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he faw among them what has since become the popular idol of France, equality. This circumstance, however, is not ascertained.
The islands called, in the old Spanish charts, La Mesa, Los Majos, and La Disgraciada, were fought in vain. La Pérouse thinks, with great reason, that these were in reality the Sandwich Islands, but were placed 16 or 17 degrees farther to the east. We shall extract nothing from this work concerning the Sandwich Islands, as so many English navigators have described them. We shall only remark that la Pérouse considers captain Cook as the aggressor, in his last unfortunate skirmish, and acquits modern navigators of the reproach of having introduced the venereal disease among the islanders, while the editor, with little discrimination or enquiry, condemns them.
The first part of North America which the navigators particularly examined, was Monti Bay, regarded by the editor as the Port Mulgrave of Dixon; but Port Mulgrave is in Behring's Bay. It is strange that an editor should decidedly contradict what the officers faw. La Pérouse rested for some time in a bay, which he called Port des François. It is near Cape Fairweather, and is in many respects a good harbour, as well as a proper place for the establishment of a commercial depôt. The natives pofseffed iron and copper, which they probably procured from the Ruffians, who extend their mercantile excursions to this neighbourhood.
«The animal and vegetable productions of the country about this bay, (fays la Pérouse) resemble those of many other regions; but its appearance has no fort of comparison; and I have my doubts whether the profound valleys of the Alps and Pyrenees' present views as frightful, but which are at the same time so picturesque, that they would deserve the visits of the curious were they not at the extremity of the world.
The primitive mountains of granite, or schistus, perpetually covered with snow, upon which are neither trees not plants, have their foundation in the sea, and form upon the thore a kind of quay; their slope is so rapid, that, after the first two or three hundred toises, the wild goats cannot climb them; and all the gullies which separate them are immense glaciers, of which the tops cannot be discerned while the base is wathed by the sea : at a cable's length from the land there is no bottom at less than a hundred and fixty fathoms.
“The sides of the harbour are formed by fecondary mountains, the elevation of which does not exceed nine hundred toises. They are covered with pines, and over
spread with verdure, and the snow is only seen on the summits; to me they appeared to be entirely formed of schistus, which is in the cominencement of a state of de composition ; they are extremely difficult to climb, but not altogether inaccessible.
Nature affigns to this frightful country inhabitants who as widely differ from the people of civilised countries, as the scene I have just defcribed differs from our cultivated plains'; as rude and barbarous as their soil is rocky and barren, they inhabit this land only to destroy its population: at war with all the animals, they despite the vegetable fubftances which grow around them. I have seen women and children eat fome raspberries and strawberries, but these are undoubtedly viands far too insipid for men, who live upon the earth like vultures in the airg or wolves and tigers in the forests.
• Their arts are in fome degree advanced, and in this respect civilisation has made considerable progress; but that which foftens tħeir ferocity, and polishes their manners, is yet in its infancy: their mode of life excluding all kind of subordination, they are continually agitated by fear or revenge; prone to anger, and easily irritated, they are almost constantly attacking each other. Exposed in the winter to the danger of perilhing for want, because the chase cannot be successful, they live during the summer in the greatest abundance, as they can catch in less than an hour a sufficient quantity of fish for the support of their family ; they remain idle during the rest of the day, which they pass at play; for to this amusement they are as much addicted as some of the inhabitants of our great cities. This gaming is the great source of their quarrels. If to these destructive vices they should unfortunately add a knowledge of the use of any inebriating liquor, I should not hesitate to pronounce, that this colony would be entirely annihilated.”
It is supposed that these Americans are not constant inhabitants of this district, but that they only pass the summer in it. None of their cabins seemed to be sheltered froin the rain. These huts are so fight, that the whole substance and contents of them are easily carried away in a canoe. The men who were seen in this neighbourhood,
pierce the cartilage of the ears and nose, to which they hang different small ornaments ; they make scars on their arms and breasts, with a very keen-edged instrument, which they sharpen by passing over their teeth as over a itone; their teeth are filed clofe to the guins, and for this operation they use a fand stone rounded in the Shape of a tongue. They use ochre, foot, and pfumbago, mixed up with train oil, to paint the face and the rest of the body in a frightful manner. In their full drefs, their
hair is flowing at full length, powdered, and plaited with the down' of sea birds; this is their,greatest luxury, and is perhaps reserved only to the chiefs of a family; their fhoulders are covered with a simple skin; the rest of the body is absolutely naked, except the head, which is generally covered with a little straw hat, very ikilfully plaited; but they sometimes place on their heads two horned bonnets of eagles' feathers, and even whole heads of bears, in which they fix a wooden scull-cap. In wearing these' head-dreflés, their principal object is to render themselves frightful, for the purpose of keeping their enemies in awe.
Some Indians had entire shirts of otter's skin, and the common dress of a great chief was a shirt of a tanned skin of the elk, bordered with a fringe of the hoofs of deer and beaks of birds, which, when they dance, imitate the noise of a kind of bell. This dress is very well known among the favages of Canada, and other nations which inhabit the eastern parts of America.
"I never saw any tatooing but on the arms of a few women, who are addicted to a custom whichi renders them hideous, and which I could scarcely have believed, had I not been a witness to it. All of them, without exception, have the lower lip flit at the root of the gums, the whole width of the mouth; and they wear a kind of wooden bowl without handles, refting against the gums, to which this lower cut lip serves for a fupport, so that the lower part of the mouth projects two or three inches."
In this bay, two boats were loft amidit the breakers, with twenty-one persons on board. A cenotaph was erected by the survivors, in honour of their unfortunate friends.
The Strait of Fuca, and the Archipelago of St. Lazarus, are disbelieved by la Pérouse, and treated with ridicule by the editor. "It appears, however, that they exist, though without leading to the expected confequence, the union of the Pacific with the Atlantic. 'It is creditable to the judgment of our navigatór, that he supposed he had been coait. ing only a chain of islands, as far as 54" N. L. In reality, he was to the west of King George's Archipelago; and captain Vancouver examined various channels more than 3° of longitude to the east of the most eastern situation of the French voyagers.
La Péroule describes Monterey nearly as captain Vancouver '
has done. He speaks of the natives, however, as more stupid, and as kept in fübjection by more rigorous punishments, than from the account of the English navigator we had reason to suppose. They are indeed child ren'; and to have taught them the rights of man, or to
have made them legislators, as la Pérouse (or perhaps the editor) seems to have withed, would be an attempt trifling and impracticable. More art is employed in the conversion and management of these Americans than captain Vancouver suspected: they are taught, it seems, that the priests have an immediate and a continual communication with the Almighty himself.
In this part of the work, la Pérouse speaks of the astronomical observations, on the accuracy of which, he thinks, navigators may depend. He examines the sources of error in these observations; and they appear to be inconfiderable, M. Berthoud's time-piece seems to have been very accurate in its course, and more regular than any of those which captain Vancouver carried with him.
In their voyage from Monterey across the Pacific, the French made a fruitless search for various islands which they had seen in charts. The discovery of a new island, to which they gave the name of Necker, is scarcely worthy of mention, as it is a small barren rock. At length, they reached Macao, whence they hastened to the Philippines, The metropolis of the principal ifiand of this groupe is thus described.
« The city of Manilla, with its suburbs, is very considerable; its population is estimated at thirty-eight thosuand fouls, among which there are not more than a thousand or twelve hundred Spaniards, the rest being Mulattoes, Chirese, or Indians, who cultivate all the arts, and carry on every species of industry. The poorest of the Spanish families have one or more carriages: two very fine horses cóft thirty piastres; the board and wages of a coachman are six piastres a month : thus there is not any country where the expence of a coach is deemed more necessary, and is at the same time less weighty. The neighbourhood of Manilla is delightful; a beautiful river flows by it, branching into different channels, the two principal of which lead to that famous lagune, or lake of Bahia, which is seven leagues within the country, bordered by more than a hundred Indian villages, situate in the midst of a highly fertile territory.
Manilla lies at the mouth of a river, which is navi, gable as far as the lake from which it derives its source,
and is perhaps the most delightfully situate of any city V in the world. All the necessaries of life are found there
in the greatest abundance, and at a reasonable rate of purchase; but the clothes, manufactures, and furniture of Euç rope, bear an excessive price.'
The natural beauty and fertility of this groupe of islands arc unfortunately counter-balanced by the errors of go,
vernment, by regulations the most impolitic, and imposia tions the most oppressive. An hoftile attempt, it is supposed by la Pérouse, would be afliited by a general infurrection of the inhabitants, and perhaps the boafted courage of the troops would not make a very powerful resistance.
From the Philippines the French steered towards Formosa, and the Likeu or Liqueo Illands. In this course they met with soundings, suddenly and greatly variable, but with no banks or Thallows that are particularly dangerous. The largest of the Liqueo Islands, it is observed, might be come an advantageous commercial depôt. We are indeed surprised, that, as the trade of fea-otter skins is now of im. portance, fome convenient situation has not been chosen to which the ships might bring their peltry, and from which it might be easily carried to the neighbouring countries, where it is deemed so valuable. If the accounts of the enterprising Benyowski may be credited, and in this respect he is supported by the narratives of other travellers, the chiefs of those illands are not likely to oppose such an attempt; and the Chinese would not be able to difpoflefs a powerful nation which should aim at such an establishment.
Proceeding to the northward, la Pérouse approached the island of Quelpaert, to the south of Corea : its appearance he describes as very attractive ; but, as those who had been shipwrecked on its coasts had been detained in slavery, he did not venture to send a boat to the shore. He now directs ed his course to the south-west point of Niphon, as captain King had examined its north-east cape. About 20 leagues from Corea, he discovered an island to which he gave the name of Dagelet. It is well wooded; and the Coreans seem occasionally to frequent it for the purpose of building boats, Aremarkable meteorological observation, in this course, we shall select.
This day, (the 26th of May, 1787,) was one of the finest in our whole voyage, as well as most interesting, from the bearings we had taken of an extent of coast of more thạn țhirty leagues, Notwithstanding this fine weather, the barometer fell to twenty-seven inches ten lines; but, as it had several times given us false indications, we continued our course along the coast, which we distinguith ed by the light of the moon till' midnight; the wind then veered from south to north with confiderable violence, without any cloud's announcing this sudden shift ; the sky was clear and serene, but it became very black, and I was obliged to stand off shore, to prevent iny being embayed by the easterly winds. Though the clouds had not given us previous notice of this change, we had a warning which we did not understand, and which it is not,