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mists likewise take notice, on the dissection of fresh negroe-carca-, ses, of a peculiar ill-favour, which seems to partake of the canine smell. The shoulders, and especially the hips, and their diameter, are smaller, and the hands and feet flatter than in Europeans. Indeed among the negroes are particularly large, almost gigantic perfons; but upon the whole they are smaller and more compressed of ftature than the Europeans. Even the antients observed in the negroes the out-bent knee, and the protuberant shin-bone as peculiar to them. The calves of the legs are much smaller and higher, than in well-fet Europeans; but in general the negroes are rounder, plamper, and more spungy than the Europeans : by which plump and spungy body they are easily distinguifliable from the neighbouring Moors. To pass over the other characteristics remarked by M. Sommering of the negro-form, there is however one that ought not to be omitted, that the skull of the negro is much thicker or stronger, and the nerves departing the brain much coarser, than in Europeans.' Vol. i. P. 280.

We observe that M. Meiner has not noticed the opinion of Volncy, that the first learned nation was a community of blacks.

There is an interesting paper upon the Esthonians in the first volume: but, in this, we were surprised to find the melody of English poetry estimated by the little airs in the Lady's Magazine, which treat mostly of love and the pastoral life, and therefore are of the tender species.'

The account of the earthquake in Calabria, in 1783, contains curious particulars of that calamitous event. tract from it the passage respecting the fore-knowledge of impending danger among animals.

• Much more remarkable undoubtedly were the presentiments which were seen in living creatures. Man alone remained free from these forefeelings ; neither on his body nor on the chearfulness of his inind had it the smallest influence; his nervous system was not agitated by what excited the most tormenting disquietude in the other animals ;-a proof how much more acute the perceptive faculty through the outward senses is in the brutes thah in mankind. But even among the brutes a vast difference was here perceived. With some it displayed itself sooner, quicker and with greater vehemence; with others, later, more slowly and in a gentler degree. Thefe occurrences are too extraordinary to admit of neglecting to communicate to you what I know for certain of them. The fish in the sea appeared thortly before, as well as during the whole of this calamitous period, to be in one continued panic; they darted about in the water, and rushed in greater quantities than at other times into the nets of the fishermen, and paid for their foreboding by a speedier death. The birds flew backwards

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and forwards, screaming, in the air, as if purfued by fome enemy and even seemed less subtle in avoiding the snares of mankind : the same perturbation was also observed in geese, pigeons, and the other domestic fowls. Among the quadrupeds, the dog and the afs appeared to be the most and the earliest affected by this presentiment: they ran about affrighted, with wildly staring eyes, and filled the air with dreadful cries and yells. Horses, oxen, mules, and other animals of the larger kinds, were seized with a universal tremor, spurned the earth, neighing and bellowing, erected their ears, and rolled around their staring and suspicious eyes. When the dreadful moment actually came on, they placed their legs wide asunder on the ground, to secure themselves from falling; and yet were generally thrown down. Some strove shortly before to escape by flight, but were overtaken by the toffings of the earth, and stopt Thort confounded and immovable. The swine seemed to exhibit the least of this forefeelingi but the cats, though later than the asses and dogs, yet very forcibly; they set up their backs and made a doleful cry; their hair bristled up, and their eyes were red and watry.'* Vol. i. P. 116.

In the removal of the ruins after this earthquake, the dead men were found in the attitude of resistance, the women in that of despair, except those who were with their children at the moment of the shock; and in them the feelings of maternal love were stronger than terror. In fimilar calamities this has usually been remarked. The narrative sometimes exceeds probability. The earth is said to have opened and caught one man by the foot, and presently a second opening released him ; another is thrown into a chası by one shock, and cast up again by a second. These appear to be the idle tales of the populace.

One of the most remarkable articles in the selection is the doctrine of John Peter Craft- That a man can do whatever he will, is something inore than a mere matter of fpeculation.' This is inserted on account of its similarity to some curious positions of one of our modern philosophers. The editor ihould have given us the date of this piece, and informed us whether it was written to burlesque those positions. From the subsequent passage our readers will probably iinagine this to be the case.

• Even death must recoil, if thou wilt. Yea though he sat upon thy lips, and thou fayst that he shall and must yield; then he must let thee alone, till thou hast given ear to rational arguments, and accoinmodated thyself to the order of nature by making room for thy successors. For nature is not a mother that kills her child, To use a linilitude : life is like a table at which mankind are entertained by nature. When thou hast enjoyed thy Niare, and

other guests come with empty stomachs; it is but reasonable thou thouldst give place; and yet it would be very indecent to New thee the door. But, when, in all due thankfulness, thou haft drank up the last drop, wipest thy mouth, and sayest, I have enough; then death, who stands behind thee, draw's the chair away.

But, should there be a felfini churl, who would not die at all, there is nothing to be done with such an one ; but he must be let aione, till he shall feel at lait, that, after long running about, fleep does him good; and lie thall fall asleep of himself.” Vol i.

P. 206.

The four differtations on the Russian annals, by Schlötzer, are not upon a subject fufficiently interesting to the English reader, to deserve fo large a portion of one of these voluines ; and the Essay on Superitition, with iis reasoning upon fouls, can only, we think, have been translated for its abfurdity.

One of the most curious papers is an account of the Deists in Bohemia. Two and fitty families, upon the publication of letters-patent by the emperor Jofeph for a general toleration, presented themselves before the chief magistrate of their diItrict, and delivered to him their confeffion of faith, expreflive of their belief in a God, and in a future state, in which tlie good will be rewarded, and the finner, according to the degree of his fins, cither chaftened or destroyed. They rejected. Christianity, but believed that God wrote the ten commandments with his finger on the tables of stone, and at the same time on the hearts of all mankind. They were in general remarkable for their quiet behaviour and good morals; but some of their opinions respecting property and government accorded as little as their religion with the establithed sentiments. Bishop Hay, of Konigsgrätz, examined them ; and his report concerning them thows him to have poffeffed that charity which Christianity commands-fo frequently in vain. They were banished into Transylvania, because their principles were thought dangerous ; and nothing more has been heard of them.

Some of the pieces contained in these volumes might have been omitted as trifling; but the work, upon the whole, is calculated for entertaininent; and it is not destitute of hints which may instruct.

Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, held at

Philadelphia, for promoting useful Knowledge. Vol. III. 40. Dilly,

THESE volumes improve in their progress; and, if pa#jotic zeal, eager friendship, or a venial enthuliasm, have in,

duced some authors to gratify the curiosity of the public by an earlier publication of a few of the papers, we can readily forgive the anticipation, in consideration of the motive, and allow that the generality of these articles, though before published, ought to be collected in an established national production.

The introduction consists of an Essay on those Inquiries in Natural Philosophy, which at present are most beneficial to the United States of North-America, By Dr. Nicholas Collin, Rector of the Swedish Churches in Pennfylvania.

In this essay, we find many observations and facts which are of importance, and with which, in Europe, we are little acquainted. Various remarks in natural history and medicine are of this kind.

Art. I. : Conjectures concerning the Formation of the Earth, &c. in a Letter from Dr. B. Franklin to the Abbé Soulavic.”

II. · A new and curious Theory of Light and Heat; in a Letter from Dr. B. Franklin to David Rittenhouse, Esq.'

III. - Defcription of the Process to be observed in making large Sheets of Paper in the Chinese Manner, with one {mooth Surface.'

IV.. Queries and Conjectures relative to Magnetism, and the Theory of the Earth, in a Letter from Dr. B. Franklin to Mr. Bodoin,'

V. · Explanation of a singular Phenomenon, first observed by Dr. Franklin, and not hitherto fatisfactorily accounted for. In a Letter from Mr. R. Patterson to Dr. B. Ruth.'

VI. • An Account of an Earthy Substance found near the Falls of Niagara, and vulgarly caried the Spray of the Falls : together with fome Remarks on the Falls. By Robert M.Cauflin, M. D.

These articles have appeared in former publications.

VII. - Observations on the Probabilities of the Duration of Human Life, and the Progress of Population, in the United States of "Ainerica ; in a Letter from William Barton, Esq. to David Rittenhouse, LL.D. President A.P.S.'

This article contains various facts, collected from the best authors, respecting the probabilities of life in different countries. It is, on the whole, highly interesting, though the obfervations must be admitted with fome reserve, as their evident tendency is to exalt the falubrity of the American climate, After this precaution, we thall select the most striking facts.

The births (estimated from the christenings) in Philadelphia, in the year 1788, were 1583;, and the buri exclusive of negroes, amounted to 872. The number of negro births for this citya

as appears by the bills for the years 1789 and 1790, average 144 per annum. Supposing one-third of this number to be included in the christenings, forty-eight must be deducted from the list of births. This will give 1536 births, to 872 deaths, for the year 1788:--and, taking the average proportion of births to deaths, for four years, it gives to 100 births, 56{ deaths. The average number of deaths, among all the white inhabitants of this city, for the three last years, is 924 per annum. The proportion of birthy to deaths, in the German Lutheran congregation of this city, which comprehends about one-fifth of all the white inhabitants, is, on ản average of fixteen years, as one hundred births to forty-five deaths: and therefore, taking the medium of this proportion and that above stated, it gives to 100 births, 50 deaths. The bills, for the white inhabitants in this city, for 1789 and 1790, give the proportion as only 100 births to 49147 deaths; and, as these hills are the most full and satisfactory of any I have yet feen, for Philadelphia, I think the births may be fairly stated as being double to the number of deaths. ---At Salem in Massachusetts, on a medium of the years 1782 and 1783, the births were to the deaths, as 100 births to 49 deaths, including the still-born in the number of deaths.-Dr. Holyoke says (in the memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston), that both 1782 and 1783 were fickly at Salem ; - particularly the latter year, in which, during the months of May and June, the measles were epidemic. The births and deaths at Hingham, in the same state, during 54 years, gives to 100 births 491' deaths. Hence it may be inferred, that, so far as deductions from these documents may be relied on, there are two births to one death, in this country.”

P. 37 The deaths, at Philadelphia, are about one in forty-five; and, in Salem, one in forty-seven. The proportion, we think, is more in favour of human life, in many towns and villages of England. The population of America has been doubled in about twenty years. Numerous instances of lon , gevity are noticed; and various meteorological observations of. the heats and colds of that continent, as well as the rapid al-ternations from hot to cold weather, are given from the best, authority.

VIII.' Extract of a Letter from Andrew Ellicot, to David Rittenhouse, Esq. dated at Pittsburg, November 5th, 1787, containing Observations inade at Lake-Erie.'

This phænomenon is, by the seamen, called looming ; that is, a delusive appearance of land, when persons are really at a distance from it. It is not, perhaps, with strict accuracy so called; for it was only an enlargeinent, and consequently an apparent approximation, of real land, by being seen through a mift, or an atmosphere peculiarly circumstanced. It was preceded, in the evening, by a fine aurora borealis. At one peu



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