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the French to incorporate themselves with the Helvetic republicbut the scenes which had passed in the cantons had such an effect upon their minds, that they resolved to throw themselves into the arms of Austria, rather than accept the blessings of Gallic fraternity. The diet took measures for the expulfion of the partisans of France from the offices into which they had intruded themselves; and intimation was given to the emperor of the danger to which the Grison state was exposed from the proximity of a French army. Troops were levied for the defence of the country; the leaders of opposition were feised; the menaces of the French refident were treated with contempt; and, on the 17th of October, à convention was signed with the court of Vienna, the latter engaging to defend the territories and maintain the privileges of the Grifons. The next day, an Austrian army entered the country; and the chief posts were occupied by the strangers, in concert with a small force of the natives. The French, unwilling at that time to come to a rupture with the emperor, dissembled their resentment; and Schauenburg declared, that the good understanding between the directory and that prince would not be impaired by these proceedings.

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL.

The Spaniards are not so decidedly hostile to Great-Bria tain as their allies would wish them to be.; nor are they difposed to gratify the enmity of the French against Portugal. At their desire, the directory consented to receive a plenia potentiary from the court of Lisbon, that a negotiation might be recommenced; but the terms which the French wished to impose were not calculated to produce an accommodation.

ITALY.

In treating of the important affairs of Italy, we will begin from the north. In the Cis-alpine ftate, a violent conteft arose in the summer between the adherents of the Parisian directory and those politicians who wished to fecure to that republic the dignity

of independence. Incensed at the spirit of the latter, the French despots refolved to new-model that constitution which had been given as an extraordinary favour to the Cil-alpines, and to punith, by

imprisonment, or in other modes, the opposers of their will, It was peremptorily, required by the French envoy, in September, that the two councils should be reduced to one half of their former number, that their power and privileges should be diminished, and a decisive sway over them be assigned to the five directors, whom it was easy for those of Paris to influence. To this arbitrary mandate the deputies were obliged to submit; and the new constitution was fanc+ tioned.

The Ligurian republic is in a similar state of dependence, Those members of the legislature, who were inclined to follow their own sentiments in preference to the dictates of France, have been deprived of their seats; and

tyranny

and rapacity harass the unfortunate Genoese.

A revolution has been recently effected in Piedmont, The French ascribed, to their extraordinary moderation, the long delay of such a change; but the perfidy and the anti-republican spirit of the court of Turin, they said, rendered it necessary to put an end to his authority. It was not a difficult talk to execute this determination. Early in December, several fortified towns were feised by French detachments; and the enemy gained complete poffeffion of Turin. On the oth, the king was constrained by his powerful adversaries to relinquish the sovereignty of Piedmont; and an agreement was figned, by which he ordered his subjects to obey the French, who engaged to introduce no change that should affect the catholic religion, or the security and property of individuals. He was permitted to retire to the island of Sardinia; and Piedmont was subjected to a republican form of government.

The Roman commonwealth having excited the apprehension and jealousy of the king of Naples, and the French persisting in the support of an establishment which endangered the stability of his power, he was induced to listen to the reiterated persuasions of the court of London. He took the field in November, and made an irruption into the Roman territory, alleging that the erection of a republic in that country was repugnant to the treaty of Campo-Formio, and declaring his intention of compelling the French to renounce their usurpation. They were obliged to retire from various posts; but they soon returned with augmented force, defeated the Neapolitans, invaded the province of Abruzzo with fuccefs, and threatened the city of Naples with a visit. There is reason to believe, that the event of the war will be highly unfavourable to the king.

Though Malta is not usually considered as a part of Italy, it is at fo inconsiderable a distance from Sicily, that we may,

without impropriety, introduce in this place fome account of the late occurrences in that island. The government of the French foon became unpopular; and the Maltese did not conceal their discontent. To secure themselves more effectually from the violence which there was reason to apprehend, 'the former retired into the forts of the capital, whence they occasionally fired over the houses, so as to intimidate the inhabitants into the grant of supplies of provifion. A fleet of British and Portuguese ships appearing near the island, the French were summoned to an immediate surrender; and, on their refusal, the marquis Nizza formed a blockade with his vefsels, while fir Jaines Saumarez, who had borne an honourable share in the engagement at Aboukir, proceeded to Gibraltar, though not before he had fupplied the Maltese with arms and ammunition. On the 28th of October, the neighbouring isle of Goza, or Gozzo, was reduced by commodore Ball; but nở certain account has been received of the re-capture of the forts of Malta.

TURKEY.

The invasion of Egypt so fully evinced the encroaching {pirit and dangerous ambition of the French, that the Ottoman cabinet exhibited strong symptoms of alarm, and seemed to feel the neceffity of opposing the restless republicans. The naval victory of Nelson encouraged the sultan his hostile views; and he at length announced to the foreign minister's at Constantinople his resolution of declaring war. The resident and other subjects of France were imprisoned; and a general animosity against the republic was eagerly promoted by the court.

The inanifesto of the Sublime Porte, promulgated onthis occafion, seems not to be the fole fruit of Turkish de liberation and labour: it is probable that the British minifter at Constantinople, or his secretary, had a great share in the composition of it. It traces the proceedings of the French from the æra of the revolution to the present time, contrasts the openness and moderation of the Porte with the duplicity and injustice of the rulers of the republic, and represents the views of the latter, however masked with a zeal for the diffufion of liberty, as being directed to the banilhinent of every orderly inftitution from the face of the globe, to the subversion of human society, and to the overthrow of the constitution of every established independent state, by means of the alternate exercise of secret intrigue and open hoftility.

A fleet was now equipped with great expedition; and it was joined by a Russian squadron from the Euxine. The corbined armament, which is represented as consisting of 11 fhips of the line and 16 frigates, foon met with some fuccess. The commanders gained poffeffion of the isle of Cerigo; and to this conquest they added that of Zante, as well as that of Cephalonia. In November, a defcent was made in Corfu; but, as the fortifications of this island, which had been kept in good order by the Venetian engineers, have been improved by the French, the report of its early reduction may be considered as premature,

If we reflect on the conjunction of the Turks with the adversaries of France, we may juftly deem it an act of imprudence in the grand fignor to take part in the war; for, though some politicians have recommended foreign war as an antidote to domestic commotions, it seems very improbable that such a measure will operate as a remedy in the preient cafe.

The new enemies of the Porte are known to have some skill in the propagation of revolutionary doctrines; and the yet unquelled revolt of the pacha of Widin is not one of those insurrections which a leader would be inclined to relinquish for the general defence of the established government of his country.

RUSSIA,

The sovereign of this great empire has at length commenced warlike operations against the French. The

progress of his feet we have already mentioned; but the exploits of a considerable army which he has sent into the Auftrian dominions, will be the subjects of confideration, when the men who compose it fhall have entered upon the task of delivering Europe--the professed object of their march.

The advance of the Russian army produced a remonftrance from the Gallic ministers at Rastadt, intimating, that, if the diet of Ratisbon should not effectually oppose the march of the northern intruders, the republic would break off the negotiation. What effect this declaration has had upon the progress of the Moscovites, we have not learned.

The alliance between the courts of Petersburg and Conftantinople will not, we think, be of great service to the Anti-Gallican cause. Such confederates cannot be expected to unite with cordiality; and the league will perhaps tere minate in a rupture..

NORTH-AMERICA. .

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Military and naval preparations are still continued, with zeal and vigour, throughout the United States. Many thips of war, but chiefly of a small size, have been equipa ped; and some predatory French vessels have been captureda The regiments of militia have been organised and disciplined on an improved plan: the regular force of the republic has been augmented; and the fortifications of the towns most exposed to an attack have been repaired and improved.

For several months, alarming accounts were received of the revival and fatal progress of the yellow fever in many of the American towns : but, as the winter approached, it's rage declined. At the meeting of the congress, on the 8th of December, the president proposed an inquiry into the laws of the different states respecting the preservation of health, thật new regulations might be devised 'for ob viating the malignancy of a disease which had lo confider: ably diminished the population of the country:

The other parts of the speech of the president, related to the disputes with the French, and to various political topics. He mentioned the ' ultiinate failure of the meafures which had been taken for an amicable adjuftment of all differences with France. The rulers of that country, he said, ! appeared folicitous to impress the opinion, that they were averse to a rupture;' and they had declared that they were willing to receive a minister for the purpose of restoring a good underftanding but they had expressed themselves in terms which seemed to imply a right of prefcribing the qualifications requisite for such a minister; a pretention which he considered as inadmillible. He added, that the decree of the directory, alleged to be intended to feltrain depredations, had not given and could not give any relief, as it enjoined a conformity to those laws which were themselves the fources of the depredations. He could discover. nothing in the conduct of France which ought to change or relax the measures of public defence: on the contrary, it was true policy to extend and invigorate theni. • In proportion (said he) as we enlarge our view of the portentous and incalculable situation of Europe, we shall discover new and cogent motives for the full developement of our energies and resources. While he held this fpirited language, he did not wish it to be inferred, that he had abandoned the desire of peace ; for he was of opinion, that

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