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to resemble an earth described in Cronstadt’s Mineralogy at the bottom of his note (y) page 21. It did not thew any signs of effervescence with acids, nor did it burn into lime; but, like the earth alluded to, contains a number of small transparent crystals. These were visible without a microscope ; and as, on applying the blow pipe, vitrification took place, it might probably be usefully appropriated in making a sort of porcelain.
• The stones we found were chiefly of coral, with a few black and brown pebbles, slate, quartz, two or three forts of granite, with some fand stones, but none seeming to possess any metallic quality.
• The climate, if a judgment may be formed by fo short a visit, seemed delightful : for though we contended with some boisterous weather on our approach to the coast, nothing less ought reasonably to have been expected at the season of the vernal equinox, and breaking up of the winter. The gales we experienced in King George the Third's Sound, were not of such violence as to put veifels at sea past their topsails; although whilst the S. W. wind continued a most violent sea broke with incredible fury on the exterior fhores. This however can easily be imagined, when the extensive uninterrupted range which the wind in that direction has over the Indian ocean is taken into consideration : during the con. tinuance of this wind the atmosphere was tolerably clear, though the air was keen. Farenheit's thermometer, at the time of year answering to the beginning of April in the northern hemisphere, stood at 53°; but at all other times during our stay, varied between 58° and 6+, and the barometer from 290 go' to 30° so'. Slight colds were caught by the crew, which ought rather to be imputed to their own want of care than to the climate, as, on getting to sea, the parties soon recovered.' Vol. i. P. 48.
The largest foreft-tree resembled that which produces the gum of Botany-Bay; one of the largest, measuring nine feet four inches in girth, and being high in proportion, produced a considerable quantity of gum, and afforded a hard ponderous close-grained wood, which burned flowly with a clear flame. The most useful wood for fuel was froin a tree resembling the myrtle, not unlike the pimento of the West-Indies, in Mape, appearance, and aromatic flavour of the foliage.'
. Of the animal kingdom, so far as relates to the tenants of the earth, little information was derived. The only quadruped seen was one dead kangaroo ; the dung, however, of these or fome other animals feeding on vegetables, was almost every where met with, and frequently so fresh as to indicate that the animal could not be far removed.
• Of the birds that live in or resort to the woods, the vulture may be said to be the most common, as we faw several of this species, or at least, birds that were fo con dered. Hawks of the
falcon tribe, with several others of that genus; a bird much resembling the English crow, parrots, parroquets, and a variety of small birds, some of which sung very melodiously, were those which attracted our attention the most; but all were so excessively wild and watchful, that few specimens could be procured. Of the water fowl, the black swan seemed as numerous as any other species of aquatic birds in the neighbourhood of Oyster Harbour, but they were seen in no other place. There were also black and white pelicans of a large fort, seen at a distance; and though ducks were in great numbers, we were very unsuccessful in taking them. A very peculiar one was shot, of a darkish grey plumage, with a bag like that of a lizard hanging under its throat; which smelt so intolerably of musk that it scented nearly the whole thip. There were also many grey curlews, and sea-pies ; of the latter we procured a few, which were excellent eating. The aquatic birds before enumerated, with fhags, the cominon gull, two or ihree sorts of tern, and a few small penguins of a blueish colour, included the whole of the feathered tribe in the vicinity of the shores.
“ With the productions of the sea, we were not much more acquainted; which is rather to be attributed to our want of skill as filliermen than to its want of bounty. Some of the few fish we caught were very excellent, particularly of the larger fort ; one much resembling the fnook, and another the calipevar of Jamaica, both of high flavor; as was a kind of fish not unlike, nor inferior in quality to, the English red mullet. These, with the common white mullet, rock fil), nackere!, herrings, and a variety of small fish), were those we procurėd, though not in any abundance.
( Whilst on the coast, whales and seals were frequently playing about the illip; of the latter, we saw about a score at one time on Seal Illand. The little trouble there animals took to avoid us, indicated their not being accustomed to such visitors. The throat and belly of these seals, which were of a large fort, were nearly white; between the head and shoulders, the neck rises in a kind of creft, which, with the back, was of a light brown colour; their hair was exceedingly coarse; the carcafe very poor, and afforded little blubber ; which, however, may be imputable to the leason.
Reptiles and noxious animals seemed by no means to be numerous, as only two or three yellow, and bronze-coloured snakes were seen, which were good eating ; these, with a few lizards of the common fort, and fome about eight or nine inches long of a thick clumsy make, dark colour, and altogether excessively ugly, were that composed that race of animals. Some beautiful beetles, common 'flies, and muškitoes, were occasionally met with, but not in such numbers as to produce inconvenience.' Vol. i. p. 52.
Violent tempests accompanied our navigators to New-ZeaJard, and attended them in Dusky-bay. This harbour afforded them, however, a secure shelter ; and Mr. Menzies found here the true Winter's bark. To the south of that country, they fell in with a cluster of seven craggy islands, ex
tending from north-east to fouth-west. The largest, more extensive than all the rest, is about three leagues in circuit, in lat. 48° 3', long. 166° 20'. As the “ Traps' lie to the south, or fouth-east of New Zealand, our author calls these barren rocks, for they are no more, the Snares.
To the south of the Society Islands, far beyond the spot where this groupe has been supposed to terminate, viz. in lat. 27° 54', long. 215° 39', our author discovered an island, the inhabitants of which perfectly resembled the great
South-sea nation. From wliat seemed to be its appellation in their language, he called it Oparo.
• Its principal character is a cluster of high craggy mountains, forming, in several places, most romantic pinnacles, with perpendicular cliffs nearly from their summits to the sea; the vacancies between the mountains would more probably be termed chasms than vallies, in which there was no great appearance of plenty, fertility, or cultivation; they were chiefly clothed with shrubs and dwarf trees. Neither the plantain, nor other spontaneous vegetable productions common to the inhabited tropical islands, presented themselves. The tops of fix of the highest hills bore the appear. ance of fortified places, resembling redoubts; having a sort of block house, in the shape of an Englith glass house, in the center of each, with rows of pallitadoes a considerable way down the fides of the hills, nearly at equal distances. These, overhanging, seemed intended for advanced works, and apparently capable of defending the citadel by a few. against a numerous host of affailants. On all of them, we noticed people, as if on duty, constantly move ing about. What we considered as block houses, from their great fimilarity in appearance to that sort of building, were suficiently large to lodge a considerable number of persons, and were the only habitations we saw. Yet from the number of canoes that in fo short a time assembled around us, it is natural to conclude that the inliabitants are very frequently afloat, and to infer from this circumstance ihat : he shores, and not those fortified hills which appeared to be in the center of the island, would be preferred for their general residence. We saw about thirty double and single canoes, though most of them were of the double sort: the single canoes were supported by an outrigger on one side, and all built much after the fashion of the Society Illands, without having their very high fterns, though the sterns of some of these were considerably elevated : and their bows were not without some little ornament. They were very neatly constructed, though the narrowest canoes I ever saw. When it is considered that the builders of them are nearly destitute of iron, and possessed of very few implements of that valuable metal; and when the miserable tools they have generally recourse to for such operations are regarded, the mind is filled with adiniration at their ingenuity, and persevering industry. The idland did not appear to afford any large timber; the broadeft planks
of which the canoes were made,' not exceeding twelve inches, confirmed us in this opinion, as they were probably cut out of the largest trees. Some of the stoutest double canoes accommodated from twenty-five to thirty men, of whom, on a moderate compus tation, three hundred were supposed to have been seen near the ship. These were all adults, and apparently none exceeding a middle age; so that the total number of inhabitants on the island can hardly be estimated at less than fifteen hundred. In this refpect it must be considered prolific, notwithstanding its uncultivated appearance. The natives, however, appeared to be exceedingly well fed, of middling stature, extremely well made; and in general, their countenances were open, cheerful, and strongly marked with indications of hospitality. They were all, to a man, very folicitous that some of us should accompany them to the shore; and those who last quitted the ship, endeavoured with all their powers of persuasion, and some efforts of compulfion, to effect their purpose. On their departure they took hold of the hand of every one near them, with a view to get him into their canoe. They all had their hair cut short ; and, excepting a wreath made of a broad longleaved green plant, worn by some about the waist, they were intirely without clothing. Although the custom of tatowing prevails so generally with all the islanders of this ocean, these people were destitute of any such marks.' Vol. i. P. 76.
The natives did not seem a warlike race; and they probably acied, as appeared from their fortified retreats, on the defenhve only.
In the run from New-Zealand, the Chatham was separated by a storm from the Discovery, and fell in with some islands in lat. 43° 49', long. 183° 25. The inhabitants are of the fame warlike pertidious race, by which the shores of NewZealand are inhabited; and a flight contest with the natives induced Mr. Broughton to call the bay where it occurred Skirmish Bay. The island was named from the earl of Chatham.
The two ships met in Matavai Bay, belonging to one of the Society Islands. The inhabitants were, as usual, friend ly, cheerful, and hospitable; but we find, with regret, that their regard for European manufactures, and their dependence on the occasional visiis of navigators, have checked their industry and improvements. Much novelty cannot have occurred in visits so often repeated; and little must remain to be told after so much has been published. A few circumstances of curiosity, however, occur. The following remarks were occafioned by the funeral of a chief. Similar reasoning, perhaps, determined Van Helmont to fix the residence of his chief Archæus in the stomach.
" I shall take leave of this excursion by adding a few ideas which, though principally founded on conjecture, may not be unimportant, as they respect these peculiar religious ceremonies. The
opinion that the operation of embalming commenced at the morai near the mountains was most probably correct. One of the principal parts of this ceremony, I have been given to understand, is always performed in great secrecy, and with much religious fuperstition ; this is the disemboweiling of the body. The bowels are, by these people, considered as the immediate organs of sensation, where the first impreffions are received, and by which all the operations of the mind are carried on: it is therefore natural to conclude, that they may esteem, and venerate the intestines, as bearing the greatest affinity to the immortal part. I have frequently held conversations on this subject, with a view to convince them, that all intellectual operations were carried on in the head; at which they would generally smile, and intimate, that they had frequently feen men recover whose ikulls had been fractured, and whose heads had otherways been much injured'; but that, in all cases in which the intestines had been wounded, the persons on a certainty died. Other arguments they would also advance in favor of their belief; such as the effect of fear, and other passions, which caused great agitation and uneasiness, and would sometimes produce sickness at the stomach, which they attributed intirely to the action of the bowels. If therefore this reasoning be admitted, it would appear probable that the intestines of Mahow were deposited at the morai under the mountains; and as it is natural to imagine they would consider the soul most attached to those mortal parts which bore to it the greatest affinity, fo wherever those parts' were deposited, there they may probably suppose the foul occasionally resorts. And hence it may be inferred, that it is in the places made facred by the deposit of these relics, that the ceremony of chief mourner, habited in the parie, is performed; whose business it is to keep off the inquisitive, and to maintain as far as posible a profound filence over a certain space in which he parades, having a kind of mace, armed with shark's teeth, borne before him by a man alnioft naked, whose duty is to assail any one with this formidable weapon, who may have the temerity. to venture within his reach,
This may account for Whytooa's disinclination to permit our gentlemen to visit the morai; the apparently deserted houses; and the apprehenfions of the guide, who started at the least interruption of the profound and solemn silence which prevailed in that neighbourhood.' Toli, P. 121. The subsequent observations are not unworthy of notice.
The veneration these people entertain for the names of their sovereigns, has been already very justly related by Mr. Anderson. But no example, I believe, had then appeared to that judicious observer, of the extent to which this respect is carried. On Otoo's accession to the maro, a very considerable alteration took place in their language, particularly in the proper names of all the chiefs, to
* The maro is a kind of girdle worn by the sovereign. Rev.