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*These local defences are formed of every thorny tree or caustic plant of the climate. Palmira trees, or the boraffus fiabelliformis, are the primary. These are planted to the depth of from thirty to fifty feet. In the interstices of the trees, which are very closely placed, are confusedly fown or fet, the following plants. Pandanus odoratissimus, or wild pine; caetus tund, euphorbia tiraculia, or milky hedge. The juice of this is so caustic as to scald not only the human skin, but the hide of a horse, on whom it may fall in forc-ing through this infernal hedge. Several other forts of euphorbia : the aloe littoralis of Koenig, convolvulus maricatus, and other cone volvuli. The mimosa cinerea, horrida, inftia, and another, as yet undescribed, armed with most dreadful thorns. The guiliadina unite their powers; intermixed is the guiliadina bonducella, and another not laid before the public, to which Koenig gives the epithet lacinians, which it fully' merits. The calamus rotang, or ratian, and the arundo bambo, often aslift in the impenetrability. The last is remarked to be admirable for the purpose, fince nothing equals it in regifting the edge of the ax, or the subtile fury of fire. To conclude, plants innumerable, of unknown fpecies, the feeds of which, arrested by the antient hedge, grow and intermix, preserving it in order and verdure everlasting. Vol. ii. P. 85.

On the west of Madras, are chains of hills thrown up by the convulsions of the globe, with a regularity resembling the efforts of human art. It is remarkable, that this tract, though now barren, was once fertile. Vast trees reinain in a petrified state. Among the animals of this country, we have reason to think there are some more nearly approaching the human form than monkeys. A description of a pair of these, in many respects resembling human beings, is extracted from Mr. Grove's entertaining voyage. These, if the account be accurate, were probably the pygmies of the ancients. For the rest of the natural history of this part of India, we must refer to the voiuine.

The Penner and Krishna, with their tributary streams, lead our author into an account of the towns and fortresses which border on them. The descriptions of the kingdom of Golconda and its gems are interesting, but not novel. In the survey of the Circars, it is remarked, that

All the people of this part of India are Hindoos, and retain the old religion with all its fuperftition : This makes the pagodas here much more numerous than in any other part of the peninsula ; their form too is different, being chiefly buildings of a cylindrical or round tower fhape, with their tops either pointed or truncated at the fummit, and ornamented with fomething eccentrical, but frequently with a round ball, stuck on a spike: this ball seems intended to represent the fun, an emblem of the deity of the place; sometimes two or more are united, fometimes they are Gingle.

The Polygars of this country value themselves highly on their antient descent, and esteem themselves the first of Hindoos next to the Brahmins, and equal to the Raipoots. The district of each chief-, tain is generally about twenty square miles; they have many little towns and forts, besides ; they have here one fort in the most difficult part of the country, intended as the last retreat of the Polygar and all his blood. It is seated in the center of the mountainous torest, and acceslible only by a narrow winding path, of the width capable of receiving only three men abreast, and five miles in length, and every turning guarded by works. Vol. ii. P. 123.

The story of the unfortunate Polygar Rangarao, with the horrid joar (the massacre of wives and children, to prevent their falling into the hands of the enemny), is well told ; and its horrors are relieved by the unexpected preservation of the son of Rangarao against his father's will, and the friendly conduct of M. Buffy.

The great Chilka lake, formed by an overwhelming fea, bounds the Circars on the north ; and the kingdom of Orixa follows, inhabited by an effeininate race. The trees of the Circars are described from Dr. Roxburgh's work, which we have already particularly noticed. The pagodas of Jagrénaut, supposed, though without reason, to be the Indian Apollo, are next described.

Cape Palmeras projects into the sea in lat. 20° 43', and beyond it is a large semilunar bay ending in the entrance to the Hoogly river. This brings. Mr. Pennant to Gangetic Hindooftan ; an object of such extent and magnitude, that we carinot follow him minutely.

The Delta of the Ganges includes numerous islands full of wood, infested with beasts of the most ferocious kind, which prey on incautious navigators, or on those who retire to the groves for a temporary relaxation.

The course of the river is traced from its source in the kingdom of Thibet ; and the Gangetic towns and forts are fucceffively described. Dehli and its eventful story, the Rohilla war, and the famous ‘march of the Bengal brigade, across the continent, under colonel Leslie and general God dard, are included in this part of the · View,' In the history of Cheyt Sing, Mr. Pennant confiders Mr. Hastings as fully cleared by the defence of Mr. Broome.

A long detail is given of the zoology of this and other parts of India ; and we need not add, that the statements of our naturalist are in general accurate. He was greatly asGifted in this task by the drawings and the information of per . sous now in England, who were formerly in India.

The mention of fome particulars respecting the flourishing fettienient of C#.cutta may gratify our readers.

« The first fort was built of brick, and named Fort William, in honor of king William. Numbers of people, attracted by the commercial advantages, flocked to this new settlement. The goods of the provinces on the Ganges were brought down to feed the luxuries of the west, and those of Europe conveyed across the vait ocean to supply the new-acquired wants

, of the east. I cannot trace the progressive increase ; let it suffice to fay, that the present number of inhabitants amounts to five hundred thousand. The Englith quarter is built in the most elegant and superb manner in the European style; and the buildings have more the appearance of palaces than the residence of private persons. Some that are built quite on speculation will take a rent of a thousand roupees, or £125 English a year. A fine set of prints, lately engraven by Mr. Thomas Daniell, shew the most splendid parts of the city, and many of the manners of the inhabitants.'

Vol. ii. P. 311.

• The citadel was built immediately after the battle of Plaffey, on a scale so large as to render it useless. To garrison it is required an army sufficient to take the field, and face an enemy without the protection of fortifications. The river has fize and depth e. nough to bring up to the very city ships of any burden which trade to India. Vol. ii. P. 312.

« The bulk of the inhabitants of Calcutta are Indians from all parts; their houses are equally mean with those of the natives in the other cities of India, and built in the same style, but such an em. porium occasions it to be the resort of people of every nation; here are found abundance of the mongrel Portuguese. I believe they originated from some banditti of that nation, who for a long time infested the Sunderbund, or rather its canals and neighboring fea, with their piracies, they mixed with the natives, and increased to a great degree.' Vol. ii. P. 313.

A sketch of the kingdom of Napaul follows the account of the river Dacca, which in some measure connects the Ganges and Burrampooter.

· This kingdom is separated from Hindooftan by a range of hills. The approach or lower part is healthy, but the hilly, called Terriane, is infested from the middle of March to the middle of November with a putrid fever, which kills in a few days. From the interior chain of hills is a fine view of the vast plains of Napaul, two hundred miles in circumference, surrounded by mountains like an amphitheatre, and covered with populous towns and villages, inaccessible excepe over the mountains. Its capital, Catmanda, has eighteen thousand houses; the next tiwn in fize twenty-four thousand; the third twelve thousand families. Every toivn is built with brick, the houses three or four stories high, and disposed with great regularity, and are well paved and also excel

lently furnished with water. It is fertilized by the Cofa, which rifes in lat. 30° 20', passes through the Emodus chain, and through the whole plain of Napaul, and finally falls into the Ganges, a little to the east of Boglepour. The religion of the country is said to have been brought from Thibet ; part of the people adopt that of the Hindoos. The temples are magnificent.

* The government is monarchical; the late Gaenprejas had an army of fifty thousand men, but that was unable to prevent his being dethroned by the king of Gorcha, a neighbouring prince, afsisted by the treachery of the subjects of the innocent monarch. The king of Gorcha was a complete barbarian. The cruelties he practised on the loyal subjects of Napaul to shake their fealty, are too shocking for me to relate. Gaenprejas was in his city when itwas stormed by the favage monarch, when he in despair ran tos wards his enemy, and received his death by the shot of an arrow.' Vo.ii. P. 343.

The rude and mountainous country of Bootan is concisely described. Taffisudon is the capital of that territory.

• Between this city and Paradrong is the great Emodal chain, capt eternally with snow, the same which overtops the other snowcapt chains, and Mews itself to the distant inhabitants of Bengal, This range is also the boundary between Bootan and the Lama's country, or Great Thibet. From this limit, to the great river Burram. pooter, is in many places a hundred and fifty miles in extent. The river Teesta rises not far from the former, and hastens south through Bootan and Bengal, till it is lost near Dacca in Bengal.

? This country rises into mountains of prodigious height. The summits eternally covered with snow, the fides with forests of stately trees of various kinds; fome, such as pines, afpens, birch, cypress and yew, holly and elder ; alh is uncommon, oaks have not yet been discoverid in Bootan; firs, and others known in Europe, others again peculiar to the country and climate. Many of these forests are ufeless to mankind, being placed amidst rocks inaccefli ble. At their basę, the vallies and sides are cultivated, and are productive of wheat, barley, and even rice. In the depth of the val lies rush numbers of furious torrents, which, increasing in their course, and at length gaining the plains, are lost in the rivers of Bengal. Vol. ii. P. 351.

The course of the Burrampooter is followed, like that of the Ganges ; and its claims to superior fame, from the extent of its course and other circumstances, are evinced. The work terminates with a survey of the district of Chittigong.

We must not conclude without expressing our obligations to Mr. Pennant for a work fo interesting, for inquiries so numerous and extensive, and a description to clear, compact, and comprehensive. The few blemishes which may be observed, do not gicatly detract from the merit of the performance,

The humana incuria and venial prejudices must occasionally influence every author. To yield to them only in a few instances is no common praise.

The second volume is illustrated by fourteen piates. These are views of the country, representations of different characters, &c. They are, in general, entitled to our commendation.

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23.

Lovers' l'ows, or, the Child of Love, A Play, in Five Afts.

Translated from the German of Augustus Von Kotzebue ; with a brief Biography of the Author. By Stephen Porter.

8vo, Partons. 1798. The Natural Son, &c. Translated from the German, by Anne

Plumptre, (Author of the Reftor's Son, Antoinette, &c.) who has prefixed a Preface, explaining the Alterations in the Representation; and has also annexed a iife of Kotzebue.

8vo. 2s.6d. Symonds. 1798. Lovers' Vows. A Play, in Five 61s. Performing at the

Theatre Royal, Coven-Garden. From the German of Kotze bue. By Mrs. Inchbald. Svo.

Robinsons, 1798. IT is an extraordinary proof of the celebrity of Kotzebue, that two translations of this piay should have appeared together, and a third have become a favourite on the English stage. The itory is very interesting. The author has, as usual, attacked a prejudice; and, in this instance, no moralist can object to his aim. The haron Von Wildenhain, after seducing Wilhelmina, a country, girl, has married a lady of rank. He has not wilfully neglected the former object of his affection, or her child; but, from his removal and other circumstances, they have eluded his inquiries; so that, when after the death of his wife he returns to his native place, Wilhelmina is in extreme poverty, and her son a soldier. The latter begs money of the baron for his fick mother, and, not receiving enough, attempts to rob him. He is secured, and during his continement learns that it was his father against whom he had raised his fword. The baron, or (as he is called in Mr. Porter's translation, the colonel, is represented as a man of a good heart. The story of the young man affects him ; and he comes to release him. This scene ensues -Colonel. Go your way, with the blefling of Heaven, my friend:

I have enquired after your mother, who is recovering.--For her fake, I forgive you ; but do not attempt the fame thing again.-Robbing is a bad trade. Take this louis-d'or, and try to live honestly. If you behave well, my door and my purse

- you are free.

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