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Greek derivative remains in our version, many of the paffages will be misunderstood. Immersion is used only in one sense, that of dipping, which is also the genuine meaning of baptism ; for no one acquainted with the Greek will assert that βαπτιζω, ξαπλω, or Καπνισμα, can allude to any thing but the dipping of a body or part of a body in water. Hence immerfion, &c. will give the true fenfe of the passages in which baptism, &c. are used; but still the words dip, dipper, and dipping,convey the sense more clearly to an English ear, and equally correspond' with the original. As the translator thought it necessary to change baptise into immerse, he should have ftrictly adhered to the idea which the word used by him conveys; instead of which, he fays, Christ will immerse you with the holy spirit. In this passage two mistakes seem 10 us to have been made: first, fince he speaks of immersion, it ihould be immersion in the thing, whatever it might be : fecondly, the original does not mean the holy spirit, but a holy spirit; and the prophecy was accomplished when the apoftles, on the day of pentecoft, were immersed in spirit and fire.
In the vulgar translation of the Testament little attention seems to have been paid to the Greek article ; and this defect is not always remedied in the present work. Thus, the son of God' is ufed where the original means only a son of God. The former title is synonymous with Messiah or Chrift; the latter is applicable to other persons inspired with divine power. Leathern bottles and skins are properly used instead of bottles in the common version, by which the parable is rendered unintelligible to many readers. Denier is a better word than penny, tax-gatherers than publicans, dæmons than devils ; but we doubt whether the word æonian will be favourably accepted for everlating; and as the subftantive alw is properly translated age, and in a note the translator tells us of his difficulty from the word age-lasting not being in common use, we were rather surprised at his not thinking that æonian would shock the ears more than age-lasting, and could not convey so good an idea to the reader.
We cannot see the advantage of saying, in the first chapter of St. John's gospel, that “ the word existed in the beginning; or that the word became incarnate,' or before Abraham was born, I am.' We were particularly surprised at the last tranflation ; because, in this and several similar passages, the words I am are put in capital letters; but, in every other place, the word he follows I am. It would be difficult to assign a reason for this change in the reading. The address of Agrippa to Paul is changed without caufe, from · Paul, thou art mod, to " Paul, thou art insane,' especially as the answer of Paul is recained. The word blessed is, in some instances, very pro.
perly changed to happy, grace to favour, charity to love ; but bishop and church are retained. On the whole, however, the alterations tend to give the English reader a much better idea of the original than he can have from the conmon version.
A very judicious alteration is made in the inode of publishing the work. The testament is not disfigured by the use of verles, which continually mar the sense and destroy the emphasis. The numbers, however, are properly retained in the i margin. Another change is made, which at first appeared to us to be unnecessary; but, from greater attention, are periuaded of its utility to the generality of readers. The fubject is put at the head of each paragraph, and the different speakers in the dialogue are mentioned at the head of their respective speeches : Disciples-Jesus-Chief Priests, Pnarifees-Scribes, &c. But it would have been better, we think, if these words, instead of obtruding themselves on the eye in he text, had been inserted in the margin. One advantage, however, to the reader who consults the Testament for proofs of any doctrine advanced, is this, that he will at first sight distinguilh between the fpeakers, and not give to Jews and Pharilees (as has foiretimes been the case) that credit which is due only to our Saviour, or one really inspired. For the higher class of readers sucha information is unnecessary ; but the gospel was originally proclaimed to the poor, and their improvement thould be the grand object with every fincere Christian.
Upon the whole, we highly approve the present undertaking; and if the persons already engaged in it should continue their exertions, we cannot doubt that a constant attention to the Greek and English idioms will convince them of the neceffity of farther alierations, and qualify them to add a variety of inprovements to allist the Englith reader in acquiring a knowledge of the scriptures,
Zoonomia; or, the Laws of Organic Life. By Erasmus Dar.
win, M.D. (Continued from Vol. XXIII. p.76.) AFTER an interval longer than we intended to have made it, we now take up the second volume of Dr. Darwin's work. Indeed, to judge with precipitation of what may have been the work of a long courle of years, would be disrespectful to the author, and injurious to our own credit. We therefore trust that our readers will consider our delay in examining a system, in a great measure new, and in every view important, not only as a compliment to the writer, but as an advantage to themielves. When we looked into the second voluine, we found great room for reflection. Many opiniors, which we had long cherished as sacred truths, féemed to be doubted, and
fome to be denied: but, because we had cherished them, it was not neceffary that they should be true; and we were consequently obliged again to examine them, and to in vestigate their connection with other parts of our own lystem, and with various undisputed facts. Blindly to oppose what is new, because it is so, would deserve very severe reprehenfion; and in our long wartare in these innovating times (we allude only to science), we have learned too inuch of the uncertainty of systems, to be unreasonably zealous in the fupport of any.
Dr. Darwin's first great principle, that diseases confift in the disordered motions of the fibres of the body, we are willing to admit; and if diseases are to be classed from their proximate causes, we admit also the division of them into those of irritation, fensation, volition, and affociation, rather indeed as a possible, than as a convenient and applicable, disi ribution. That diseases should be clafled from their proximate caufes, however, the best nofologists deny, for these reatons, that the causes of some disorders are not known, and that opinions respecting inany others differ so much, that no regular systein can thus be formed. Symptoins of ditcases, on the contrary, are the external obvious characters pointing out a change in the state of the system, referible indeed to some cause, though the classification will remain, whatever be that cause. If any difference of opinion should arise, whether a disease should be alligned to one class rather than another, we plunge, in the first case, into all the doubtful speculations of every innovating pathologist; but, in the second, the question is only about a fact, which observation can decide. It is therefore most convenient and prudent to adhere to the established fyftem. Even from the arguments adduced in support of our author's system, we collect a strong inotive for opposing it.
• In some other genera of nosologists the species have no analo. gy to each other, either in respect to their proximate cause, or to their proximate effect, though they may be somewhat similar in less essential properties; thus the thin and saline discharge from the noftrils on going into the cold air of a frosty morning, which is ow. ing to the deficient action of the absorbent vessels of the noftrils, is one species ; and the viscid mucus discharged from the fecerning vessels of the same membrane, when inflamed,. is another spe. cies of the same genus, catarrhus.
Which bear nó analogy either in respect to their imineţiate cause or to their immediate effect, 1. vii.
The want of analogy, here pointed out, is in the writer's fyftem, not in the species alluded to. The discharge, in each instance, is similar, and proceeds, as nany authors suppose, from a similar cause.
Another opinion of Dr. Darwin is better founded, viz. that what have been called genera of diseases are really species, and the species of authors, varieties. He has instanced it in the small-pox; but he ought to have added, that the argument could not be supported out of the febrile exanthe
• The uses of the method here offered to the public of classing diseases according to their proximate causes are, first, more distinctly to understand their nature by comparing their essential properties. Secondly, to facilitate the knowledge of the methods of cure ; fance in natural claslification of diseases the species of each genus, and indeed the genera of each order, a few perhaps excepied, require the same general medical treatment. And lastly, to discover the nature and the name of any disease previously un known to the physician ; which I am persuaded will be more readily and more certainly done by this natural system, than by the artificial clallifications already published.' P. vii.
This method can be no longer useful, than while the world Thall continue in one opinion, respecting not only these prox. imate causes, but the properties and ules of remedies. On the other hand, if, in a proper nosological classification from symptoms, the natural orders be preserved, the same advan, tages will be perpetuated in every fyftem : we say a proper classification, not as referring to any new fyftem, but to that of Dr. Cullen. His orders are almost all natural; and, what. ever may be the changes of systematics, the nature and treatinent of fevers, inflammations, exantheipata, hæmorrhages, mucous evacuations, pallies, vefaniæ, &c. will be respectively connected. On the contrary, in the fyftem now recommend ed, there is no place even for fever, unless it be considered as consisting in a quick pulle ; for every symptom, from the variety of its supposed proximate cause, is a distinct disease ; a method very little adapted to the use of the practical physician, and tending to confusion rather than to elucidation.
Diseases of the first class, or those of irritation, arise from increated or from decreased irritation, and from retrograde irritative motions. Those which proceed from an increase of irritation contain five genera; 1. with increased action of the languiferous fyftem; 2. of the secerning fyftem; 3. of the absorbing, lyftem; 4. of other cavities and membranes ; 5. of the organs of sense. No good end can be attained by this classification; for not only the genera are diffimilar in their nature and symptoms, but ever the species of each genus will be found equally so. The botanist perceives plants so decidedly similar, that he groupes them together in a genus, giving it the name of the most com, mon species, or occafionally an arbitrary one. He thus faves his
labour by predicating of the whole groupe the general properties or characters of each. But how can Dr. Darwin include, under one head, the species of any of his genera? The fpecies of his first genus are febris irritativa, ebrietas, hæmorThagia arteriofa, hæmorrhagia narium, hæmoptoë arteriofa. The two first agree only in heat and quickness of pulse: they differ in their nature, in their other fymptoms, and their consequences. The arterial hæmorrhage includes the two last; and there are various hæmorrhages, the particular sources of which cannot be ascertained. In the second genus appear fudor calidus and febrilis, hæmorrhoïs alba and crines novi, &c. Are these diseafes, or can they properly be ranked together? In the third genus, we have dry tongue, skin, and nottrils, joined with the different calculi. These are most remotely connected with their genus, and may, on the fame general hypothesis, be brought under any other. In other genera we might observe not only fymptoms but causes introduced as species, viz. confternatio under the 5th ; lice, crab-lice, and guinea-worm, under the 4th, &c. But we need not multiply remarks. We have' rarely seen pretentions to method so ill supported; we have feldom seen the ends, which it is calculated to serve, so counteracted by attachment to system.
We have refted longer on this part of the subject, because the author seems to furvey it in his preface with peculiar complacency: one other subject will also detain us, because it pervades the whole work --we mean the cause of the heat fola lowing cold applications or the cold fit of fever.
· The irritability of the whole, or of part, of our system is perpetually changing ; these viciffitudes of irritability and of inirritability are believed to depend on the accumulation or exhaustion of the sensorial power, as their proximate cause; and on the difference of the present stimulus, and of that which we had previously been accustomed to, as their remote cause. Thus a smaller degree of heat produces pain and inflammation in our hands, after they have been for a tinie immersed in snow, which is owing to the accumulation of sensorial power in the moving fibres of the cutaneous vessels during their previons quiescence, when they were benumbed with cold. And we feel ourselves cold in the usual temperature of the atmosphere on coming out of a warm room ; which is owing to the extaustion of sensorial power in the moving fibres of the vessels of the skin by their previous increased activity, into which they were excited by unusual heat.
. Hence the cold fits of fever are the occasion of the succeeding hot ones; and the hot fits contribute to occasion in their turn the succeeding cold ones. And though the increase of fimulus, as of heat, exercise, or diftention, will produce an increased action of