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knighthood of one of the lord's fons, and the marriage of one of his daughters. They were to find him twelve men for his military array. They were to hold watch and ward. They could not enter the forest with bow and arrow, They were restrained from cutting off their dogs feet within the borough, as being a necessary and customary defence : on the borders, the dogs appointed to be kept for defence were called fough dogs: this restriction points out, that, within the limits of forests, the inhabitants keeping dogs for defence were to lop off one foot or more, to prevent their chacing the game; which did not spoil them for the defence of a dwelling. A fingular privilege appears in the case of a burgess committing fornication with the daughter of a rustic, one who was not a burgers, that he should not be liable to the fine imposed in other cases for that offence, unless he had seduced by promise of marriage. The fine for feducing a woman belonging to the borough was 3s. to the lord. By the rule for inspecting the dyers, weavers, and fullers, it seems those were the only trades at that time within te borough under the character of craftimen. The burgesses who had.ploughs were to till the lord's demesne one day in the year, and every burgess to find a reaper : their labour was from morning, ad nonam; which was three o'clock, as from fix to tiiree, Vol. ij. P. 25.
The history and defcription of Whitehaven occupy many pages. In the year 1633, this place consisted only of nine or ten cottages. Sixty years afterwards, there were 450 families in it, amounting to 2272 persons. ' In 1985, the number of inhabitants exceeded 16,000. The town owes its conmercial importance to the exertions of the fucceffive heads of the Lowther family, from fir John, who lived in the reign of Charics (I. to the earl of Lonsdale, now the chief proprictor of land in this neighbourhood. The state of ship-building at this port is noticed with fome degree of partiality.
“There are six ship-builders yards at Whitehaven; and it is not unusual to see ten, or twelve, new vessels upon the stocks. The reputation of the master-builders at this port is well known. If proof were wanting, one might refer, to Liverpool, where such numbers of the Whitehaven-built veffels are constantly upon freight, and especially selected for the transporting of dry cargoes. We have nothing to do with the comparative merits of any place, or any set of artificers; but we feel much fatisfa&tion in paying a small tribute of respect to the acknowledged merits of this ufe. ful, this important class of mechanics, proiecuting their business at Whitehaven," with a zeal for improvement, and an industry seldom separated from real genius; and, we may add, with an ap. probation which cannot fail of promoting their interest and cha.. racter, as the specimens of their art become more widely dissemi. Bated.
It may be proper to observe, that the first characteristic of the Whitehaven thip-building is strength :-in this particular, the vessels are said to excel all others. The next is burthen, with a small draft (draught) of water ; as the port is dry at low-water. -- Perhaps, only within these twenty years, the less important circumstance of shape was considered :--we prefume, that speed is a desideratum in all specimens of naval architecture.--The art of happily combining all these properties, so as to produce a machine the most useful in navigation, is undoubtedly the ne plus ultra of the science ;-and, perhaps, the building-vards of Whitehaven (in proportion) furnish more instances of such combination than can ellewhere be met with.' Vol. ii. P. 83.
For the description of the lake and vale of Keswick, ample contributions are brought from various works. Little judgment, however, is evinced in the disposition of these borrow ed stores.
In the account of the parish of Kirk-Andrew, due praise is bestowed on the late Dr. Robert Graham of Netherby, whose conduct as a landlord did honour to his character. The consequences of his zealous endeavours are thus mentioned:
• Instead of an half cultivated waste, he lived to see his pro. perty assume the appearance of a rich and fertile domain, provided with roads and adorned with plantations,
• Instead of the miserable hovels and poor village that once dif. figured his prospect, he faw comfortable dwelling houses, and a neat market-town. The rent-roll of the estate was more than quadrupled, and yet the wealth of the tenants was increased in a still higher proportion.
• The number of inhabitants was augmented by above a third, but their value as citizens was augmented in a ratio which is incalculable; they were changed from being idle to be industrious; from wretched cottagers, grovelling in dirt and poverty, into contented husbandmen and opulent farmers :-still more, they were changed from loose and ignorant barbarians, ever quarrelsome and disorderly, into a peasantry, peaceable and regular; a peasantry, perhaps, more intelligent and better educated than most others in the island.
• Such have been the effe fts of doctor Graham's exertions. If an enlightened historian thought it a subject of which the greatest of the Roman emperors might justly boast, that he “ found his capital built of brick, and left it constructed of marble,” what praise is due to an individual, in a private ftation, who has been able to meliorate the appearance of a country, and to improve the morals of its inhabitants?' Vol. ii. P. 556.
The capital of the county is justly the object of particular attention. Like a zealous antiquary, Mr. Hutchinson says,
« 'It is reasonable to apprehend, that in so fine a situation, on the confluence of three rivers, and the grand estuarie of the Frith, this place was of some strength and distinction before the coming of the Romans.' Vol. ii. P. 587.
There might have been a town upon this spot before the Roman invasion; but it is more probable that it was a mere collection of huts than that it was a place of any strength or importance. Of its state during the fway of the Romahs, we have no certain account. It was, however, a place of some consequence in the reign of Egfrid the Northumbrian ; and, when the town had been destroyed by the Danes, it was rebuilt by William Rufus, whose fucceffor made it an episcopal fee.
Of the state of Carlisle, about the beginning of the present century, the reader may judge from the following particulars. At that time, the city
• Exhibited no marks of modern convenience and elegance. The buildings, mostly of wood, clay, and laths, bespoke the poverty, and bad taste of the inhabitants. The cabels fronted the streets, the doors were generally in the centre, and many of the houses had porches which projected two or three yards into the ftreet, doubiless for waritnefs. The front door was arched, or Gothic, formed to correspond with the gabel; and the diminutive windows, which gave light to the inner apartments, were very
improperly placed, but of the same order. The doors were of oak, very strong and clumsy, put together with large wood pins, a part of whieh projected an inch or two from the door.
These pins were many in number, and sometimes placed in figures romanticly irregular. Houses were not then painted either within or without; this being only a modern improvement. The streets, though spacious, were paved with large stones, and the centre part or causeway, rofe to a considerable height. The fronts from the houses were paved in the fame manner, the consequence of which was, that the kennels or gutters were deep trenches, and stone bridges were placed in many different parts, for the convenience of palling from one side of the street to the other. These gutters were the reservoirs of all kinds of filth, which when a sudden heavy rain happened, by stopping the conduit of the bridges, inundated the streets so, as to render them im paffable on foot.' Vol. ii. P. 659.
The town remained in this state till the middle of the century. A woollen manufactory was then established on a large scale; and, though it failed, the success of other brunch
es of manufacture made full compensation. Various iinprovements now began to take place. A more elegant style of building was adopted ; and many inconveniences and nuifances disappeared from the city. At the fame time, the frugal manners of the inhabitants gave way to the encroachinents of luxury.
The population of Carlisle, in 1763, amounted to 4158 persons, the occupants of the suburbs being included.' In 1780, 6299 were enumerated; and, in 1787, 1000 more were reckoned.
Accounts are given of the persons who have occupied this fee, to the number of fifty-three. Archdcacon Palcy furnished the sketch of bishop Law, of whom he thus speaks:
- The life of Dr.- Law was a life of incessant reading and thought, almost entirely directed to metaphyfical and religious inquiries; but the tenet by which his name and writings are principally distinguished, is “ that Jesus Christ, at his second coming, will, by an act of his power, restore to life and consciousness the dead of the human species, who, by their own nature, and without this interposition, would remain in the state of infenfibility, to which the death brought upon mankind by the sin of Adam had reduced them." He interpreted literally that saying of St. Paul, I Cor. xv. 21. “ As by man came death, by man came also the resurrectiori of the dead.". This opinion had no other effect upon his own mind than to increase his reverence for Christianity, and for its divine founder. He retained it, as he did his other fpeculative opinions, without laying, as many are wont to do, an extravagant stress upon their importance, and without pretending to more certainty than the subject allowed of. No man formed his own conclusions with more freedom, or treated those of others with greater candour and equity. He never quarrelled with any person for differing from him, or considered that difference as a sufficient reason for questioning any man's fincerity, or judging meanly of his understanding. He was zealously attached to religious liberty, because he thought that it leads to truth; yet from his heart he
But he did not perceive any repugnancy in these two things. There was nothing in his elevation to his bishoprick which he spoke of with more pleasure, than its being a proof that decent freedom of inquiry was not discouraged.
• He was a man of great softness of manner's, and of the mildest and most tranquil disposition. His voice was never raised above its ordinary pitch. His countenance seemed never to have been ruffled; it preserved the same kind and composed afpect, truly indicating the calmness and benignity of his temper. He had an utter dislike of large and mixed companies. Next to his books his chief satisfaction was in the serious conversation of a literary com
panion, or in the company of a few friends. In this fort of fociety he would open his mind with great unreservedness, and with a peculiar turn and sprightliness of expression. His person was low, but well formed; his complexion fair and delicate. Except occasional interruptions by the gout, he had for the greatest part of his life enjoyed good health ; and when not confined by that distemper, was full of motion and a&tivity. About nine years before his death, he was greatly enfeebled by a severe attack of the gout in his stomach; and a short time after that, lost the use of one of his legs. Notwithstanding his fondness for exercise, he resigned himself to this change, not only without complaint, but without any fenable diminution of his chearfulness and good humour. His fault (for we are not writing a panegyric) was the general fault of retired and studious characters, too great a degree of inaction and facility in his public station. The modesty, or rather bashfulness of his nature, together with an extreme unwillingness to give pain, rendered him sometimes less firm and efficient in the administration of authority than was requisite. But it is the condition of human mortality. There is an opposition between some virtuies which seldom permits them to subsist together in perfection.' Vol. ii. P. 637.
Lists of the animals, plants, and minerals of Cumberland, fcientifically arranged, are added to the work; and biographical memoranda are inserted in various parts of it. Some account of a remarkable native of the county we will transcribe from one of these sketches.
• At Little Broughton, in 1714, was born Abraham Fletcher; a man of fome celebrity, though but a tobacco-pipe-maker, and the son of a person of the same occupation. The father had a small paternal estate; on which, with his trade, he was barely enabled to live, and bring up his family, without their becoming burthenfome to their parish. It is not certain, that his son Abraham ever went to any school.
We mention it on the authority only of a common report, that, very early in life, before he was able to do any work, his parents once spared him for three weeks, to attend a school in the village, where youth were tauglit at the rate of a shilling for the quarter. If this report be well-founded, all the education 'be ever had that was paid for, cost three-pence. By some means or other however he learned to read : and, before he had arrived at manhood, he had also learned to write. With these humble attain. ments to set out with, it does him infinite honour, that, at length by dint of industry alone, Abraham Fletcher became a man of science, and a man of learning. He was of a thinking, inquisitive mind ; and, having taught himself arithmetic, in preference to any other science, only because he met with a book of arithmetic and no other, for the same reason he applied himself to mathematical investigations. Whatever he attempted, he attempted with all his