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they bring out of the West Indies, hath a peculiar | one from the other, than the dense or tangible parts: force to move gravel, and to dissolve the stone: and they are in all tangible bodies whatsoever, more insomuch, as laid but to the wrist, it hath so forci- or less; and they are never almost at rest; and bly sent down gravel, as men have been glad to from them, and their motions, principally proceed remove it, it was so violent.
arefaction, colliquation, concoction, maturation, pu96. It is received, and confirmed by daily expe- trefaction, vivification, and most of the effects of rience, that the soles of the feet have great affinity nature: for, as we have figured them in our “ Sawith the head and the mouth of the stomach ; as pientia Veterum,” in the fable of Proserpina, you we see going wet-shod, to those that use it not, shall in the infernal regiment hear little doings of affecteth both : applications of hot powders to the Pluto, but most of Proserpina : for tangible parts in feet attenuate first, and after dry the rheum: and bodies are stupid things ; and the spirits do in effect therefore a physician that would be mystical, pre- all. As for the differences of tangible parts in scribeth, for the cure of the rheum, that a man bodies, the industry of the chemists hath given some should walk continually upon a camomile-alley; light, in discerning by their separations the oily, meaning, that he should put camomile within his crude, pure, impure, fine, gross parts of bodies, and socks. Likewise pigeons bleeding, applied to the the like. And the physicians are content to acsoles of the feet, ease the head: and soporiferous knowledge, that herbs and drugs have divers parts; medicines applied unto them, provoke sleep
as that opium hath a stupefactive part, and a heat97. It seemeth, that as the feet have a sympathy ing part; the one moving sleep, the other a sweat with the head, so the wrists and hands have a sym- following; and that rhubarb hath purging parts, pathy with the heart; we see the affects and pas. and astringent parts, &c. But this whole inquisition sions of the heart and spirits are notably disclosed is weakly and negligently handled. And for the by the pulse : and it is often tried, that juices of more subtle differences of the minute parts, and the stock-gilly-flowers, rose-campian, garlick, and other posture of them in the body, which also hath great things, applied to the wrists, and renewed, have effects, they are not at all touched; as for the mocured long agues. And I conceive, that washing | tions of the minute parts of bodies, which do so great with certain liquors the palms of the hands doth effects, they have not been observed at all; because much good: and they do well in heats of agues, to they are invisible, and incur not to the eye ; but yet hold in the hands eggs of alabaster and balls of they are to be deprehended by experience: as Decrystal.
mocritus said well, when they charged him to hold, Of these things we shall speak more, when we that the world was made of such little motes, as were handle the title of sympathy and antipathy in the seen in the sun: “ Atomus," saith he, “ necessitate proper place.
rationis et experientiæ esse convincitur ; atomum Experiment solitary touching the secret processes of mult in the parts of solid bodies, when they are
enim nemo unquam vidit.” And therefore the tunature.
compressed, which is the cause of all flight of bodies 98. The knowledge of man hitherto hath been through the air, and of other mechanical motions, determined by the view or sight; so that whatso as hath been partly touched before, and shall be erer is invisible, either in respect of the fineness of throughly handled in due place, is not seen at all. the body itself, or the smallness of the parts, or of But nevertheless, if you know it not, or inquire it the subtilty of the motion, is little inquired. And not attentively and diligently, you shall never be yet these be the things that govern nature princi- able to discern, and much less to produce, a number pally; and without which you cannot make any true of mechanical motions. Again, as to the motions analysis and indications of the proceedings of nature. corporal, within the enclosures of bodies, whereby The spirits or pneumaticals, that are in all tangible the effects, which were mentioned before, pass bebodies, are scarce known. Sometimes they take tween the spirits and the tangible parts, which are them for vacuum; whereas they are the most active arefaction, colliquation, concoction, maturation, &c. of bodies. Sometimes they ke them for air; from they are not at all handled. But they are put off which they differ exceedingly, as much as wine by the names of virtues, and natures, and actions, from water; and as wood from earth. Sometimes and passions, and such other logical words. they will have them to be natural heat, or a portion of the element of fire; whereas some of them are
Experiment solilury touching the power of heat. crude and cold. And sometimes they will have 99. It is certain, that of all powers in nature heat them to be the virtues and qualities of the tangible is the chief; both in the frame of nature, and in the parts which they see; whereas they are things by works of art. Certain it is likewise, that the effects themselves. And then, when they come to plants of heat are most advanced, when it worketh upon a and living creatures, they call them souls. And body without loss or dissipation of the matter; for such superficial speculations they have ; like pro- that ever betrayeth the account. And therefore it spectives, that show things inward, when they are is true, that the power of heat is best perceived in but paintings. Neither is this a question of words, distillations, which are performed in close vessels but infinitely material in nature. For spirits are and receptacles. But yet there is a higher degree; nothing else but a natural body, rarified to a propor- for howsoever distillations do keep the body in cells tion, and included in the tangible parts of bodies, as and cloisters, without going abroad, yet they give in an integument. And they be no less differing space unto bodies to turn into vapour ; to return
into liquor; and to separate one part from another. and age do in long time. But of the admirable So as nature doth expatiate, although it hath not effects of this distillation in close, for so we will call full liberty ; whereby the true and ultimate opera- it, which is like the wombs and matrices of living tions of heat are not attained. But if bodies may creatures, where nothing expireth nor separateth, we be altered by heat, and yet no such reciprocation of will speak fully, in the due place; not that we aim rarefaction, and of condensation, and of separation, at the making of Paracelsus's pygmies, or any such admitted ; then it is like that this Proteus of matter, prodigious follies; but that we know the effects of being held by the sleeves, will turn and change into heat will be such, as will scarce fall under the conmany metamorphoses. Take therefore a square ceit of man, if the force of it be altogether kept in. vessel of iron, in form of a cube, and let it have good thick and strong sides. Put into it a cube of
Experiment solitary touching the impossibility wood, that may fill it as close as may be; and let it
of annihilation. have a cover of iron, as strong at least as the sides; 100. There is nothing more certain in nature and let it be well luted, after the manner of the che-than that it is impossible for any body to be utterly mists. Then place the vessel within burning coals, annihilated; but that as it was the work of the omkept quick kindled for some few hours' space. Then nipotency of God to make somewhat of nothing, so take the vessel from the fire, and take off the cover, it requireth the like omnipotency to turn somewhat and see what is become of the wood. I conceive, into nothing. And therefore it is well said by an that since all inflammation and evaporation are ut- obscure writer of the sect of the chemists, that there terly prohibited, and the body still turned upon itself, is no such way to effect the strange transmutations that one of these two effects will follow : either of bodies, as to endeavour and urge by all means the that the body of the wood will be turned into a kind reducing of them to nothing. And herein is contained of amalgama, as the chemists call it; or that the also a great secret of preservation of bodies from finer part will be turned into air, and the grosser change; for if you can prohibit, that they neither stick as it were baked, and incrustate upon the sides turn into air, because no air cometh to them; nor go of the vessel, being become of a denser matter than into the bodies adjacent, because they are utterly the wood itself crude. And for another trial, take heterogeneal; nor make a round and circulation also water, and put it in the like vessel, stopped as within themselves ; they will never change, though before ; but use a gentler heat, and remove the ves they be in their nature never so perishable or musel sometimes from the fire; and again, after some table. We see how flies, and spiders, and the small time, when it is cold, renew the heating of it; like, get a sepulchre in amber, more durable than and repeat this alteration some few times : and if the monument and embalming of the body of any you can once bring to pass, that the water, which is king. And I conceive the like will be of bodies put one of the simplest of bodies, be changed in colour, into quicksilver. But then they must be but thin, odour, or taste, after the manner of compound bodies, as a leaf, or a piece of paper or parchment; for if you may be sure that there is a great work wrought they have a great crassitude, they will alter in their in nature, and a notable entrance made into strange own body, though they spend not. But of this we changes of bodies and productions; and also a way shall speak more when we handle the title of conmade to do that by fire, in small time, which the sun servation of bodies.
Experiments in consort touching Music.
102. The sounds that produce tones, are ever
from such bodies as are in their parts and pores Music, in the practice, hath been well pursued, equal; as well as the sounds themselves are equal; and in good variety ; but in the theory, and especi- and such are the percussions of metal, as in bells; ally in the yielding of the causes of the practice, of glass, as in the fillipping of a drinking glass; of very weakly ; being reduced into certain mystical air, as in men's voices whilst they sing, in pipes, subtilties of no use and not much truth. We shall, whistles, organs, stringed instruments, &c.; and of therefore, after our manner, join the contemplative water, as in the nightingale pipes of regals, or orand active part together.
gans, and other hydraulics; which the ancients had, 101. All sounds are either musical sounds, which and Nero did so much esteem, but are now lost. we call tones; whereunto they may be an harmony; And if any man think, that the string of the bow which sounds are ever equal; as singing, the sounds and the string of the viol are neither of them equal of stringed and wind instruments, the ringing of bodies, and yet produce tones, he is in an error. bells, &c.; or immusical sounds, which are ever un For the sound is not created between the bow or equal ; such as are the voice in speaking, all whis- plectrum and the string ; but between the string and perings, all voices of beasts and birds, except they the air ; no more than it is between the finger or 'be singing-birds, all percussions of stones, wood, quill and the string in other instruments. So there parchment, skins, as in drums, and infinite others. are, in effect, but three percussions that create tones;
percussions of metals, comprehending glass and the the ancients esteemed, and so do myself and some like, percussions of air, and percussions of water. other yet, the fourth which they call diatessaron.
103. The diapason or eight in music is the sweet. As for the tenth, twelfth, thirteenth, and so in infiniest concord, insomuch as it is in effect an unison: tum, they be but recurrences of the former, viz. of as we see in lutes that are strung in the base strings the third, the fifth, and the sixth ; being an eight with two strings, one an eight above another; which respectively from them. make but as one sound. And every eighth note in 108. For discords, the second and the seventh are ascent, as from eight to fifteen, from fifteen to twenty- of all others the most odious, in harmony, to the two, and so in infinitum, are but scales of diapason. sense; whereof the one is next above the unison, The cause is dark, and hath not been rendered by the other next under the diapason : which may any; and therefore would be better contemplated. show, that harmony requireth a competent distance It seemeth that air, which is the subject of sounds, of notes. in sounds that are not tones, which are all unequal, 109. In harmony, if there be not a discord to the as hath been said, admitteth much variety; as we base, it doth not disturb the harmony, though there see in the voices of living creatures; and likewise be a discord to the higher parts; so the discord be in the voices of several men, for we are capable to not of the two that are odious; and therefore the discern several men by their voices; and in the con ordinary concent of four parts consisteth of an eight, jugation of letters, whence articulate sounds proceed; a fifth, and a third to the base; but that fifth is a which of all others are most various. But in the fourth to the treble, and the third is a sixth. And sounds which we call tones, that are ever equal, the the cause is, for that the base striking more air, air is not able to cast itself into any such variety ; doth overcome and drown the treble, unless the disbut is forced to recur into one and the same posture cord be very odious; and so hideth a small imperor figure, only differing in greatness and smallness. fection. For we see, that in one of the lower strings So we see figures may be made of lines, crooked of a lute, there soundeth not the sound of the treble, and straight, in infinite variety, where there is in nor any mixt sound, but only the sound of the base. equality ; but circles, or squares, or triangles equi 110. We have no music of quarter-notes; and it lateral, which are all figures of equal lines, can differ may be they are not capable of harmony : for we but in greater or lesser.
see the half-notes themselves do but interpose some104. It is to be noted, the rather lest any man times. Nevertheless we have some slides or reshould think, that there is any thing in this number lishes of the voice or strings, as it were continued of eight, to create the diapason, that this computa- without notes, from one tone to another, rising or tion of eight is a thing rather received, than any falling, which are delightful. true computation. For a true computation ought 111. The causes of that which is pleasing or inever to be by distribution into equal portions. Now grate to the hearing, may receive light by that there be intervenient in the rise of eight, in tones, which is pleasing or ingrate to the sight. There be two bemolls, or half-notes: so as if you divide the two things pleasing to the sight, leaving pictures tones equally, the eight is but seven whole and and shapes aside, which are but secondary objects ; equal notes; and if you subdivide that into half- and please or displease but in memory; these two notes, as it is in the stops of a lute, it maketh the are colours and order. The pleasing of colour symnumber of thirteen.
bolizeth with the pleasing of any single tone to the 105. Yet this is true, that in the ordinary rises ear; but the pleasing of order doth symbolize with and falls of the voice of man, not measuring the harmony. And therefore we see in garden-knots, tone by whole notes, and half-notes, which is the and the frets of houses, and all equal and well anequal measure, there fall out to be two bemolls, as swering figures, as globes, pyramids, cones, cylinhath been said, between the unison and the diapason: ders, &c. how they please ; whereas unequal figures and this varying is natural. For if a man would are but deformities. And both these pleasures, that endeavour to raise or fall his voice, still by half-notes, of the eye, and that of the ear, are but the effects of like the stops of a lute; or by whole notes alone equality, good proportion, or correspondence: without halfs, as far as an eight; he will not be able that, out of question, equality and correspondence to frame his voice unto it. Which showeth, that are the causes of harmony. But to find the proporafter every three whole notes, nature requireth, fortion of that correspondence, is more abstruse; whereall harmonical use, one half-note to be interposed. of notwithstanding we shall speak somewhat, when
106. It is to be considered, that whatsoever vir we handle tones, in the general inquiry of sounds. tue is in numbers, for conducing to concent of notes, 112. Tones are not so apt altogether to procure is rather to be ascribed to the ante-number, than to sleep as some other sounds; as the wind, the purling the entire number; as namely, that the sound re of water, humming of bees, a sweet voice of one that turneth after six or after twelve; so that the seventh readeth, &c. The cause whereof is, for that tones, or the thirteenth is not the matter, but the sixth or because they are equal and slide not, do more strike the twelfth ; and the seventh and the thirteenth are and erect the sense than the other. And overmuch but the limits and boundaries of the return.
attention hindereth sleep. 107. The concords in music which are perfect or 113. There be in music certain figures or tropes, semi-perfect, between the unison and the diapason, almost agreeing with the figures of rhetoric, and are the fifth, which is the most perfect; the third with the affections of the mind, and other senses. next; and the sixth, which is more harsh : and, as First, the division and quavering, which please so
much in music, have an agreement with the glitter- tions there are in nature, which pass without sound ing of light; as the moon-beams playing upon a or noise. The heavens turn about in a most rapid
Again, the falling from a discord to a con- motion, without noise to us perceived; though in cord, which maketh great sweetness in music, hath some dreams they have been said to make an exan agreement with the affections, which are rein- cellent music. So the motions of the comets, and tegrated to the better, after some dislikes; it agreeth fiery meteors, as stella cadens, &c. yield no noise. also with the taste, which is soon glutted with that And if it be thought, that it is the greatness of diswhich is sweet alone. The sliding from the close tance from us, whereby the sound cannot be heard ; or cadence, hath an agreement with the figure in we see that lightnings and coruscations, which are rhetoric, which they call præter expectatum ; for near at hand, yield no sound neither: and yet in all there is a pleasure even in being deceived. The re these, there is a percussion and division of the air. ports, and fuges, have an agreement with the figures The winds in the upper region, which move the in rhetoric, of repetition and traduction. The clouds above, which we call the rack, and are not triplas, and changing of times, have an agreement perceived below, pass without noise. The lower with the changes of motions; as when galliard time, winds in a plain, except they be strong, make no and measure time, are in the medley of one dance.
but amongst trees, the noise of such winds 114. It hath been anciently held and observed, will be perceived. And the winds, generally, when that the sense of hearing, and the kinds of music, they make a noise, do ever make it unequally, rising have most operation upon manners; as, to encourage and falling, and sometimes, when they are vehement, men, and make them warlike; to make them soft trembling at the height of their blast. Rain or and effeminate; to make them grave; to make them hail falling, though vehemently, yieldeth no noise in light; to make them gentle and inclined to pity, &c. passing through the air, till it fall upon the ground, The cause is, for that the sense of hearing striketh water, houses, or the like. Water in a river, though the spirits more immediately than the other senses; a swift stream, is not heard in the channel, but runand more incorporeally than the smelling; for the neth in silence, if it be of any depth ; but the very sight, taste, and feeling, have their organs not of so stream upon shallows of gravel, or pebble, will be present and immediate access to the spirits, as the heard. And waters, when they beat upon the shore, hearing hath. And as for the smelling, which in or are straitened, as in the falls of bridges, or are deed worketh also immediately upon the spirit, and dashed against themselves, by winds, give a roaring is forcible while the object remaineth, it is with a noise. Any piece of timber, or hard body, being communication of the breath or vapour of the object thrust forwards by another body contiguous, without odorate; but harmony entering easily, and mingling knocking, giveth no noise. And so bodies in weighnot at all, and coming with a manifest motion, doth ing one upon another, though the upper body press by custom of often affecting the spirits, and putting the lower body down, make no noise. So the them into one kind of posture, alter not a little the motion in the minute parts of any solid body, which nature of the spirits, even when the object is removed. is the principal cause of violent motion, though unAnd therefore we see, that tunes and airs, even in observed, passeth without sound; for that sound their own nature, have in themselves some affinity that is heard sometimes, is produced only by the with the affections; as there be merry tunes, doleful breaking of the air ; and not by the impulsion of tunes, solemn tunes; tunes inclining men's minds the parts. So it is manifest, that where the anteto pity; warlike tunes, &c. So as it is no marvel rior body giveth way, as fast as the posterior cometh if they alter the spirits, considering that tunes have on, it maketh no noise, be the motion never so great a predisposition to the motion of the spirits in them
or swift. selves. But yet it hath been noted, that though this 116. Air open, and at large, maketh no noise, variety of tunes doth dispose the spirits to variety of except it be sharply percussed; as in the sound of a passions, conform unto them, yet generally music string, where air is percussed by a hard and stiff feedeth that disposition of the spirits, which it find body, and with a sharp loose : for if the string be eth. We see also, that several airs and tunes do not strained, it maketh no noise. But where the please several nations and persons, according to the air is pent and straitened, there breath or other sympathy they have with their spirits.
blowing, which carry but a gentle percussion, suffice Experiments in consort touching sounds ; and first But then you must note, that in recorders, which go
to create sound; as in pipes and wind-instruments. touching the nullity and entily of sounds.
with a gentle breath, the concave of the pipe, were Perspective hath been with some diligence in it not for the fipple that straiteneth the air, much quired ; and so hath the nature of sounds, in some more than the simple concave, would yield no sound. sort, as far as concerneth music : but the nature of For as for other wind-instruments, they require a sounds in general hath been superficially observed. forcible breath ; as trumpets, cornets, hunters' horns, It is one of the subtilest pieces of nature. And be- &c. which appeareth by the blown cheeks of him sides, I practise, as I do advise; which is, after long that windeth them. Organs also are blown with a inquiry of things immersed in matter, to interpose strong wind by the bellows. And note again, that some subject which is immateriate, or less materiate; some kind of wind-instruments are blown at a small such as this of sounds; to the end, that the intellect hole in the side, which straiteneth the breath at the may be rectified, and become not partial.
first entrance; the rather, in respect of their tra115. It is first to be considered, what great mo verse and stop above the hole, which performeth
the fipple's part; as it is seen in flutes and fifes, air. So as trial must be made by taking some which will not give sound by a blast at the end, as small concave of metal, no more than you mean to recorders, &c. do. Likewise in all whistling, you fill with powder, and laying the bullet in the mouth contract the mouth; and to make it more sharp, of it, half out in the open air. men sometimes use their finger. But in open air, 121. I heard it affirmed by a man that was a if you throw a stone or a dart, they give no sound; great dealer in secrets, but he was but vain, that no more do bullets, except they happen to be a little there was a conspiracy, which himself hindered, to hollowed in the casting; which hollowness penneth have killed queen Mary, sister to queen Elizabeth, the air: nor yet arrows, except they be ruffled in by a burning-glass, when she walked in Saint their feathers, which likewise penneth the air. As James's park, from the leads of the house. But for small whistles or shepherds' oaten pipes, they thus much, no doubt, is true; that if burning-glasses give a sound because of their extreme slenderness, could be brought to a great strength, as they talk whereby the air is more pent than in a wider pipe. generally of burning-glasses that are able to burn a Again, the voices of men and living creatures pass navy, the percussion of the air alone by such a through the throat, which penneth the breath. As burning-glass, would make no noise ; no more than for the Jews-harp, it is a sharp percussion; and, is found in coruscations and lightnings without besides, hath the advantage of penning the air in the thunders. mouth.
122. I suppose that impression of the air with 117. Solid bodies, if they be very softly percussed, sounds asketh a time to be conveyed to the sense, as give no sound; as when a man treadeth very softly well as the impressing of species visible; or else upon boards. So chests or doors in fair weather, they will not be heard. And therefore, as the bul. when they open easily, give no sound. And cart- let moveth so swift that it is invisible; so the same wheels squeak not when they are liquored.
swiftness of motion maketh it inaudible: for we see, 118. The flame of tapers or candles, though it that the apprehension of the eye is quicker than be a swift motion and breaketh the air, yet passeth that of the ear. without sound. Air in ovens, though, no doubt, it 123. All eruptions of air, though small and slight, doth, as it were, boil and dilate itself, and is reper- give an entity of sound, which we call crackling, cussed; yet it is without noise.
puffing, spitting, &c. as in bay-salt, and bay-leaves, 119. Flame percussed by air giveth a noise : as cast into the fire ; so in chestnuts, when they leap in blowing of the fire by bellows; greater than if forth of the ashes ; so in green wood laid upon the the bellows should blow upon the air itself. And fire, especially roots; so in candles, that spit flame so likewise flame percussing the air strongly, as if they be wet; so in rasping, sneezing, &c.; so in a when flame suddenly taketh and openeth, giveth a rose leaf gathered together into the fashion of a noise; so great flames, while the one impelleth the purse, and broken upon the forehead, or back of the other, give a bellowing sound.
hand, as children use. 120. There is a conceit runneth abroad, that Experiments in consort touching production, conserthere should be a white powder, which will dis
ration, and delation of sounds ; and the office of charge a piece without noise ; which is a danger
the air therein. ous experiment if it should be true: for it may cause secret murders. But it seemeth to me im 124. The cause given of sound, that it should be possible ; for, if the air pent be driven forth and an elision of the air, whereby, if they mean any strike the air open, it will certainly make a noise. thing, they mean a cutting or dividing, or else an As for the white powder, if any such thing be, that attenuating of the air, is but a term of ignorance ; may extinguish or dead the noise, it is like to be a and the notion is but a catch of the wit upon a few mixture of petre and sulphur, without coal. For instances; as the manner is in the philosophy repetre alone will not take fire. And if any man ceived. And it is common with men, that if they think, that the sound may be extinguished or deaded have gotten a pretty expression by a word of art, by discharging the pent air, before it cometh to the that expression goeth current; though it be empty mouth of the piece and to the open air, that is not of matter. This conceit of elision appeareth most probable ; for it will make more divided sounds : as manifestly to be false, in that the sound of a bell, if you should make a cross-barrel hollow through string, or the like, continueth melting some time the barrel of a piece, it may be it would give seve after the percussion ; but ceaseth straightways, if ral sounds both at the nose and at the sides. But I the bell or string be touched and stayed: whereas, conceive, that if it were possible to bring to pass, if it were the elision of the air that made the sound, that there should be no air pent at the mouth of it could not be that the touch of the bell or string the piece, the bullet might fly with small or no should extinguish so suddenly that motion caused by noise. For first it is certain, there is no noise in the elision of the air. This appeareth yet more the percussion of the flame upon the bullet. Next manifestly by chiming with a hammer upon the the bullet, in piercing through the air, maketh no outside of a bell: for the sound will be according to noise; as hath been said. And then, if there be the inward concave of the bell: whereas the elision no pent air that striketh upon open air, there is no or attenuation of the air cannot be but only between cause of noise ; and yet the flying of the bullet will the hammer and the outside of the bell. So again, not be stayed. For that motion, as hath been oft if it were an elision, a broad hammer and a bodkin, said, is in the parts of the bullet, and not in the struck upon metal, would give a diverse tone, as well