, according unto the concave on the inside, low ; and let two speak, or sing, the one long-ways, though the percussion be only on the outside. the other traverse : and let two hear at the opposite 167. When the sound is created between the ends ; and note whether the sound be confounded, blast of the mouth and the air of the pipe, it hath amplified, or dulled. Which two instances will also nevertheless some communication with the matter give light to the mixture of sounds, whereof we shall of the sides of the pipe, and the spirits in them conspeak hereafter.

tained; for in a pipe, or trumpet, of wood, and brass, 162. A bellows blown in at the hole of a drum, the sound will be diverse ; so if the pipe be covered and the drum then strucken, maketh the sound a with cloth or silk, it will give a diverse sound from little flatter, but no other apparent alteration. The that it would do of itself; so if the pipe be a little cause is manifest; partly for that it hindereth the wet on the inside, it will make a differing sound issue of the sound ; and partly for that it maketh from the same pipe dry. the air, being blown together, less movable.

168. That sound made within water doth com

municate better with a hard body through water, Experiments in consort touching the loudness or soft-than made in air it doth with air, vide Experimenness of sounds, and their carriage at longer or

tum 134. shorter distance. 163. The loudness and softness of sounds is a

Experiments in consort touching equality and thing distinct from the magnitude and exility of

inequality of sounds. sounds; for a base string, though softly strucken, We have spoken before, in the inquisition touchgiveth the greater sound; but a treble string, if harding music, of musical sounds, whereunto there may strucken, will be heard much farther off. And the be a concord or discord in two parts; which sounds cause is, for that the base string striketh more air, we call tones : and likewise of immusical sounds; and the treble less air, but with a sharper percussion and have given the cause, that the tone proceedeth

164. It is therefore the strength of the percussion, of equality, and the other of inequality. And we that is a principal cause of the loudness or softness have also expressed there, what are the equal bodies of sounds; as in knocking harder or softer; wind- that give tones, and what are the unequal that give ing of a horn stronger or weaker ; ringing of a But now we shall speak of such inequality

none.

of sounds, as proceedeth not from the nature of the to come forth at their mouth, but to be an inward bodies themselves, but is accidental ; either from sound; but it may be, it is neither ; but from the the roughness or obliquity of the passage, or from motion of their wings: for it is not heard but when the doubling of the percutient, or from the trepida- they stir. tion of the motion.

176. All metals quenched in water give a sibila169. A bell, if it have a rift in it, whereby the tion or hissing sound, which hath an affinity with sound hath not a clear passage, giveth a hoarse and the letter Z, notwithstanding the sound be created jarring sound ; so the voice of man, when by cold between the water or vapour, and the air. Seething taken the weasand groweth rugged, and, as we call also, if there be but small store of water in a vessel, it, furred, becometh hoarse. And in these two in- giveth a hissing sound; but boiling in a full vessel stances the sounds are ingrate, because they are giveth a bubbling sound, drawing somewhat near to merely unequal : but if they be unequal in equality, the cocks used by children. then the sound is grateful, but purling.

177. Trial would be made, whether the inequal170. All instruments that have either returns, as ity or interchange of the medium will not produce trumpets; or flexions, as cornets; or are drawn up, an inequality of sound; as if three bells were made and put from, as sackbuts; have a purling sound : one within another, and air betwixt each ; and then but the recorder, or flute, that have none of these the outermost bell were chimed with a hammer, inequalities, give a clear sound. Nevertheless, the how the sound would differ from a simple bell. So recorder itself, or pipe, moistened a little in the in- likewise take a plate of brass, and a plank of wood, side, soundeth more solemnly, and with a little purl- and join them close together, and knock upon one ing or hissing. Again, a wreathed string, such as of them, and see if they do not give an unequal are in the base strings of bandoras, giveth also a sound. So make two or three partitions of wood in purling sound.

a hogshead, with holes or knots in them; and mark 171. But a lute-string, if it be merely unequal in the difference of their sound from the sound of a its parts, giveth a harsh and untunable sound; hogshead without such partitions. which strings we call false, being bigger in one place than in other; and therefore wire strings are

Experiments in consort touching the more treble, never false. We see also that when we try a false

and the more base tones, or musical sounds. lute-string, we use to extend it hard between the 178. It is evident, that the percussion of the fingers, and to fillip it; and if it giveth a double greater quantity of air causeth the baser sound; and species, it is true ; but if it giveth a treble, or more, the less quantity the more treble sound. The perit is false.

cussion of the greater quantity of air is produced 172. Waters, in the noise they make as they run, by the greatness of the body percussing ; by the represent to the ear a trembling noise; and in re latitude of the concave by which the sound passeth; gals, where they have a pipe they call the nightin- and by the longitude of the same concave. Theregale pipe, which containeth water, the sound hath fore we see that a base string is greater than a a continual trembling : and children have also little treble ; a base pipe hath a greater bore than a trethings they call cocks, which have water in them; ble; and in pipes, and the like, the lower the noteand when they blow or whistle in them, they yield holes be, and the farther off from the mouth of the a trembling noise : which trembling of water hath pipe, the more base sound they yield; and the an affinity with the letter L. All which inequali- nearer the mouth, the more treble. Nay more, if ties of trepidation are rather pleasant than other you strike an entire body, as an andiron of brass, at wise.

the top, it maketh a more treble sound; and at the 173. All base notes, or very treble notes, give an bottom a baser. asper sound; for that the base striketh more air, 179. It is also evident, that the sharper or than it can well strike equally : and the treble cut- | quicker percussion of air causeth the more treble teth the air so sharp, as it returneth too swift to sound; and the slower or heavier, the more base make the sound equal: and therefore a mean or sound. So we see in strings; the more they are tenor is the sweetest part.

wound up and strained, and thereby give a more 174. We know nothing that can at pleasure quick start-back, the more treble is the sound; and make a musical or immusical sound by voluntary the slacker they are, or less wound up, the baser is motion, but the voice of man and birds. The cause the sound. And therefore a bigger string more is, no doubt, in the weasand or wind-pipe, which we strained, and a lesser string less strained, may fall call aspera arteria, which being well extended, ga- into the same tone. thereth equality; as a bladder that is wrinkled, if 180. Children, women, eunuchs, have more small it be extended, becometh smooth. The extension and shrill voices than men. The reason is, not for is always more in tones than in speech : therefore that men have greater heat, which may make the the inward voice or whisper can never give a tone. voice stronger, for the strength of a voice or sound And in singing, there is, manifestly, a greater work- doth make a difference in the loudness or softness, ing and labour of the throat, than in speaking; as but not in the tone, but, from the dilatation of the appeareth in the thrusting out or drawing in of the organ; which, it is true, is likewise caused by heat. chin, when we sing.

But the cause of changing the voice at the years of 175. The humming of bees is an unequal buzz- puberty, is more obscure. It seemeth to be, for ing, and is conceived by some of the ancients not that when much of the moisture of the body, which

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