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be respectively regulated by these extreme limits; which will reduce the fittest marriageable age of women to eighteen, and of men to thirty-seven, a little more or less ; for the propriety of practical matters confifts not in an indivisible point. In consequence of this regulation, the contracting parties, in that which forms one main object of their union, will enjoy the happiest correspondence, their powers will simultaneously flourish, and finultaneously decay, Premature conjunctions produce imperfect offspring, females rather than males, and those feeble in make, and short in ftature. That this happens in the human race as well as in other animals, is visible in the puny inhabitants of countries where early marriages prevail. But to the female sex premature wedlock is peculiarly dangerous, since in consequence of anticipating the commands of nature, many of them fuffer greatly in childbirth, and many of thein die.' The evil reaches the mind iifelf, for early habitudes make the most indelible impressions; and the germ of voluptuoufnefs too speedily expanded, will penetrate the whole frame, and for ever vitiate the character.'

Vol. ii. P. 244.

rant.

• Royalty is not eafily demolished by external violence; and this form of government often lafts long, since honours are naturally durable in proportion as they are moderate. Royalty perishes, however, through the internal difcord of men in office, and through the preposterous ambition of kings to make themselves absolute. At present, states are seldom erected into royalties ; for amidst the great equality of mankind, few are thought worthy of unrivalled pre-eminence, or deemed capable of sustaining with dignity a lawful and voluntary fceptre; and a king, whose authority must be fupported by force or by fraud, immediately degenerates into a ty

To the causi's, therefore, already mentioned of the destruction of monarchy, we must add one peculiar to hereditary monarchy; the contemptible characters of youths born in the purple, and their proneness to offensive infolence. The authority of such youths cannot be voluntarily endured ; and thus, the government, if a royalty, is effe&tually destroyed, and a tyranny, probably of Dort duration, substituted in its stead. These, and other such causes, produce revolutions in monarchies.

• The means of their preservation, it is plain, muft in general be diretly contrary to the caufes of their destruction. As to limited monarchy, or royalty, the more it is limited, the longer it is likely to last. Moderation, therefore, is the great preservative of this form of government. Princes, the farther they recede from de. spotism, and the nearer they approximate to equality of right with their subjects, are the less exposed to hatred, envy, and all that train, or all thofe complications of paflions, which so often prove ruinous to their power. Moderation long upheld the monarchy of the Molossians. The royalty of Lacedæmon, which has proved for permanent, was, from the beginning, moderated by division be

tween two kings; and farther attempered, under Theopompus, by a due mixture of popular and democratic powers. When that wise. prince instituted the office of the Ephori, he abridged the power of royalty, but increased its stability. The short-lighted pride of his queen asked him, whether he was not afhamed to transmit to his posterity a fceptre less splendid than that which he had received from his ancestors ? “ No, surely;" he replied; " I fall tranfinit to them a throne more stedfast and more durable." Vol. ij. P. 372.

We cannot dismiss these volumes without observing, 'that the public are highly indebted to Dr. Gillies for the work which he has offered to their patronage—a work that abounds with the most folid maxims, and inculcates with peculiar force the most important duties of social life-that is admirably calculated to unite practice with knowledge, and to form the enlightened statesman, while it encourages the patient student in the pursuit of polite literature.

In the life of Aristotle, Dr. Gillies has been anxious to discredit the few anecdotes that may be thought to dishonour the venerable subject of his memoirs. The stories of Diogenes Laërtius, Ælian, and others, are rejected: and the whole is a pleasing biographical sketch.

With regard to the translation*, we have occasionally compared it with the original, and find it fufficiently faithful, though necessarily circuitous, and fometimes paraphrastical : but we think, that the doctor might, in various parts, have polished the style to a higher degree of elegance; and there are a few passages, on the import of which we may be permitted to differ in opinion from him. Where so much, however, has been done, and well done, it is invidious and ungrateful to complain. Description and Treatment of Cutaneous Diseases. Order. I.

Papulous Eruptions on the Skin. By Robert Willan, M.D. F. A. S. 410. 155. Jewed. Johnson. 1798.

CUTANEOUS diseases in general have perplexed the younger practitioners, and the more uncommon ones have disconcerted the fagacity of physicians otherwise experienced. Language, alone, was unable to speak with sufficient precifion; and even the forcible characteristic terms of Linnæus left something in doubt-left ideas not sufficiently vivid to af

* Dr. Gillies thinks that the Ethics were never translated intn any modern language : but the Catalogue of the Bibliotheca Pinelliana would have pointed out an Italian translation by Segni, published in the year 1550; and he might have found that a French translation of the same work by Oresme was printed at Paris in 1484.

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certain the object when seen. The tubera monftrofa difformia,' and similar descriptions by Sauvages, were still less pointed ; and modern authors, sensible of this difficulty, have left the subject, with few exceptions, to be investigated by each practitioner for his own use. His experience, for the fame reason, must die with him.

The present attempt must therefore be received, not merely with respect, but with avidity. The application of the modern iinprovements of coloured plates, will take away much of the doube which has hitherto followed even the best descriptions ; and, if the ingenuity of the artist should not be able to express every form of cutaneous eruption, it will be at least of service to fix some points to which the rest may be referred. In the nosology of Linnæus, for instance, if the terms tubercle, puftule, &c. were well ascertained, the other parts of the definition would be sufficiently clear,

It is not sufficient, however, to speak more plainly to the mind through the medium of fight. Language must come in aid: peculiar distinctions, and accurate discriminations, must give clearness and consistency to a subject hitherto little understood, Dr. Wilian has shown, that the more ancient authors, from their confusion and inconsistency, fail of giving that information which we might otherwise expect to receive from their remarks; and those who have occasionally consulted the moderns, have inore frequently experienced additional difficulties, than a relief from those which they at first felt.

The dcfiderata, with regard to cutaneous diseases, are said

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1. To fix the sense of the terms employed, by proper

definitions.

2. To constitute general divisions or orders of the diseases, from leading and peculiar circumstances in their appearance : to arrange them into distinct genera: and to describe at large their specific forms, or varieties,

3. To classify and give names to such as have not been hitherto sufficiently distinguished.

4. To specify the mode of treatment for each disease.'

6

P. ix.

. In order to convey distinct ideas on the subject, I shall elucidate every genus hy coloured engravings representing some of it's most striking varieties. This method is new, and will be attended with many advantages; though at the same time subject to a variety of imperfections. Such representations cannot sufficiently express the various degrees of opacity and clearness in puftules; nor the quantity or quality of the matter discharged from fuperficial ula

P. X.

cerations: neither can they extend to every minute circumstance in the course of a disease, being neceffarily taken at fome fixed period of it. I would therefore wilithe drawings to be considered only as auxiliaries to the verbal description : as such, they will be more especially useful in thewing the number, form, size and colour of the papulæ, puftules, tubercles, spots, &c. conftituting the disease, which appearances cannot always be clearly communicated in words.'

Dr. Willan begins with definitions; and these are illustrated by figures, which clearly convey the author's ideas. The most inexperienced practitioner, comparing the figure with the description, will recognise the disease in the human body. The appearances defined are those of fcurf, scale, scab, ftigma (a distinct red spot not elevated), papula (a small pointed elevation with an intlamed base), raiti, macula (discolouration), tubercle, veficle, and puftule.

Cutaneous diseases are divided by our author into papulæ, scales, rashes, vesicles, pustules, tubercles, and spots. The present number contains only the first order; and this is divided into three genera, namely, strophulus, infantine eruptions ; lichen, spring eruption, scorbutic pimples, &c.; and prurigo, universal itching

Strophulus is distributed into five species, viz. f. intertin&us, the distinct red gum; f. albidus, the white gum; f. confertus, the tooth-rash; . volaticus, a tooth eruption, tranfitory, fucceffive, confined in circles ; f. candidus. Our phyfician compares the descriptions of different authors, and points out their incontistencies with accuracy. As the genus and subordinate species are now distinguished with great propriety, there can be no doubt of a standard, to which future descriptions will be referred. The treatment is the usual one of the infantine state ; and, therefore, he does not enlarge upon it. He shows the connection of these different eruptions with the state of the stomach and bowels, and recommends proper precautions in these respects.

The genus lichen consists of five species ; l. fimplex, 1. agrius, 1. pilaris, 1. lividus, I. tropicus. The firft fort is attended with a little fever and irritation of the system; the eruption fucceeds, and its duration is yarious. It is a disease of little consequence; but it is likely to be confounded with purpura and miliaria. The former is, however, a rall, and the latter a vesicle. The eruption in question, indeed, fometimes assumes a veficular appearance ; but the error will do no injury. The treatment of the nild miliaria is not ditferent from that of the simple lichen.

The l. agrius is a more violent disease, attended with fever, yerging to the typhus: the papula are connected by a diffused

redness, and occasionally become pustular. Sometimes it terminates in a chronic puftular disease. In one case, here defcribed, it seemed to be an effort of nature to throw off something morbirl, as it left weakness, indigestion, &c. We have frequently observed this species of the disease; and it is

generally confounded by attendants, and sometimes even by practitioners, with erysipelas.

“ The lichen agrius often requires a more active mode of practice. It is uideful to give at intervals two or three moderate doses of calomel as a purgative ; and, afterwards, for some weeks, the vitriolic acid, three times a day, in the infusion of roses, or with a deco&tion of Peruvian bark. Any sharp, or stimulating application made to the tkin, when rough, inflamed, and chappy, very much aggravates the complaint, and produices an intolerable smarting. A mill, coolmg unguent will, however, contribute to allay the troublesome heat, and itching : and for this purpose I have found nothing more advantageous than the unguentum rolatum (l'h, Lond. Ver.) or the rose pomatum foid é by perfuners.' P. 54.

Thc lịchen pilaris resembles the I. simples, differing only as it affects the bulbous roots of the hair. The l. lividus consists of pimples of a darker hue, often intermixed with petechiæ, from poverty

of living, &c. It sometimes occurs as a secondary fymptoin of fvphilis, and is then more generally diffused, with the puftules tiatter, running into ulcerations. But this fymptom l'arely occurs alone, though we have fometimes found it uaccompanied by others. Some practitioners have been m fed by it.

The I. tropicus is the prickly heat of warm climates, dea' fcribed by various authors who have written on tropical diseases, from whom Dr. Willan has transcribed too copiously, A good account of it is here given from Mr. Winterbotham, who observed it at Sierra Leone. The prickly heat is not properly a disease; it is rather an effort of nature to throw off the accamulated impurities which the heat occasions, or is perhaps a local affection of the skin rendered irritable by the heat and perspiration.

The last genus is prurigo, which the author has not properly defined. We inay term it an itching of the skin, with linall papulæ, feldom difcoloured, constant, increased by heat, without fever or contagion. The species are distinguished by the cpithets mitis, formicans, and senilis.

The first species generally arises froin want of cleanliness, and is easily removed. The second is troublesome and obstinate.

< Where the papulæ are of the larger size above mentioned,

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