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This is a fingular case: the pins were forced into the breast, in a fit of mental derangement, and were only found inconvenient, when a blow had added to their irritation. IX.

Description of a new Key Instrument for the Exo traction of Teeth. By Mr. J. Savigny, Surgical-Instrument Maker in London.'

The improvement described in the present article seems to be a valuable one. • X. • Some Account of the Effects of the Vapour of Vitriolic Æther in Cases of Phthisis Pulmonalis. By Richard Pearson, M. D. Member of the Royal College of Physicians, London, and Physician to the general Hospital near Birmingham.'

This practitioner has found the vapour of æther, breathed through a common funnel, very useful in hectic cases. Half a drachm of the dried or powdered leaves of cicuta, macerated in about an ounce of the æther, for a few days preceding its use, will render its vapour more effectual.

XI. XVIII. Extracts from the Philosophical Transactions, the Edinburgh Tranfactions, and the Memoirs of the Irish Academy,

XIX. - An Estimate of the Excess of the Heat and Cold of the American Atmosphere beyond the European, in the same Parallel of Latitude: to which are added, fome Thoughts on the Causes of this Excess. By Edward Augustus Holyoke, M. D. F. A. A. From the Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.'

This article is valuable as a collection of meteorological facts, though deficient in reafoning. The writer says,

· I have from this collection (Ephemerides Meteorologica Pas latine), formed a table of the greatest heat and greatest cold, and of the mean of the greatest heat and cold, for a course of years, of twenty different cities in Europe ; the southernmost of which is Rome, in lat. 41° 53', a few minutes southward of Boston; and the northernmost, Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, in lat. 59° 20', comprehending an extent of upwards of 179 of latitude; and from Rochelle, on the western coast of France, to Buda, the capital of Hungary, comprehending 20° of longitude ; which takes in all the middle region of Europe. "To which are added, my own observations of the greatest heat and cold, &c. inade at Salem, in Massachusetts.

. By this table, it appears, that of the twenty European cities mentioned in it, the thermometer was highest at Wartzburgh, in the circle of Franconia, viz. 102° 4', which falls short of our greatest heat above 3 degrees. The greatest degree of cold happened at Sagan, à city in the western borders of Silefia. There

not upon

the mercury in the thermometer funk, to—21° 32', which ex, ceeds our greatest cold at Salem by 10° 3'; but is just as low, as we were informed by the public prints at the time, though I know

what authority, that the thermometer fell at Hartford, in Connecticut, and at New York, in the month of January, 1786. But what is most to our purpose, tle mean of the greatest heat in all those places, taken collectively, for the period noted in the third column of the table, amounted to no more than + 860 41, which is more than 10° short of our greatest heat at Salem; and the mean of the greatest cold in these twenty cities, amounted to 30 31', which is fhort of the mean of our greatest cold upwards of 5 dea grees.

< But in order to determine the difference between our heat and cold, and the European, in the same latitude, we must compare with those cities, which are situated in latitudes nearest our own, viz. Padua, Marseilles, and Rome. We find by the table, that the mean of their greatest heat falls short of ours 5° 62', 70-42", and 11° 59', respectively. We also find the mean of the greatest cold of these three cities is less than ours by 19° 417; 29° 92', and 350 88', respectively. Further, the mean of the greatest heat of these three cities, taken collectively, which is 880 i', deducted from the mean of our greatest heat, which is 97° 02', leaves a difa ference of 89 92' hoiter. And the mean of the greatest cold of these cities, being 25° 96', taken from the mean of our greatest cold, -2° 42', gives a difference of 28° 38' colder.

· The air of America then, in our latitude, is hotter in summer (when hottest) by 10 degrees of Fahrenheit's therinometer, and colder in winter (when coldest) by 5 degrees, than the whole middle region of Europe taken collectively, whose mean. latitude is about 49° or 50°, that is, about 7 or 8 degrees more northerly than Boston.

Again, the air in America is hotter in summer, by upwards of 8 degrees, and colder in winter, by 28 degrees, than those parts of Europe, which lie nearly in the same latitude.? Vol. vii. P. 226.

The explanation is in some measure difficult. The usual reason drawn from the numerous lakes, is shown not to be welk founded; and Dr. Holyoke thinks that the excess of heat and cold

may arise from the greater dryness of the air. The air of America is certainly more dry than that of Europe; but that it is more dephlogisticated, as our author endeavours to prove, is very doubtful; and even if this point were admitted, it would add little to his

argument. His reasoning on the subject is very delusive. The evaporation is certainly greater than in Europe; the quantity of rain greater. In America, there are more clear fair days; fewer cloudy, foggy, and rainy ones. Thele facis, however, add as little to

Crit. Rev. VOL. XXIV. Dec. 1798. E e

the explanation. The reason seems to be, that, while in America, as well as in Europe,' westerly winds chiefly prevail, in the latter these blow over a vast ocean, and; in the for-mer, over an extensive continent. The western coast of America, on this account, is warmer than the eastern coast of Afia, in nearly the same latitudes; and Stockholm than To. bolski, which differs little in latitude from it. A remarkable affertion, which, if well-founded, might lead to fome curious speculations, is that, in the neighbourhood of woods of pine and other evergreens, frots appear earlier, and continue longer, than in the neighbourhood of trees whose leaves are deciduous.

XX. • An Account of an uncommon Case of Emphyfema; and of an external Abscess, the Contents of which were discharged by coughing.'

In this case, one of the vesicles in the lungs seemingly burst in coughing:

XXI. - Account of a Locked Jaw. By Aaron Dexter, M. D. F. A. A.'

This case ended fatally, after the trial of almost every remedy usually recommended in similar complaints.

XXII. • An Account of the Effects of Negative Electricity, in Cases of Burns. By Mr. John Vinall.'

Here, perhaps, the fancy predominated in exaggerating the violence of the burns, and representing the relief as more sudden and complete than it really was.

XXIII. - Description of a Case of Hydrocephalus. By M. Tenghil, Professor of Surgery at Quiers.'

This case is very uncommon. A tumour depended from behind the occiput, where an opening of the bone and a fungous

excrescence were observed. Its nature, therefore, was the same with that of the spina bifida ; its situation different. We do not recollect to liave' ever met with the like instance, though we have seen one where we suspect a similar morbid change had taken place at the bottom of the facrum.

XXIV. - Account of a Cafe in which a Stene, formed in one of the Kidneys, was extracted through an Abscess in the Back. - By Herman Schützercrants, M. D.

This is not a fingular cafe.

XXV. An Account of the poisonous Quality of the Juice of the Root of Jatropha Manihot, or bitter Caffada ; and of the Use of Cayenne Pepper in counteracting the Effects of this and some other poisonous Substances ; with Remarks on the Efficacy of the Spigelia Anthelmia in Worin Cafes. By James Clark, M. D. Physician in Dominica.'

Boiling the cafiada diminished its deleterious effe&s, with

out destroying them. Cayenne pepper is a very powerful antidote to all narcotic poisons.

XXVI. • An Account of some Experiments made with a View to ascertain the comparative Quantities of amylaceous Matter, yielded by the different Vegetables most commonly in Use in the West India Islands. By the same.

Though there are many nutritious vegetables in the WestIndian islands, they do not all produce starch. Those which our author tried, we shall mention in the order in which they were found most productive of this fæcula ; 1. Jatropha janipha, sweet cassada ; 2. Arun esculentum, eddoes ; 3. Jatropha manihot, bitter cassada, from whose starch tapioca is prepared ; 4. Mula paradigaça, plantanes, not ripe ; 5. Dioscorea bulbifera, Guinea yam ; 6. Convolvulus batatas, West-Indian potatoe ; 7. Solanum tuberosum, Irish potatoe, used as a standard ; 8. Diofcorca triphylla, couch-couch or yampee ; 9. Maranta arundinacea, arrow-root.

XXVII. - A fatal Instance of the poisonous Effects of the Enanthe Crocata Linn. or Hemlock Dropwort. By Robert Graves, M. D. Physician at Dorchester.'

This fatal accident arose from swallowing the juice of ænanthe crocata, instead of the water parsnip.

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Selections from the most celebrated Foreign Literary Journals and other Periodical Publications. 2 Vols.

8vo. 18s. Boards. Debrett. 1798.

THESE volumes, we understand from the advertisement, were publithed in consequence of the favourable reception given to the Varieties of Literature *. The papers which they contain relate to various subjects, and are confequently of various importance. In a work of this nature, inethodical arrangement cannot be expected; but the various essays of M. Meiner, upon the superstitions and customs of savages, ought, we think, to have been given in continued order, inftead of being carelessly scattered through the two voluines. The favourite opinion of this writer is, that there exists an original difference in the races of mankind. The people of Celtic origin are the most elevated ; and with thefc he claffes the northern tribes of Gothic descent. These nations alone, he says, have invented and perfected arts and sciences, and,

* Sec Vol. XVII. New Art. p. 274.

when they were sunk, revived them. The Sclavonian na. tions are the next in rank; the orientals are third in this scale of mental excellence; and the last and most degraded are the nations and tribes of Mongolian pedigree. Proportioned to their mental inferiority is their physical insensibility,

. Such is the theory of M. Meiner ; and, like most theorists, he has wrested facts to suit his hypothesis. The fortitude with which the savage endures the most acute yet tedious torments, is attributed to his coarse organisation : the women are said to bring forth as easily as the females of tigers and lions; and the more they are capable of sustaining fatigue, hunger, pain, and other plıyfical inconveniences, the more they resemble beasts. 'In these representations there may be some truth, but there is assuredly much of the spirit of a framer of systems. Habits of savage life will produce this patience : the speculator may find it anong his favoured Goths and Celts; and the death-fong of an American favage might have reminded him of Regner Lothbrog. The following anatomical remarks, however, if indeed they are founded upon cxperiments sufficiently numerous, are of some importance to the author's system.

The heads of real negroes differ from the heads of the naturally formed Europeans as much in their size as in their shape. The former are considerably larger, as all the parts which are deftined to animal functions, the cheek-bones, the jaws, the muscles for biting and the teeth, are incomparably stronger in negroes than in Europeans. Whereas the skull, and particularly the occiput, the sinciput, the brain-pan, and the brain are in negroés many degrees Jess, as the passage from the back of the head to the neck is much Aatter than in men of our quarter of the globe. The heads of the pegroes are on an average longer and more pointed, and the brain wore crummy and firm : which properties have been frequently observed in filly and frantic people in Europe. Ears, lips, tongue and chops, with the apertures of the eye-holes, the nose-holes and the auditory passage, are larger in negroes than in Europeans; the fat nose, on the contrary, and the apertures of the deep-funk eyes or eyelids are in the same proportion lefs. In confequence of the peculiarities of the negro forin, juft mentioned, the high checkbones, the prominent chin, and the long face, hollowed out as it 'were, the negroes, according to the remark of all voyagers, have an ape-like appearance. The tkin of the negro is not only blacker, but is considerably thicker than with other men; and no less characteristic than the gloffy and thick diin, are the fine, dry, and black woolly hair and the disgusting effluvia of the negroes, which is preferved in their descendants of clearer colour, as long, arrd often longer than the shades of the negroe-hue. Attentive anato

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