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lower grounds were equally pleasing, though not so grand as from the higher. Indeed no part of this magnificent scenery would be a disgrace to the wildest and most picturesque country.

• The fall of the river, which brought us hither, and which is the least considerable part of the scenery (for we had heard no. thing of these noble views), is a mere garden-fcepe. The steep woody hill, whose shaggy lides we had defcended, forms at the bottom, in one of its envelopes, a sort of little woody theatre; rather indeed too lofty when compared with its breadth, if nature had been as exact as art would have been, in obferving proportion. Down the central part of it, which is lined with smooth rock, the river falls. This rocky cheek is narrow at the top, but it widens as it descends, taking probably the form of the ttream, when it is full. At the time we saw it, it was rather a spout than a cascade; for though it flides down a Irundred and eighty feet, it does not meet one obstruction in its whole course, except a little check in the middle. When the springs are low, and the water has not quantity enough to push itself forward in one current, I have beeir told, it sometimes falls in various little streams against the irregularities of the rock, and is dathed into a kind of vapoury rain, which has a good effect.

• This cascade, it feems, is not formed by the waters of the Lid, as we had fuppofed from its name; but by a little stream, which runs into that river, rising in the higher grounds, at the distance of about two miles from the cascade. P. 181.

Though much is said of Plymouth and the dock-yards, the accounts are not always precise or strictly applicable. The operation of careening leads to a disquisition on the grand piduresque effects of fame in a conflagration ; and we rise, in the climax, till we arrive at Gibraltar, and become, as it were, spectators of the tremendous event of burning the battering-ships of Spain. Captain Drinkwater and fir William Hamilton are great auxiliaries on this occasion, and bring a contribution of several pages. Mr. Smeaton's work, on the construction of light-houses, has been still more unreasonably taxed.

The following remarks, on the scenery of the Tamer, are just; and we shall add our author's glance at the Miflıflippi.

• The scenery itfelf, on-the banks of the Tamer, is certainly good ; but had it even been better, the form of the river could not have thewn it to much picturesque advantage. The reaches are commonly too long, and admit little winding. We rarely trace the course of the river by the perspective of one skreen behind another; which in river views is often a beautiful circumItance; and yet, if one of the banks be lofty, broken into large parts, and falling away in good perspective, the length of the reach.

may postbly be an advantage. In some parts of the Tamer we had this grand lengthened view; but in other parts we wished to have had its continued reaches more contracted.

« These remarks, however, it must be observed, affect a river only in navigating it. When we are thus on a level with its surface, we have rarely more than a fore-ground; at most we have only a first distance. But when we take a higher stand, and view a remote river, lofty banks become then an incumbrance; and inftead of discovering, they hide its winding course. When the distance becomes still more remote, the valley through which the river winds should be open, and the country fat, to produce the most pleasing effect.

• In the immense rivers that traverse continents, these ideas are all loit. As you fail up such a vast surface of water, as the Miftiflippi, for instance, the first striking observation is, that perspective views are entirely out of the question. If you wish to examine either of its Mores, you must desert the main channel ; and, knowing that you are in a river, make to one side or the other.

• As you approach within half a league of one of the sides, you will perhaps see stretches of faud-banks, or islands covered with wood, extending along the thore, beyond the reach of the eye, which have been formed by depredations made on the coast by the river; for when the winds rage, this vast surface of water is agitated like a fea; and has the sanie power over its shores. As the trees of these regions are in as, grand a style as the rivers themselves, you sometimes see vast excavations, where the water has undermined the banks, in which immense roots are laid bare, and, being washed clean from the soil, appear twisted into various forms, like the gates of a cathedral,

• Though the banks of the Mississippi, we are told, are generally flat, you frequently fee beautiful scenery upon them. Among the vast woods which adorn them, are many groves of cypresses; to which a creeping plant, called the liane, is often attached. What kind of flower it bears, I have not heard ; but if it be not too profuse, it must be very ornamental: hanging from tree to {ree, and connecting a whole cypress-grove together with rich feftoons. • These woods are interspersed also with lawns, where you

fee the wild deer of the country feeding in herds. As they espy the vessel gliding past, they all raise their heads at once, and standing a moment, with pricked ears, in amazement, they turn suddenly round, and darting across the plain, hide themselves in the woods.

• From scenes of this kind, as you coast the river, you come perhaps to low marshy grounds; where swamps, overgrown with reeds and rushes, but of enormous growth, extend through endlefs tracts, which a day's failing cannot leave behind. In these marshes

the alligator is often seen balking near the edge of the river, intą which he instantly plunges on the least alarm; or perhaps you defery his hideous form creeping along the fedges, sometimes hid, and sometimes discovered, as he moves through a closer, or more open path.' P, 237:

Little of importance occurs in the description of Cornwall, or in the account of the route pursued by our author in his return through Exeter and Honiton, and of that which he says he ought to have taken --- viz. by the sea-coast, which he describes on the authority of another person. The observations on theep, as picturesque objects, and on the downs of Dorsetshire, though pleasing, are not new or curidus ; and the description of the country between Dorchester and Lymington displays no marks of refined taste.

The Isle of Wight is examined on the large scale from the commanding heights; but Mr. Gilpin funds little in it to cominend. The husbandman has furrowed the fields in straight lines, and divided them by inclosures. The rocky scenes near the sea are grand from their altitude, feldom picguresque: their extent renders them magnificent, but their form and their colour prevent thein from being beautiful. This remark is too fastidious. It is not the character of sucks to be picturesque. The outlines are either maffy, when uninjured, or are too much broken into cavities by waves. If they ever assume a beautiful form, they lose their character as rocks, and fall into the scale of undulating hills. The hue is unpleasing ; for, except in Alum-bay, they are uniformly white.

The plates are of the kind first introduced to the public in Mr. Gilpin's works, conveying the effect of the scene in inodest, and sometimes appropriate, colouring. Those, however, which decorate the prefent volume, are very unequal to fome others, and, in those places which we well know, give a very imperfect, and sometimes fallacious, idea of the profpect: A bold headland, a calm fea, massy hills, and ruins, are almost the only objects which they seem capable of representing

On the whole, we have been little entertained or interested by this work.' The descriptions are cold, concise, and often inappropriate. Recollection indeed fades at a diftant period; and ideas, losing that pointed discrimination which a recent exain nation gives, becoine general and indiftinct.' It was after a long interval, that Mr. Gilpin, ás appears froin incidental circunstances, engaged in his present talk. This affords rather an excuse for the defects, than a satisfactory apology For the attempt.

Confiderations on the DoEtrines of a Future State, and the Re

surrection, as revealed, or supposed to be fo, in the Scriptures :: on the Inspiration and Authority of Scripture itself : on fome Peculiarities in St. Paul's Epifiles : on the Prophecies of Daniel and St. John, &c. to which are added, some Stric-? tures on the Prophecies of Isaiah. By Richard Amner. 8vo. 55. Boards. Johnson. 1797.

SOME of the most difficult and interesting parts of scripture are here discussed in a manner which does equal credit to the writer's candour and judgment. His views are directed solely by the love of truth; and, if we cane not at all times receive his interpretations, we find many useful hints tending to illustrate the subject of confideration. With regard to the resurrection, after an examination of the chief points which have usually been supposed to prove the familiarity of the ancients with this topic, he takes the negative, and supports his opinion with strong arguments and just scriptural comparisons. On the inspiration of scripture, he takes what fome will call very low ground. In many cafes, he does not attribute inspiration either to the matter or the manner of the apostolical writers; but, after several free remarks, he concludes,

" that the books now making up the volume, or canon, as it is. sometimes called, of the Old and New Testament, and which is con-. fessedly the best and most curious single book in the world, are not however all of them, nor any one of them perhaps, in all its parts, of the same equal and unvaried excellence, and of the same uniform and high authority, however this notion of them may in general have prevailed; but may be reasonably read with something more of discrimination and taste, than the teachers and pastors of most churches have in general allowed; and would perhaps be more. profitably read, and with greater cordiality and acceptance, if read under the influence of a less fuperftitious spirit, and with more ate tęption paid to what we feel them to be in the reading, than to any such external characters and denominations of them, as may indeed filence, but do not always satisfy the reader,

"And to this notion I acknowledge myself to be the more inclined, by the conlideration of the manner in which the holy book, usually called the Canon, is supposed by divines to have been firit put or brought together. . Which was not, it seems, all at once, nor under the fanction or feal of any perfon or persons profefling to have authority from above for this purpose; but only gradually, as it should seem, and occasionally, and by the force very much of each part; (through intrinsic worth and excellence of character, in, connection with some other and more adventitious circumstances ;) making its way; - until at length the whole, as we now have it,

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was in general received, though not in every place at the same time, nor with the same high deference paid to every part equally: which is such an account of the matter, conformable, I think, to the representations more usually made upon the subject, as seems to me to be very favourable to such a discursive, free, and unsuperstitious use of it, as is above pleaded for, and yet," I trust, not impious : leaving abundant room to the Christian preacher and philosopher to make the utmost possible use of what he sees and feels to be excellent, with liberty of less attending to what he cannot see and feet to be so; and suppoäng both of the Jewish and Christian revelam tions something to have been true and fupernatural in the first instance, however something more infirm, and merely human, may have fince intermingled.' - P. 166.

The Calvinistical interpreters of St. Paul's epistles will do well to consider with attention the few observations on the manner and doctrine of this apostle. The author's opinion of justification is summed up in the following words.

" That in the ideas of St. Paul, faith, meaning faith in Chrift, or in God, who raised him from the dead, which is here supposed to be the same thing, as it also is in divers other places, is supposed to be under the gospel the only justifying righteousness:

« That it is therefore, secondly, spoken of as an imputed righ, teousness, or a righteousness so taken, or set down to our account, and reckoned to us in the room and stead of a literal and striet righteousnefs, with the utmost propriety ; in order to denote this constructive nature of it, and to distinguifh it from that which is so literally, and in the primary sense.

• From whence it seems to follow, thirdly, that they do greatly err upon this subject, and from the precision and exactness of St. Paul's ideas respecting it, who speak of the imputed righteousness of Christ, and who allert, that it is his righteousness that is imputed to us for justification; whereas, according to St. Paul, it is not that, but our faith in him, which is fo reckoned or imputed. Neither again does it seem very proper to say, that in this matter of justifi. cation the finner's faith has the righteousness of Christ for its more immediate object; some of the passages quoted above, though not, excluding this, as Rom. ill. 25. yet speaking with full as much emphasis and propriety of some other objects of it, as Rom. X. 9. 1. Pet. i. 21, &c.

! From these same premises it may be clearly seen, fourthly, why this impụted or constructive righteousness only, is so often called by St. Paul, as it is in chap. X. 3. and in chap. iii. 21, &c. God's righteousness, and the righteousness of God; viz. because of his merciful providing and gracions acceptance of it in this view ; this very faith itself, as well as the falvation promised to it, being po provifion or di&tate of mere nature, or of law, but a divine


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