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luable than man to man, abstracted from the mere use which one man can derive from another. : “ These are thy gods, O Israel, and this is the worship to which you are called !" P. 210.

P. 214.

« Take Mr. Godwin as a natural philosopher, and from his doctrines let the reader consider the state of his understanding. Let him also consider, how such a inan is qualified not merely to reform, but first to overthrow and then tó rebuild, the whole system of government, morality, and religion in such a kingdom as Great Britain. What opinion can we entertain of a man who seriously thinks that, at some future period, the necessity of sleep in an animal body may be superseded :—that men die merely by their own fault and mismanagement, but, that the immortality of the organized human body, as it is now formed, might be attained by proper attention and care :-or who thinks “ that, hereafter it is by no means clear, that the most extensive operations may not be within the reach of one man, or to make use of a familiar instance, that a plough may not be turned into a field, and perform it's office with out the need of superintendence !" and then adds, '“ It was in this sense that the celebrated Franklin conjectured, that mind would one day become omnipotent over matter !"

What would the fatirist say to the infidel who should in this manner attack the gospel system, and ridicule Christianity, becaufe its divine teacher said that he was come to fet

a man at variance against his father ;' because, when one said unto him, behold, thy mother and thy brethren stand without, defiring to speak with thee, he answered and said, who is my mother and who are my brethren? and ftretched forth his hand towards his difciples and said, behold my mother and my brethren! Would he not justly accuse the matr either of grossly misunderstanding or wilfully misrepresenting the Chriftian system, if he inferred, from these and similar pala fages, that the extinction of natural affection formed a part of it? Let not this writer accuse us of claffing Christianity and the speculations of Mr. Godwin together. We are as firm in our belief of that divine religion as the fatirist can be, and are at all times ready and able to defend it. We are ready and able also to attack the errors of the new philofophy ; but we would oppofe them in the spirit of ineekness and truth..

In his censure of the cruel experiments which disgrace natural philofophy, and almost human nature, we cordially agree with the fatirift. With pleasure, and in the hope of enforcing fentiments becoming a man and a Chriftian, we say with him, ' when an experiment, for any purpofe useful to millions of our fellow-creatures, has been once made upon an animal, it fhould be finally recorded by merr of science and veracity, as authentic and satisfactory, not to be repeated.' After the face

is established, all experiments are useless to society, and injurious to the individual, who hardens his own heart by the mere cruel sport of curiosity.' For tolerating such experiments the utmost severity of satire, may justly fall on the royal fociety : but why should a person select for ridicule the accounts of the evaporation of a diamond, and of the trout with the gizzard-like stomach ?

The satirist, in embellishing his work with the expressions of other men, has not always acknowledged his obligations; in censuring the royal society, he says, if they will not consider well the character of the candidates offered for their choice as affociates, the busts of Newton and of Boyle should be veiled; but he has not quoted the Frenchman who demanded that a veil fhiould be thrown over the bust of Brutus.'

The poem itself requires no criticism ; a small number of good lines, like those upon the Botanic Garden, will not redeem it from the neglect which its defultory dullness must ensure. By the present generation the notes will be read with interest : and perhaps they will not be forgotten when this generation has passed away. Pofterity may search in thein for the scandal of these times, as we • rake in the dunghills' of Procopius and Athenæus. That the author will ever be known, is not probable. Consummately vain as he is, he would not, we think, purchase notoriety so dearly. The reputation of a fatirist is not desirable. A man may commence a satire from the best motives; but the execution of it inuft deteriorate his mind.

The View of Hindooftan. By Thomas Pennant, Esq.

(Concluded from page 129.) THIS ingenious and intelligent writer, having ranged along the coast of Malabar, doubled Cape Comorin, and examined with attention the island of Ceylon, now pursues, with the same care, the eastern coast, and follows the various rivers to their sources. In the second volume of his View, we find the same spirit, good sense, and information, which marked the former, mingled occasionally with a few preju. dices, or opinions which feein tinctured with a party hue." These are not, however, offensively obtruded, nor do they frequently occur.

On the coast of Tineveliy, to the north of East Cape, is the spot frequented by the fishers for pearls ; and Mr. Pennant has given a good abstract of their method of proceeding. This I thery has existed from the earliest records of history to the

prefent time, and it is now carried on by the Dutch. The pearl oyster is found adhering to the banks of coral; but, even in colder regions, different species of mylilus may be enabled to produce the pearl. This secret was discovered by Linnæus, who refused to reveal it, as it would lessen the value of thefe beautiful ornaments. From fome inquiries among the more confidential disciples of the northern natu, ralist, we were induced to believe, that the infiction of a wound on the external shell would occasion the excrefcence internally; for, in every instance, it is a morbid production.

The river Vaygaroo leads our author to Dindigul and Madura, of which he recounts the various fortunes. The Colleries and Polygars are aborigines of India, and are a favage race, cruel, enthufiaftic, and intolerant, with little more than the forms of men. These are found on the present coaft. To the history of the kingdom of Tanjore we are led by the Delta of the Cavery ; but it offers nothing new. After a fura vey of Nega patam, Tranquebar, the ille of Seringham, Trichinopoly, and Coimbetore, we are introduced into the Carnatic,

a tract of country, which within this century has been peculiarly interesting to the British nation, by the bloody contests be(ween us and the French, for the superiority. This country formed originally part of the great foubahship or vice-royalty of the Decan. This was made independent of the Mogul by the famous Nizam el Muluc : this vast kingdom was, after bis death, greatly leffened by the conquests of the Mahrattas, by our seizing the northern Circars, and by our bestowing on the nabob of Arcot the country in question. Its present boundaries are the Coleroor to the south, and the Gendegama to the north, an extent, washed by the sea, of three hundred miles. I may here point out to the reader the vaftness of the antient extent of the Carnatic, of which, and its appendages, our ally, Mahomed Ally, is the nabob. It is now reduced, but once comprehended the whole country from the river Kishna to cape Comorin.' At present it reaches as far as the extremity of Tinevelly, an extent of five hundred and seventy miles, reckoning from the south of the Guntoor Circar. Its breadth is inconliderable, from seventy-five to a hundred and twenty miles. The whole coaft is deftitute of harbours; the shipping are obliged to lie at anchor in the open roads, usually in eight fathoms water, and at about a mile and a half distant from land, and larger thips at two miles distance, in ten or twelve fathoms: at twenty miles distance, the water deepens to fifty fathoms, and a little farther to sixty or feventy.. Midway between Tranquebar and the Nicobar isles, there is no ground to be found with seven hundred fathoms of line. I may include the whole coast of Coromandel under this description, an extent of pot less than four hundred miles, reaching from Caly

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there point to the mouth of the Kistnah. On all the shore breaks a most dangerous and high surf, which appals the stouteft seaman; no European boat can attempt to land. The cantamarans or boats are of a particular construction, being formed without ribs or keel, with fat bottoms, and having their planks fewed together ; iron being totally excluded throughout the whole fabric. By this construction they are rendered flexible enough to elude the effects of the violent shocks which they receive, by the dashing of the waves or furf on the beach, and which either oversets or breaks to pieces a boat of European construction.' Vol.ii. p.25.

The different fieges of Pondicherry are accurately mentioned ; and the natural history of the neighbourhood follows.. This part of the country (says Mr. Pennant) abounds with vultures.

• All this genus are equally remarkable for their voracity, and their fagacity of noftril. After the attack of the nabob's camp before the battle of Plassey, in which was made a vast Naughter of men, elephants, and horses ; vultures, jackals, and pariars, or village curs, were seen tearing the same corps or carcass, and the first were often so gorged, that they could not be forced from the spot. Vultures were usually very rare in the adjacent country, but at that time the plain was covered with them. The air was suddenly seen filled with multitudes, flying with their usual suggish wing from every quarter, and from most distant parts, to partake of the carnage. It is wonderful how such multitudes could be collected in so small a space. It has been an ancient opinion, that, by a prophetic instinct, they have pretages of a battle, and will seek the spot of future flaughter three days before the event.' Vol. ii. P. 36.

Tlie account of the Paliar gives occasion for military narration; and the battles of Vandewash, Conjeverain, Årnee, &c. are sketched with spirit. Near that river stands the extentive city of Arcot : Sadras and the seven pagodas are also not far distant from its banks. These pagodas are

a most wonderful assemblage of temples, and other places of Hina doo worship, second only in antiquity to those of Elephanta and at Ellora, which are fubterraneous, cut out of the solid rock. These are elevated high above the surface, excavated out of folid rocks ris. ing to different heights, and by the wondrous skill of the antient artists hollowed into various forms; the natural roof is often felfsupported, 'sometimes it is as if held up by pillars left in fit places, poffibly more for ornament than necessicy, cut out of the same rock. Where the fizes of the rocks will admit, there are instances of two pagodas, one cut out of the same rock above the other, with the communication of a staircase formed out of the live stone. Stair. cases frequently occur, as if once leading to edifices now destroyed. Excavations supposed to have been designed for Choultries, or the

Cerr. Rev. VOL. XXIV. Duc. 1798.


fame charitable purposes as the Mahometan caravanseras, are not infrequent,' Vol. ii. P. 51.',

Madras and its environs are noticed at fufficient length. The exploits of the marquis Cornwallis are enumerated ; and a sketch of the Mysore country is given in this part of the fecond volume.

· The Mysore country is an immense inclined plain, with an undulated surface, which, with little affittance by dams, form in the hollows, tanks, or receptacles for water, which is preserved for the cattle, or for the paddy or rice fields, through which it is conducted by Imali gutters; but the principal grain of the country is rag. fee, which requires no more moisture than the filling of the monfoons. This plain is dotted with numerous hills, which rise fuldenly from the surface; they are of different forms, and often cloathed with the perpetual verdure of mango and other beautiful trees. Numbers are fortified on their fummits with a ftrong fort, ouce the residence of the lefler Hindoo rajahs before they were (wallowed up by the various Mahometan conquests. Many received by the conquerors additional fortifications, which rendered them impregnable to a native enemy: such are Saven-droog, Outredroog, and variety of others, which proved caly conquests to the British commander, The celebrated Aornos Petra was a fortress of this nature. With what vaunting circumstances does the historian of the Macedonian hero describe this Gngle conqueft! How lightly does the niodest record of the victor over the Myforean kingdoní touch on more numerous acquisitions of the fame lind, posibly of equal, perhaps of fuperior strength. All these forts have their proper names, and most of them with the addition of droog, i. c. a bill fort. Views of numbers are given by major Allan and Mr. Home, which convey a full idea of the partial in

accessibility bestowed on them by nature, and the additional diffi: culties created by art.'

Vol. ij. P. 73 The bound hedge, a mode of fortification little known, is thus described

• The bound hedge, the frequent concomitant of the fortresses of Hindooftan, appears here [near Sering opatam) in great strength. It is the practice in the Polygar fyftem of defence, and copied by the civilized natives from the wild warriors of the forests. Of the latter, the fort of Calicoil and that of Palam Courchy are strong examples. This begins opposite to each end of the island, and reaches the edge of the river. It extends northward, opposite to the western end of the island, but contracts in breadth as it pafles to the eastern end. The bound hedge is often defended at certain intervals or openings by small redoubts, to interrupt the pioneers employed, in cutting a breach through it: Such were those in the bound hedge at Pondicherry, which so long impeded the taking of the place, in 1760, by colonel Çoote.

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