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blishing any manner of your own, and that blinds your judgment in the necessary discrimination of what is fit or not fit to be appropriated to your own use. Of the instances I have mentioned the majority are qualifications in themselves of an excellent nature, and which, therefore, every public speaker should endeavour to attain; but the misfortune is, you do not draw them from their proper fource. You are not charmed with the native principle of these things, but you are allured by the manner of the man; and what is the consequence? You adopt his manner, and instantly in you it is ridiculous, because nature, the pure source of all excellence, hath given to every man certain and different powers of modes, which, however- by observation and labour he may
refine and improve, will ever retain their original character in spite of every attempt to uproot them ; and besides, you become in time the plaything of every man's fancy; the first changes the peculiarity you admired for another, which, from its novelty or some other cause, appears still more charming; you instantly relinquish the former, and seize the latter with equal eagerness; the second acquires a graver and more folemn mode of speech; you are affected by the dignity of this new mode, and you endeavour to make it your own; and so of the rest. Thus, by the influence of habit, you are always restless and always ridiculous : instead of seeking to establish a manner of your own, and to enrich it by adopting fo much of what is excellent in others, as my suit with your own original capacity, you are disordered by a habit of imitation, that, from its folly, produces nothing but weakness and distraction, even when exercised, as I have fewn you, upon subjects that contain in themselves a clear and decided nature of excellence.' P. 389.
From the extracts given, it may be perceived that these letters are the effusions of no common or superficial pen, and that the writer has contemplated his subject in every posible view. In some instances, indeed, he seems to enforce the demonstration of truths that may be thought self-evident. This, however, is a task which is frequently rendered necefsary by the infirmity of the human mind; for, as the penetrating Bacon has observed, we think according to reafòn, and we talk according to rule, but we act according to custom.'
Some readers may think that the substance of the book would have admitted more compression, and that the author is not uniformly happy in his style; but these are flight blemishes, in comparison with the intrinsic merit of a production so well calculated to form the principles of the youthful mind, and to direct its emulation through the honourable but difficult paths of the legal science.
An Esay on Design in Gardening, first published in 1968. Now greatly augmented. Allo, a Revisal of several later Publications on the same Subject. By George Mason. 8vo. 5s. White.
THIS effay was first published in 1768, and was noticed in our 2 Šth volume (p. 469) with respect, though not with unqualified approbation. The subject was then new, but has been 'lately expanded rather than improved, decorated with showy meretricious ornaments, frittered by fancied novelties and affected refineinents. The great improvements, in modern English
gardening, were the abolition of the stiff regularity of the Dutch school, and the substitution of the rural beauties which nature offers, divefted of harihness and grofsièreté An object so simple, and seemingly of such eafy exe. cution, has been variously distorted, and the subject of endless disquisition. In reality, it combines minute questions of confiderable difficulty; one is, what objects deserve to be called gross and harsh ; a point which claims attention, lest, in refining too far, we cut nature by a pattern as precise in another way, as our ancestors adopted in their horticultural ornaments, and leave only the general, indillinct features, which no longer interest. . Another difficulty is, the adaptation of the kind and degree of ornament to the situation, so that, while the rugged features which constitute the distinction are preserved, the polish may be gradually regulated, according to the distance from which the scenery is viewed. In this case, the mansion is considered as the station. These are the great sources of the disputes between professional artists, each aiming at picturesque * effect, though in different paths.
Mr. Mason, one of the earliest and most judicious directors of national taste, expanded in his more mature age his former ideas, and defended them against those who had impugned his precepts. In the conclusion of this edition, some of the later publications are reviewed.
In the former edition, he mentioned that the oriental gardens were called paradises. Some of the additions to this part we shall transcribe.
• The fullest description extant of any ancient paradise is of one said to be fituate in the island of Panchæa, near the coast of Ara
Our author and some others seem at a loss to define the term pi&turefque a It accords with the painters' ideas of the circumstances effential to the composition of a good landscape, and is to be cxplained fron their rules in Mr. Gilpin's. manner, Rey.
bia. The period of its Aourishing state must be referred (according to its latest historian *) to the time of Alexander's immediate fucceffors. Diodorus tells us, that it was adjacent and appertains ing to a temple of Jupiter Tryphylius; that it had lo copious a spring in it, as to form a navigable river from the fountain-head; that this stream for the length of near half a mile was enclosed on either side with artificial margins of stone; but that it branched out into various currents, which ranged over meadows, and watered many a stately and shady grove upon the banks: that the paradise was enriched with palm trees, and vines, and every kind of delicious fruit, and by a variety of flowery lawns, and by planes and cyprelies of ftupendous magnitude, with thickets of myrtle, and of laurel and bay. This inclosure (as described) must necessarily have been of very considerable extent for a garden. What pity is it then, that so material a piece of evidence, for fuch a place having actually existed of old, thould be destitute of credibility! Strabo t after Polybius, and Plutarch in his Ofiris, agree in asserting, that there never was any temple of a Jupiter Triphylius, or any Panchæa. Nor does a single ancient geographer mention such an island. Yet may it not be concluded, that fuch was the style of Persian paradises in the reign of Cassander I ? Near seven centuries later than this period, there was one Asiatic paradise still existing; and it is specified by Milton among those, that might pollibly bę compared to his garden of Eden -
that sweet grove
Caftalian spring. P. L. B. 4. ver. 272.' The observations are not very greatly enlarged; but inany of them are improved. Incidental remarks are interspersed, which show an acute observation and a correct taste: one ins stance we shall select.
« Convenience. Though the principal end of landscape-gardening is to pieale
* See Diod. Sic. lib. 5. c. 42, 3, 4. But the period of its existence is deduced from a fragment of lib. 6; which also speaks of the paradise's elevated fitu. ation. f Lib. 2 and 7.
The Greek author whom Diodorus copies (Euhemerus by name:) lived under Caffander. His work was tranfated into Latin profe by the poer Ennius: of which translation very scanty fragments remain. Such was the authority of Ennius with the Latin poets, that Lucretius, Virgil, Tibuilus, Ovid, Claudian, all speak of Panchæa.
# This place is rather loosely described in the Antiochichus of the Aorid Libanius (Opera, vol. ii. P: 380, 1.), but more closely by Strabo (lib. 16.), who makes the grove in his time nine miles in circumference.
the eye, vet that end can never be perfectly answered by any thing, that manifestly militates against the comforts of life, or against the facility of performing ordinary functions. It becomes then the business of a designer to distinguish, where convenience fhould be his leading principle. The road to a mansion (being a necessary thing) certainly falls within the province of this article. The line of such road mould appear to be regulated by the most simple and obvious rules. Every variation of its direction should be governed by the swells of the ground, or by the interference of obstacles. When artists by profession, besotted with the notion of a sweep, disregard what they should most attend to, the impropriety of their method will be ftriking. It may indeed happen, that attending clofely to convenience (even in its own province) may be hurtful to other parts of a design, where the beautiful ought to prevail. In such cales the main study of the designer should be to conceal the facrifice of convenience. From no one point of view should the whole line of deviation be visible. I say the whole, because it is much easier to create a reason for each particular turn, than for a general circuity.
• It most frequently suits convenience, that the entrance-front of a mansion Mould not adjoin to a garden. Yet a disposition confonant to this idea often creates two other inconveniences. If the ground-floor is not sufficiently elevated, there is a difficulty in guarding the windows of this front from cattle, without obstructing the view from within. The second inconvenience is how to conceal the garden-fence externally; which fence must come to the angle of the mansion, unless the whole of the building stands in pasture - no eligible circumstance. Hollies are an admirable expedient for conquering this, latter difficulty. The former is a local one, and its cure must be locally suggested.' P. 96.
The publications revised are the “ Observations on Modern Gardening,' published in 1770- the elegant poem entitled the · English Garden, in four books, the first of which appeared in 1772--the · Village Memoirs,' an epistolary novel, containing Strictures on Landscape Gardening (1775) Mr. Walpole's • Treatise on modern Gardening (1780); and the Effay on the Picturesque,' by Mr. Price. From these we offer no extracts, as the observations, are miscellaneous, and refer to the different works. The appendix on bowers, showing them to have been retired chambers or residences, and not arbours, as Mr. Walpole supposes, is a judicious antiquarian effay. We are unwilling to mutilate it; and the whole is toa long for our purpose.
The Treatise of Cicero, de Officiis; or, his Essay on Moral.
Duty. Translated and accompanied with Notes and Obfer vations, by William M-Cartney, Minifier of Old Kilpatrick. 800.. 55. Boards. Robinsons. 1798.
THE admirable Treatise de Oficiis, which Cicero composed expressly for the use of his son, is so well known, that it would be superfluous to say any thing here on the subject. Our attention is due only to the present translation; and of that we thall permit Mr. M'Cartney to give some account in his own words.
• The following translation was undertaken, not because the translator had been accustomed either to read or admire the original, more than the other works of the same author ; but, because a translation of it, accommodated to the present state of the English language, seemed to be much wanted. • The notes and observations are intended for the
and the unlearned only. They are short, as it was deemed necessary to introduce as little as possible of what is to be found in books now every where to be met with ; and, because the mistakes of our author, on the subject of moral science, though proper to be noticed to the young reader, are yet to very obvious as to need but little discuílon. Long disquisitions, connected with the various topics which occur in the following work, seemed altogether inconsistent with our design. The learned, in this instance, need neither translation nor notes, nor observations. In the present and advanced state of moral knowledge, the Offices of Cicero can be no otherwise regarded, than as an imperfect or rude monument of antiquity, or recommended as an introductory book weil worth the perufal of the young beginner.
• The translation itself was intended to be neither quite literal, nor, like many of the most adınired translations of the present day, a mere paraphrafe. It was proposed to keep as near the original as the English idiom would permit, that the tranflation might be as fair a representation as possible of the author's sentiments and style. Wherever the original is broken or inelegant, the translation will be found to correspond, in consequence of the principle by which we have been guided,' p. iii.
Where Mr. M.Cartney has discovered Cicero to be • broken and inelegant, we know not; but we will venture to predict, that his tranflation will be considered as useless, and will foon be carried
in vicum vendentem thus, et odores, • Et piper, et quicquid chartis amicitur ineptis.' The learned reader has no need of it; and the English scholar