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the stimulated fibres; in the same manner as it is produced by the increased irritability which was occasioned by a previous defect of stimulus; yet as the excesses of irritation from the stimulus of externat things are more easily avoided than the deficiencies of it; the diseases of this country, except those which are the consequentes of drunkenness, or of immoderate exercise, more frequently begin with torpor than with orgafın; that is, with inactivity of fome parts, or of the whole of the system, and consequent coldness, than with increased activity, and consequent heat.' P. 13•

Many of the questions at issue, not merely between us, but between the world in general and the author are connected with this. Is the heat that follows cold applications, the result of accumulated irritability, or of the action of that principle in our constitution, which we distinguish by the terins vis vitæ The decision will go fome way in determining a point of greater importance ; viz. is the animal body a machine, acting necessarily from a peculiar structure and organisation, or acting rationally and instinctively to a given end? The leading principle, that irritability may be accumulated from inaction, we have acknowledged. We see it in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, in the human body after fleep, and in diseases of torpor and languid circulation, which, when overcome, foon change into those of an opposite tendency, and destroy even by exhausting excitability. We put the question strongly, and admit largely; but we affert that this general principle will not apply to other changes, whether as diseases, or within the limits of health. We know that there is a principle in the human body which corrects deviations, and that it acts with a view to an end ; for it repairs defects, agglutinates bones, even unites nerves, so as to preserve their functions, and does this not blindly and mechanically; for it accumulates the added part beyond the usual portion, to supply, by its additional resistance, the debility which would otherwise result from the altered direction, or less compactnes. The same principle probably operates in restoring heat to a part previously cooled ; and we think this principle acts rather than that formerly stated. In every instance of accumulated irritability, some time is required, and the rapidity of the action is proportioned to the time. If, on the other hand, we plunge the body into cold water, the quantity of irritability, for a moment suppreffed, is not equal to the increased action excit. ed; and if the latter is augiented by inedicine or exercise, or the cold is very violent and of fhort continuance, the re-action is morbidly Itrong. The whole of the irritability, loft in the cominon way in the interval, would be trifling, so that there muit be foniething to produce the overflow, beldes checking

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the current. Besides, we have no fair instance of partial ac. cumulated irritability: the irritability of the whole is accumulated in every case, or at least it appears in the whole fviten after a partial suppression. The phænomena of syncope destroy also the application of this doctrine in every instance, even with respect to general irritability. A person lies in a fainting, fit; but, though the irritability must be considerably accumulated, no increased action comes on when he recovers. It will perhaps be said in reply, that this circunstance is occafioned by a morbid state of the brain ; but does not this show that the brain is concerned in every case of increased irritability from accumulation?

• If the hot fit be the consequence of the cold one, it may be asked if they are proportionate to each other : it is probable that they are, where no part is destroyed by the cold fit, as in mortification or death. But we have no measure to distinguish this, except the time of their duration ; whereas the extent of the torpor over a greater or less part of the system, which occasions the cold fit; or of the exertion which occasions the hot one ; as well as the degree of such torpor or exertion, are perhaps more material than the time of their duratioa. Besides this fomne muscles are less liaa ble to accumulate sensorial power during their torpor, than others, as the locomotive muscles compared with the capillary arteries ; on all which accounts a long cold fit may often be followed by a fort hot one.' P. 14

In this argument we find a want' of discrimination, which may be accidental, but which, if observed, would have been fatal to the whole system--we mean the distinction between coldness and rigor. Dr. Darwin thinks, that, if properly observed, the cold would be found proportional to the heat, either in intensity or duration. If coldness, fimply, is meant, this position is not well-founded. The flow fevers and the more malignant typhi, which are attended with little heat, are preceded by long.continued cold; the inflain matory fevers. scarcely by any. The rigor, in the former, is flight ; in the latter, very violent. If the rigor be considered as a part of the cold fit, the position is equally unfounded; for, in inter. mittents, it is long; in the coinmon epidemics of autumn, it is short. In fevers, therefore, the hot fit cannot be the effect of the cold, froin accumulated irritability, unless the effect is greatly disproportioned to the cause. Besides, in this view, all the symptoms are not considered. Dr. Fordyce has very pro .' perly observed, that, in every attack of fever, there is some alienation of mind. As a symptom so important constantly precedes, we cannot suppose that it is destitute of influence ; nof basit ever been suspected that the aiental functions are the cons

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fequences of irritability. Dr. Darwin afterwards notices the vi. vacity and spirits on the commencement of the hot fit ; but we fufpect that he mistakes the source. In the change from the cold to the hot fit, there are some moments of equilibrium. The patient feels himself relieved and restored, and his fpirits, are of course lively; but, when the hot fit is formed, a heavinefs and uneasiness accompany it, which are very different from the usual effects of wine.

This discussion has anticipated every remark that we had to offer on the first genus. After each species, the methodus médendi is thortly added. As the remedies are stated generally, they afford no subject of particular observation.

The species of the second genus are1. Calor febrilis.

Febrile heat. 2. Rubor febrilis.

Febrile redness. 3. Sudor calidus.

Warm sweat.
Sudor febrilis.

Sweat in fevers.
a labore.

from exercise.

from fire. a medicamentis.

from medicines. 4. Urina uberior colorata. Copious coloured urine. 5. Diarrhæa calida.

Warm diarrhæa. febrilis.

from fever. crapulofa.

from indigestion. infantum.

of infants. 6. Salivatio calida.

salivation. 7. Catarrhus calidus.

catarrh. 8. Expedioratio calida.

expectoration. 9. Exsudatio pone aures. Discharge behind the ears. Io. Gonorrhæa calida.

Warm gonorrhea. 11. Fluor albus calidus.

fluor albus. 12. Hemorrhoïs alha,

White piles. 13. Serum è veficatorio. Discharge from a blister. 14. Perspiratio fætida,

Fetid perspiration. 15. Crines novi.

New hairs.' * On these subjects much novelty cannot be expected; but there are several ingenious and useful remarks, intermixed with fome which are seerningly fanciful. It is not a new observation, that the curdling of milk in the stomachs of children is not hurtful : on the contrary, it seems to be the necessary pre parative to digestion ; but it is certainly, not curdled by the acid juices. Children, who discharge milk uncurdled, are generally indisposed; and the stomachs of young animals, though washed even with an alkaline water, continue to act as rennets. It is a judicious remark, that children, brought up without the breast, should be fed in an upriglat pofture; as,

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in a recumbent one, every thing must be swallowed, though the appetite should be fatisfied. A small blister, on the pit of the stomach of a child, is supposed to promote digestion.

We must enter, a caveat against one pernicious opinion. We allude to what is said of the perspiratio fætida, where the author takes occafion to observe, that the utility of per{piration is to lubricate the skin, and that the suppression of perspiration is by no means dangerous, as whole nations have lubricated, and many tribes ftill lubricate, their bodies with grease. The admision of this principle may be dangerous, as it may lead persons to suppose, that, if the perfpirable matter may be innocently repelled, its excefs, if not fætid, may be checked with equal impunity. Numerous faets, which show this to be a dangerous error, have occurred to us and other practitioners. We know that the perspirable inatter is thrown out with some impetus, and we do not know that the grease of the Hottentots will repress it; and, at all events, a custom begun in childhood may be innocent, when one suddenly taken up may prove highly injurious. An European of the south cannot, like a hardy Ruffian, leap from his stove into the snow with impunity.

The third genus contains the following species : 1. Lingua arida.

Dry tongue. 2. Fauces aridæ.

Dry throat. 3. Nares aridue.

Dry nostrils. 4. Expectoratio folida.

Solid expectoration. 5. Constipatio alvi.

Costiveness. 6. Cutis arida.

Dry skin. 7. Urina parcior colorata. Diminished coloured urine, 8. Calculus felleus et icterus. Gall-tone and jaundice. 9. renis.

Stone of the kidney. vehce.

Stone of the bladder. arthriticus.

Gout-stone. 12. Rheumatismus chronicus. Chronic rheumatism. 13. Cicatrix vulnerum. Healing of ulcers. 14. Corneæ obfufcatio.

Scar on the cornea.' Here we may observe, that, if the student of Dr. Darwin finds the constipatio alvi, cutis arida, urina parcior colorata, in a man of seventy, he will, hy every possible method, attempt to diminish the action of the absorbing fyftem; but, unlefs he increases the action of the secretory organs, and violently stimulates the moving fibres of the intestines, the skin, and the kidneys, his patient inuít inevitably die. It is useless to say, that there are diseases of increased irritation, and that the irritation must therefore be diminished. The whole arises from the opposite state of torpor. No display of ingenuity

10.

11.

P. 4.

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can atone for mischief which may be thus widely diffeminated;
and, when life is at stake, an author should not attempt to
show how ingenious, but how useful, he may be.

The fpecies of the fourth genus are
1. Nicitatio irritativa, Irritative ni&titation,
?. Deglutitio irritativa. Irritative deglutition.
3. Respiratio et tufis, Respiration and cough.
4. Exclufio bilis.

Exclusion of the bile. 5. Dentitio.

Toothing. 6. Priapismus.

Priapism. 7. Diftenfio mammularum. Diftention of the nipples. 8. Defcenfus uteri.

Descent of the uterus, 9. Prolapsus ani.

Descent of the rectum.. Jo. Lumbricus.

Round worm. 11. Tenia.

Tape-worm. 12. Afcarides.

Thread-worins. 13. Dracunculus.

Guinea-worm. 14. Morpiones.

Crab-lice. 15. Pediculi,

Lice.' Under this genus, the most important observations relate to worms. All the intestinal worms, Dr. Darwin thinks, are introduced ab extra ; and he attributes their increase to a too dilute state of the bile. Every fact seems to show that the lumbricus is congenial, if not necessary to the growing state, and that it is incidentally only the cause of disease. The tænia is faid to be cured by an amalgam of tin and quicksilver, in the proportions used for filvering mirrors. An ounce is taken every two hours, till a pound is consumed; and the whole is worked off by a very brisk purgative of salts. This reinedy is supposed to act mechanically. The fern-root powder our author considers as useless. It has been remarked, however, by an ingenious author, that a person who took it brought off large portions of a tænia dead, though these worms were before voided alive. As one kind of ascarides cannot live in a low temperature, Dr. Darwin suggests the utility of iced water clysters, as well as clysters of Harrowgate water. Stronger solutions of hepar sulphuris may be employed; and we have found, we think, great benefit from injections of a folution of afa fætida.

The species of the fifth genus are1. Visus acrior.

Acuter fight. 2. Auditus acrior, 3. olfa&us acrior.

finell. 4. Guftus acrior.

Acuter taste. So Tactus acriora

touch,

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hearing,

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