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whom one was Arthur O'Connor) were detained in confinement.
In the mean time, occasional executions of rebels took place; but the lord-lieutenant, in the midst of judgment, remembered mercy. A well-known party accused him of excess of lenity, and wished for a governor who would be inclined to the adoption of more rigorous measures. To this party the marquis gave a new cause of offence, by reprobating the acquittal of a yeoman who had been tried for the murder of a rebel, and diffolving the court-martial which had thus favoured the prisoner. • In the hope of preventing a renewal of commotions by a close conjunction of interests, the king and his minifters have formed a determination of promoting an incorporative union between Ireland and Great Britain. Strong oppofition has been made to the proposal by different claflies of the community in the former realm; but, as it seems to promise beneficial effects, the majority of the nation, upon cool reflexion, will perhaps be induced to acquiesce in it.
. While the extravagant expedition to Egypt occupied a great share of the public attention, the two councils of the republic were employed in various deliberations. Among other topics, the affairs of finance were repeatedly difcuffed. For the expected charges of the feventh year, 600 millions of livres were deemed requisite. On the oth of October, it was ftated, in the council of five hundred, that means of railing 545 millions had been discovered ; and a confident hope was expressed, that the whole fupply might be obtained without the neceffity of imposing a tax on salt. Of the means already provided, the chief article was the land-tax, the produce of which was estimated at 210 millions; and the next article, in point of magnitude, was that of registration, amounting to 80 millions.
San&ion was given by the councils to a demand of the directory, for a levy of 200,000 men. An address to the nation was publithed on this occasion, intimating the expediency of the measure, for the humiliation of the enemies of France, and the completion of her triumphs.
A warm debate arose in the council of five hundred, on the 4th of November, in consequence of a motion for confiscating the property of those who having been fentenced
for transportation in 1797, had quitted the place to which they were transported, and for banishing in perpetuum all persons of that description who should venture to return to France. These propofitions were opposed with vehemence by Rouchon, who was frequently interrupted in his speech by loud clamours ; but the aflembly thought proper to adopt them.
About this time, an inquiry was made into the causes of an insurrection which had broken out in several of the Belgic provinces incorporated with the republic. It was affirmed by fome, that the new levy of troops, being compulsive, had occafioned the disturbances, but others maintained, that this was a mere pretence, and that a spirit of fanaticism, and an attachment to the old fyftem of government in the Netherlands, had produced the commotions.
In the district of the Waes, the peasants and other mal. contents took arms, and declared their intention of opposing the levy, as an arbitrary and oppressive measure. Troops were quickly called out to quell the insurrection; and brisk fkirmithes ensued. The disorders extended to the districts of Mechlin and Louvain; and the constituted authorities at Brussels dreaded an explofion in the vicinity of that town, While general Beguinot was on his march against the infurgents, a party of them entered Mechlin, plundered the town-house, and filled the place with confusion; but he dispersed them with ease, and the town became tranquil, though it was declared to be in a state of liege. The rebels were dislodged from other pofts; and engagements frequently occurred. Cruelties were perpetrated" by both parties. Many of the obnoxious supporters of the government were facrificed by the peasants; and, on the other hand, villages were burned, and massacres committed, by the troops of the directory.
The defeats of small bodies of the insurgents were mag. nified by the friends of the government into glorious victories; and, when the Belgians gained an advantage, their adversaries denied the circumstance, or endeavoured to prevent the propagation of the unpleasing intelligence. : No concert or regularity of plan prevailed among the rebels : the movements and operations of different parties were tumultuary and defuitory; and, while one body harafled the government in one place, undisciplined banas rofe in arms in other districts, and divided the attention of the
of directorial : While these insurrections were yet unquelled, French vanity and ambition were gratified with dispatches from Egypt, relating the progress of the unprovoked invasion of
that country. As early as the 2d of July, the French had landed near Alexandria. They took some posts by assault, gained others by capitulation, and were masters of the whole city in the evening. They wreaked their vengeance on the inhabitants, even for their short opposition, by an atrocious massacre of a great number of them : not only the active defenders of the town, but old men, women, and children, who had fied into mosques for security, became victims of republican fury*.
For the promotion of his success, Buonaparte employed both conciliation and terror. He difperfed copies of a proclamation (written in the Arabic language), declaring to the Egyptians, that his only view was to rescue them from the yoke of the beys, to whose tyranny he imputed the wretched ftate of their country; and that the French were the allies of the Turks, and true friends to Islamism: he at the same time intimated, that every town or village in which he should meet with opposition, should be deftroyed.
Advancing towards Grand Cairo, the general was attack çd, on the 21st of July, by Morad, one of thetbeys, with a small army of Mamelouks. These descendants of Christian Navęs fought with impetuofity; but they were overpowered by the invaders, who by this victory obtained poffeffion of the Egyptian capital. The inhabitants of Rosetta and Damietta were also obliged to fubmit to the disgrace of receiving French garrisons.
From the head-quarters at Cairo orders were iflued for the regulation of the government of Egypt, as if the French had poffefsed themselves of the whole country. It was decreed, that in each province there should be a divan, consisting of seven individuals, who houļd act in subserviency to the republican general ; that there should also be in each province an aga, who should parade about the country with a body of armed natives, for the maintenance of tranquillity. and order; and an intendant, who fhould receive, for the use of the French, the revenues before paid to the beys. Amidst this usurpation of power and prerogative, the gene ral pretended that he would secure, to the pacha of Egypt appointed by the grand fignor, his dignity and his revenue. Here we may observe, that, before the French invasion, the pacha had long been a mere cipher, the real power of the Hate being in the hands of the beys.
Hommes, femmes, vieillards, jeunes, et enfans, tous font maffacrés. łatter from Boer, Adjutant-General of the French Army, to his Relativesa
Confidering Cairo as fufficiently secure, Buonaparte marched in pursuit of the bey Ibrahim, who was at the head of a body of Mamelouks. The bey fled as the French ad vanced, and they had only an opportunity of assaulting his rear, on which they could make little impression. He retired into the deserts; and. Buonaparte returned to Cairo, It was during this excursion that the intelligence of the disaster in the bay of Aboukir reached the general, whose mortification may easily be conceived, as his retreat from Egypt, if a reverse of fortune by land should incline him to quit the country, was rendered impracticable.
For some time, a report of the death of Buonaparte prevailed in Europe. It was affirmed, that, having assembled many of the inhabitants of Cairo, and insisting on a pecuniary contribution, he was hot by a native of Tripoli. But, in an official account published at Paris, after a long suspension of intelligence, no mention was made of the death of the commander in chief, though it was stated that an insurrection of the populace had taken place at Cairo on the 21st of October, that general Dupuy had been mortally wounded, and that hoftilities had continued till the 23d, when, after a great slaughter of the Egyptians, the French restored tranquillity. But, though it may be true that they quelled the disturbance, they are certainly in a dangerous situation. Their number must have been considerably diminished by disease and hostility ; and the reviving spirit of the people may effect a counter-revolution.
It was apprehended by the French directory, that the commotions in Belgium might produce, among the Dutch, a desire of thaking off the yoke to which, notwithstanding their nominal independence, they are really subjected. Butz though they have reason to be discontented, the Hollanders have remained quiet. It even appears, that they have ada yanced money, at the desire of the directory, to facilitate the suppression of the revolt of their neighbours.
While the chief princes of Germany were invited by Great Britain to form a new confederacy against France,
the plenipotentiaries at Rastadt continued to treat of peace. In a note of the 5th of September, it was observed by the French ministers, that the chief difficulties which retarded an accommodation, were reducible to three questions, viz. whether the forts of Kehl and Caffel fhould be reftored to the empire, the debts of the territories on the ceded bank of the Rhine be added to the burthens of the opposite diftricts, and the laws against emigrants be enforced in the provinces given up to the French. In these points, the French made fome conceffions. At length, on the 12th of December, they announced the final settlement of the first bafis of the negotiation, and declared their readiness to expedite the remaining part, viz. the adjustment of the scheme of fecutarization and indemnity; á business which will probably occasion confiderable debate.
The emperor remains in a state of indecifion with regard to a renewal of the war; and the king of Pruffia firmly refifts all endeavours for engaging him in a new crusade. Both these princes, perhaps, are apprehensive that, if they thould not be successful in renewed hoftilities, a revolution unfavourable to monarchical despotism may take place in their dominions,
The efforts of the French not having fo completely fubjugated the cantons as the pentarchs of Paris wished, general Schauenburg, a ready inftrument of directorial tyranny, undertook the task of accomplishing the flagitious fcheme. In several of the cantons, the Swiss had concluded with that commander a convention, which appeared to secure to them, in a great measure, the enjoyment of their ancient rights : but, notwithstanding this agreement; he infifted on a full fubiniffion from those communities to the new conftitution. On their refufal of acquiescence, he Ied an army, in September, into the district of Underwald, and, aided by the treachery of many of the inhabitants, he defeated a small army of Swifs, who fought with the most determined intrepidity. Much blood was shed on both fides; and the French, after their victory, committed horrible acts of devastation and cruelty. Schauenburg then proceeded into the neighbouring cantons of Schwitz and Zug; and his approach produced the immediate submission of the inhabitants, whom he deprived of their arms, The Grifons, the allies of the Swiss, were urged by