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vouchsafement or gift only, as St. Paul also teaches, in Rom, iit. 24Eph. ii. 8, &c. Add also, Aets xi, i8.

• And from the whole, who discerns not, in the last place, how such a faith in Chrift on the finner's part, and such gracious acceptance and imputation of it on the part of God, does finally and fubftantially resolve itself into the same with that repentance and remission of fins which was to be preached in all nations in the pame of Jesus; and thus reconcile together not only Jesus and St. Paul, but St. Paul and St. James also; if we will only understand by those works which St. Paul so expressly excludes, works of law, as we certainly ought; and by those which St. James requires and speaks so highly of, works of faith, that is, done in it, and proceeding from it; to which it is certain that St. Paul neither had, nor could have, any objection. To fome it has seemed probable that the righteousness of God by faith, in Phil. iii. 9. is to be understood of works of this nature.' P. 176.

The remaining part of the work relates to the prophecies of Daniel and Isaiah, and the Revelations. The downfall of the pope, and the decay of his church, having occurred in our days. in so different a manner from that which was predicted by the generality of commentators on scripture, many persons may be induced to receive without disapprobation the sentiments of our writer. He cannot see the pope in Daniel: Antiochus Epiphanes is the principal character in the drama ; and the scene of action is chicfly confined to Judæa and Babylon. On the Revelations we cannot agree farther with Mr. Amner, than in his wish for a regular scheme or plan of well-founded interpretation. We were more pleased with his critique on the prophecies of Isaiah, whofe work he divides into two parts. The former part, ending with the thirty-ninth chapter, may, he thinks, not improperly be entitled Hezekiah, or Isaiah's Hezekiah, as we say Virgil's Eneïs; and to the second, containing the rest of the book, may be given the appellation of the Return ; i. e. the return of the Jews from the Babylonian captivity. Agreeably to this notion, the phrases applied to our faviour are attributed to Hezekiah; and the supposed evangelical views of the prophet are confined to rapturous exclamations on the return of his countrymen, and the happiness which they for so long a time enjoyed in consequence of their obedience to the true God.

To exanine all the opinions of Mr. Amner would take up inore time than we can spare : but we can assure those indivi. duals to whom such a task more immediately belongs, that, however they may differ from the writer in various points, they will be pleased with his spirit of research, with his candour in argumentation, and with the proofs which he has given of a mind devoted to the cause of scriptural truth.

The Pursuits of Literature. A. Satirical Poem in four Dia

Logues. With Notes. The Eighth Edition revised. 8vo. 85. 6d. Boards. Becket. 1798.

IN the opinion of the author of this work, the fullness of the satirical glory never thone but on six POETS; the three Roman satirists, Boileau, Dryden, and Pope.: As a disciple of these great masters, and full of that spirit which an unbroken and an honourable intimacy with their works has in{pired, I now present myself' (he says) a votary at their temple; and in some measure clothed in the robes of their hereditary priesthood, I would also enter and offer my oblation at the high altar of my country. This writer is willing to con{ider himself as the seventh great fatirist; he would persuade the world that the fullness of the fatirical glory, like the divine light which descended from Ishmael to Mohammed, has settled upon him in the consummation of fplendour. But will pofterity receive the fame of this anonymous satirist upon his own testimony ? His own opinions, indeed, are frequently and decisively exprefled; he is the cenfor of literature, the defender of the faith and conftitution of his country. A very Quixote in literature, he has attacked windmills and sheep, and congratulated himself upon the overthrow of giants and of armies. His own testimony, however, will not avail him at the tribunal of dispassionate judges ; nor can the merit of the work he inferred from its rapid and extensive sale: the author himself will not consider, as the criterion of merit, a circumstance which would be equally in favour of the Monk and of the writings of Thomas Paine. Scandal and calumny will always be greedily received; the Jockey Club was generally tead becaule it was personal and abufive; and the anonymous fatirist may congratulate himself upon a similar notoriety.

It may be observed, to the disgrace of the present fatirist, that he has always exaggerated the faults or merits which he has cenfured or commended, and has contemplated every thing through the falfe medium of prejudice or friendship. We transcribe what he has said of the romance of the Monk.

• There is one publication of the time too peculiar, and too important to be paffed over in a general reprehenfion. There is nothing with which it may be compared. A legiflator in our own parliament, a member of the house of commons of Great Britain, an elected guardian and defender of the laws, the religion, and the good manners of the country, has neither scrupled nor blushed to depict, and to publish to the world, the arts of lewd and systematick feduction, and to thrust upon the nation the most open and unqualified blafphemy against the very code and volume of our religion, And all this,' with his name, style, and title, prefixed to the novel

For an account of the first edition, see our XVIII Vol. New Arr. p. 47, and Vol YYI.

of romance called “ The Monk.” And one of our publick theatres has allured the publick attention still more to this novel, by a scenick representation of an episode in it. “ O proceres, cenfore opus est, an harufpice, nobis ?” I consider this as a new species' of legislative or state-parricide.' P. 239.

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We can feel that it is an object of moral and of national reprehension, when a senator openly and daringly violates his first duty to his country. There are wounds, and obstructions, and diseases in the political, as well as in the natural, body, for which the removal of the part affected is alone efficacious. At an hour like this, are we to stand in consultation on the remedy, when not only the disease is ascertained, but the very stage of the disease, and its specifick symptoms? Are we to spare the sharpeft inftruments of authority and of censure, when public establishments are gangrened in, the life-organs ?

* I fear, if our legislators are wholly regardless of such writings, and of such principles, among their own members, it may be said to them, as the Roman satirist said to the patricians of the empire, for offences sight indeed, when compared to these :

• At vos, Trojugenæ, vobis ignoscitis, et quæ

Turpia cerdoni, Volesos Brutosque decebunt. There is surely something peculiar in these days; something wholly unknown to our ancestors. But men, however dignified in their political station, or gifted with genius, and fortune, and accomplishments, may at least be made alhamed, or alarmed, or convicted before the tribunal of publick opinion. Before that tribunal, and to the law of reputation, and every binding and powerful sanction by which that law is enforced, is Mr. Lewis this day called to answer.'

It certainly is not our intention to justify the licentiousness of the Monk, or the ridiculous criticitim upon the scriptures, which the satirist so vehemently points out as blafphemous, and deserving of public punishment. On the first publication of the book, we feverely condemned the indecent and impious parts of it*. But furely it is most exaggerated cenfure to coinpare Mr. Lewis with Cleland for the obscenity, and with Woolston and Peter Annet for the blasphemy, of his writings. Let the whole tendency of the novel be considered. What are the consequences of Ambrofio's indulged passions ? guilt, ignominy, death, and everlasting perdition. Perhaps, if the indecencies of the Monk had not been so industriously pointed out, many or even most of its readers would not have noticed or remembered them. But the tenor of the whole, says the satirist, is reprehentible: how? is it reprehensible to enforce by Rory the precept, flow mercy to others that you may deserve meşcy yourself?' or will this cenfor object to the old leffon,

* See our XIXth Vol. New Arr. p. 194.

P. 242

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"let no man de confident in his own virtue ?' It is ungenerous and unjust, after accusing Mr. Lewis so bitterly for the improper passages to which we have alluded, not to mention that in the last edition of his book they have been omitted. The fatirist is not always so fevere upon obscenity; he can speak of an obscene poem as the light and vigorous fally of a very young man, forgiven as such and forgotten; but he can find no palliating epithet for the Monk. As for the youth of its author, the plea for which the Geranium is forgiven and forgotten, he asks, . What is it to the kingdom at large, or what is it to all those whose office it is to maintain truth, and to instruct the rising abilities and hope of England, that the author of the Monk is a very young man and, if there be any thing vigorous or poetical in the novel, it is,' he says, ' so much the worse ; ic is the more alluring on that account.'

The satirist fiercely attacks the following passage in Mr. Godwin's Enquirer, respecting the children of peasants.

• At the age of fourteen the very traces of understanding are obe literated. They are enlisted at the crimping house of oppression. They are brutified by immoderate and unremitting labour. Their hearts are hardened, and their spirits broken by all that they see, all that they feel, and all that they look forward to. This is one of the most interesting points of view, in which we consider the present order of fociety! It is the great slaughter-house of genius, and of mind. It is the unrelenting murderer of hope and gaiety, of the love of reflection, and of the love of life,'

« This it is (he adds), I suppose, as this atrocious but foolish writer would call it, to promote patience and tranquillity among mankind! He is, however, unfortunate in the selection of a passage for his cenfure. Does he deny that a great proportion of the lower classes of society are' brutified by immoderate and unremitting labour? that their hearts are hardened and their fpirits broken by all that they see, all that they feel, and all that they look forward to ?? Does he object to the paffage as tending to excite difcontent to whom then does he suppose that the book is addressed? will it be read by those who are enlisted at the crimping-house of oppression,' or by the manufacturers who are herded together by fifties and by hundreds, and destroyed by the flow poison of confinement and unwholefome occupations? When the grievances of the poor are exposed in works like this, they are intimated to thole who have the power of alleviating thein. Such a disclosure may ftimulate che rich to beneficence; but surely octavo volumes are not calculated to excite the poor to discontent.

No author ever laid himself more open to ridicule than Mr. Godwin. His enemies could not have dictated passages moro agreeable to them than hc has written. We are not the ad

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vocates for his system ; but we would deal fairly even with the system which we disapprove. To ridicule is not always to confute; and any systein may be rendered ridiculous by ex, hibiting only parts of it.

• The first trait of the work is, a certain cold-blooded indifference to all the mild, pious, and honourable feelings of our common na: ture, like all the philosophers of the new sect. The next thing observable, is a most affectionate concern and regard for the welfare of mankind, who are to exist some centuries hence, when the endless perfectibility of the human species (for such is their jargon) fhall receive its completion upon earth; when the disciples of Dr. Darwin have learned to manage the winds and direct their currents at pleasure, and the descendants of abbé Sieyes have calmed the waves of a stormy people with the essential oil of democracy. Another trait is that all political justice is essentially founded upon injustice ; if plunder, robbery, and fpoliation of all property in the outset may be termed injustice; though to be fure the latter end of his commonwealth rather forgets the beginning. But I must say, he is not without some kind of apprehension, that the population of states may be too great, under the bleslings of an equal diffusion of property in the proposed government, for which he pravides a remedy : though, for my own part, I think such a government, like Saturn of old, will be reduced to the necessity of eating up it's children. Again : another discovery seems to be, that as hitherto we have had recourse to the agency and interference of the deity, and his unalterable laws, to account even for the fall of a stone to the ground, the germination of a blade of grass, or the propagation of the meanest infect; we are now to discard the superintendence of God in human and terreftrial affairs, and to believe in no providence but our own, and to re-make ourselves and our faculties. He seems to realize a modern fi&tion I once read, which supposes an assembly of certain philofophers before the deity, when some of them are faid to whisper in his ear, “ Between friends, we do not believe that you exist at all.” Further : as to suppose a divine fanction without a divinity would be absurd, therefore, every inftitution such as marriage, which in all civilized nations has been hal, lowed for the great end for which it was ordained, is to be vilified, ridiculed, argued away, and abolised. The tender sex, deprived of the support, comfort, and protection of their patural guardian, is to be delivered over to fancied freedom and wild independance, but in reality to misery and destitution beyond all calculation. Then by way of corollary, a few vulgar virtues and once honourable affections, as piety to parents, and love to children, as such, are to be crased from the breast. Gratitude for kindness, and tears for the unfortunate, are but weakness : there is nothing foothing in compassion, and friendship has no consolation. It would seem, that

a well of water, an apple tree, or any thing productive, is mpore va

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