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riod the reflection was double; and the same appearance of land was seen over the first object, with seeming water between the two images.
IX. • An Account of the Sugar Maple-Tree of the United States, and of the Methods of obtaining Sugar from it, together with Observations upon the Advantages both public and private of this Sugar. In a Letter to Thomas Jefferson, Esq. Secretary of State to the United States, and one of the Vice Presidents of the American Philosophical Society ; by Benjumin Ruth, M.D. Profeffor of the Institutes and of Clinical Medicine in the University of Pennsylvania.'
X. Memoir of Jonathan Williams, on the Use of the Thermometer in discovering Banks, Soundings, &c.'
These articles have before occurred.
XI. · An Account of the most effectual Means of preventing the deleterious Consequences of the Bite of the Crotalus Horridus, or Rattle Snake. By Benjamin Sinith Barton, M.D.'
This effay is too prolix, and adds little to what was formerly known. The poison of the rattle-snake seems to be foon exhausted by repeated bites, and not quickly replenished from fecretiou. When the wound is made in the larger blood-vessels, so that the poison mixes with the blood, it is very foon fatal. When it is made in the cellular substance only, its deleterious effects are prevented by a tight ligature above the part, by cauterising the wound, and applying some acrid vegetable which will produce a ferous discharge from it: an internal warm sudorific is afterwards given. All the boaftar ed Indian remedies for the bite seem to meet in these points.
XII. · Magnetic Observations, made at the University of Cambridge (Maffachusetts), in the year 1785. By Dr. S. Williams.'
XIII. • Accurate Determination of the right Ascension and Declination of ß. Bootes, and the Pole Star: in a Letter from Mr. Andrew Ellicott to Mr. R. Patterson.'
These articles cannot conveniently be abridged,
XIV. ' Account of several Houses in Philadelphia, struck with Lightning, on June 9th, 1789. By Mr. David Rittenhouse, and Dr. John Jones.'
XV. An Account of the Effects of a Stroke of Lightning on a House furnished with two Conductors, - in a Letter from Messrs. David Rittenhouse, and Françis Hopkinson, ta Mr. R. Patterson.'
In the first instance, the lightning struck only those chimneys which had fire in them, attracted probably by the contrary electricity of the smoke; in the second, the conductors, perhaps, were not deep enough.
XVI. • Experiments and Observations on Evaporation in cold Air, by C. Wistar, M. D.'.
We can perceive nothing in this diffufe inquiry but varied forms of the well-known fact, that the vapour of any fluid, rising in a colder medium, bécomes visible imoke.
XVII. New Notation of Music, in a Letter to Francis Hopkinson, Esq. by M. R. Patterfon.'
As the fusible meral types, for printing music, are not com. 'mon in the United States, and engraving is dear, Mr. Patterson proposes a new notation of music by letters and arbitrary. marks. A specimen is added, but it seems inapplicable to the more complex systems of the German or Italian music.
XVIII. Observations on the Theory of Water-Mills, &c. by W. Waring.'
Theory and practice have been greatly at variance in wheel-work. In Mr. Waring's opinion the error seems to have lain in supposing the momentum of the water in the du. plicate ratio of its relative velocity, while he endeavours to, show, that it is in the simple direct proportion of the relative velocity : the latter is the difference of the absolute velocities of the water and wheel, or that with which the former overtakes the latter. This correction, he thinks, will bring the theory and the experiments to coincide. A continuation of this efTay occurs in the XXXIV th article.
XIX. Astronomical Observations. Communicated by David Rittenhouse.' · XX. - A Letter from Dr. Rittenhouse to Mr. Patterson, relative to a Method of finding the Sum of the several Powers of the Sines, &c.'
XXI.- Index Floræ Lancastriensis, Auctore Henrico Muhlenberg, D. D.'
XXII. •Investigation of the Power of Dr. Barker's Mill, as improved by James Rumsey, with a Description of the Mill, by W. Waring.'
For these articles we refer our readers to the work, as they are incapable of abridgment.
XXIII. A Thermometrical Journal of the Temperature of the Atmosphere and Seä, on a Voyage to and from Oporto, with explanatory Observations thereon.'
It seems, from this journal, to be clearly shown, that the temperature decreases quickly and sensibly on approaching ļand; fo that the thermoineter must become an useful infirument at sea, preparatory to the use of the lead. In approachung small islands, the change of temperature is more inconfiderable, but suficiently fenfible.
XXIV. First Meinoir of Obfervations on the Plants deno. minated Cryptogamick. By M. de Beauvois.'
This is the firit of a series of interesting essays, by M. de Beauvois. He endeavours to establish the position of Harvey.
omne ex ovo, which every day's experience contributes to confirm; and he finds reason to distruft, on the subject of mosses, the observations of all his predecessors, particularly Hedwig.
XXV. · A Letter from Major Jonathan Heart, to Benjamin Smith Barton, M. D. Containing Observations on the ancient Works of Art, the Native Inhabitants, &c. of the Western Country.'
The works, in the western part of America, supposed to be the remains of fortifications, have engaged much of the attention of philosophers. That they are fortifications, must be considered as gratis di&tum : few have seen them; and these may
have written not what observation, but what fancy, dictated. That they are the defenfive works of a civilised race, is very doubtful. A fanciful author has caught the hint, and adduced it to favour his fyftem of the Welsh Indians, the descendants of the followers of prince Madoc. But we inay obferve, that, if the Welsh Indians multiplied fo far, with so many of the resources of civilised life, as to have erected the fortreffes of which these are the remains, no Indian nation could have conquered them; and they would by this time have overspread the western part of the continent. We cannot therefore avoid the fufpicion already hinted, that fancy has milled the oblervers, and given them a delusive view of regular fortresses in the irregular linking and retraction of soft earth.
XXVI. - An Account of some of the principal Dies employed by the North American Indians. *Extracted from a Paper, communicated by the late Mr. Hugh Martin.'
This is an important paper.
XXVII. - An Account of the beneficial Effects of the Caffia Chamæcrifta in recruiting worn-out Lands, and in enriching such as are naturally poor : together with a botanical Description of the Plant. By Dr. James Greenway, of Dinwiddie-County, in Virginia.'
The caftia chamæcrista is a bean, whose numerous feeds and luxuriant herbage meliorate the ground. If corn and oats are alternately Town in the fame ground, its period of growth prevents it from fuffering by the tickle or scythe. It propagates spontaneously, and more than compensates the exhausting power of the crops.
XXVIII. · An Account of a Hill, on the Borders of N. Carolina, supposed to have been a Volcano. In a Letter from a Continental Officer, residing in that Neighbourhood, to Dr. J. Greenway, near Petersburg, in Virginia.'
This is certainly a remain of one of the few volcanos found within the territories of the United States.
XXIX. - An Account of a poisonous Plant, growing fpontaneously in the southern Part of Virginia. Extracted from a Paper, communicated by Dr. James Greenway, of Dinwiddie-County, in Virginia.'
The plant is the cicuta venenofa, apparently a violent narcotic, and alone capable of what the antients endeavoured to effect by a compound; for the heinlock which they used was supposed to be the cicuta, united with anodynes ; a composition which would destroy a person without exciting inHammation or convulsions.
XXX. - Description of a Machine for measuring a Ship's Way: in a Letter from Francis Hopkinson, Esq. to Mr. John Vaughan.
This is a more simple mean of obtaining the same information that may be derived from the more complex method, recommended in the second volume of this work.
XXXI. • An Inquiry into the Question, whether the Apis Mellifica, or true Honey-Bee, is a Native of America. By Benjamin Smith Barton, M. D.'
The arguments in this essay, to prove that the honey-hee is not a native of America, are strong and cogent. The Indian naine, viz. the white man's fly, is a striking argument.
XXXII. ' An Account of a Comet, in a Letter to Mr. R. Patterson, by David Rittenhouse, Esq.'
This is a cornet of little importance.
XXXIII. - Cadmus, or a Treatise on the Elements of written Language, illustrating, by a Philosophical Division of Speech, the Power of each Character, thereby mutually fixing the Orthography and Orthoepy. With an Essay on the modè of teaching the Surd, or Deaf, and consequently, Dumb, to speak. By Wm. Thornton, M. D. Honored with the Magellanic Gold Medal, by the Philosophical Society, in December, 1792.'
We cannot speak very favourably of the propofal contained in the present effay, or concur with the author in thinking it expedient. The sounds of our letters are undoubtedly too numerous and irregular; but the rashness of innovation, which would, to remedy the inconvenience that few feel, overturn the whole system of orthography, we cannot approve. The supposed advantages of the plan, however, we will communicate to our readers, that they may judge of its importance.
. 6 ift. Travellers and voyagers would be enabled to give such perfect vocabularies of the languages' they hear, that they would greatly facilitate all future intercourse. 2dly. Foreigners would, with the albistance of books alone, be able to learn the language in their closets, when they could not have the benefit of mafters; and would be able to converse through the medium of books, which at present are of no service whatever, in learning to speak a language: and if this were to be adopted by the Americans, and not by the Englisli, the best English authors would be reprinted in
America, and every stranger to the language even in Europe, who thinks it of more consequence to speak the English correctly, than to write it with the present errors, would purchase American edi-> tions, and would be afhamed to spell incorrectly, when he could acquire the mode of spelling well; for he would not be partial to difficulty, and would examine the old and new modes with more philosophy, than our blind prejudice will allow us to make the test of reason.
• 3d. Dialects would be utterly destroyed, both among foreigners and peasants.
• 4th. Every one would write with a perfe&tly correct orthor graphy.
• sth. Children, as well as all the poorer classes of people, would learn to read in so short a tiine, and with so little trouble, having only to acquire the thirty letters, that this alone ought to filence, all the objections that can be brought, and, particularly with the foregoing reasons, must be deemed more than “ equivalent to the confufion and perplexity of such an alteration." But, indepen dent of what is said above, I admit neither confufion nor perplexity to be the consequences of such a change ; those who were never before taught to read, could have no idea of any other method, and those who now read would find no more difficulty in the two modes,' than is found in reading by any secret character. Even short-hand writers, if in practice, find no difficulty in reading words which do not contain a single common vowel: omple marks are used, and they attend not to the present absurd orthography of any word: how much more easy then to read words which contain the symbols of every found, and especially when most of the common characters are used ! besides, those whose thirst after knowledge is quenched, may hereafter amuse themselves with the books now published.' P. 272,
Sone judicious observations, on the means of teaching the deaf and the dumb to speak, follow.
XXXIV. Observations on the Theory of Water-Mills, by W. Waring.'
This article has been already noticed. XXXV.“ An Improvement on Metallic Conductors or Lightning-rods ; in a Letter to Dr. David Rittenhouse, Prefident of the Society, from Robert Patterson of Philadelphia. Honored with the Magellanic Premium, by an Award of the Society in December 1792.'
The proposal is to make the point of the conductor of black lead to prevent its rusting or fusing), and its extremni. ty of tin or copper. At least, if the usual inetal is continued, the part buried in the earth should be covered with a paste of powdered - black lead, and be imbedded in a mass of charcoal.