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glazed. Caravans frequently arrive at Houssa and Tombuctoo, over the desert, froin the Mediterranean, by way of Fezzan; and from one of these Mr. Park heard of the capture of the Mediterranean convoy, by the French, in 1795. This was the direction which we deemed the most favourable for exploring the inland parts of North Africa.
In his return, Mr. Park’s course was to the south-west. At Bammakoo, the western boundary of the dominions of the king of Bambarra, the Niger ceases to be navigable. It rises in a mountainous country, at a small village called Sankari. This spot our traveller attempted to reach; but, having already contended with the tropical rains, in all their violence, he was not long able to support the excessive fatigues of this irregular country. As he was sometimes plunged up to the neck in rivers and swamps, and sometimes loft in woods and deserts, without clothing, shelter, or food, his strength was exhausted. He was confined by illness at Wonda ; and, at Kamalia, he lay for more than a month, harassed with a violent fever: he remained there five months longer, waiting for a caravan; for he had ftill five hundred miles to go, before he could reach the nearest friendly country in Gambia. "By means of this caravan, he at last arrived in fafety at the mouth of the Gambia.
In this journey, he often experienced the hospitable disinterested kindness of the Dooty, whose office nearly answers to that of our mayors, and whose business it is to provide for the neceffitous stranger. With the liberal humanity and benevolence which characterise a superior dispensation, it is confidered as a crime « to suffer the king's stranger to depart hungry.' Sometimes the Dooty would receive a few kowries; fometimes this officer, and others, accepted a charm; for the negroes are highly superstitious, and think that a charm will defend them from dangers in flood and field, from the venomous ferpent, the furious tiger, or still more dangerous Moor. They acknowledge the superiority of the Europeans by preferring their charms ; and Mr. Park, like a good Christian, gave them the best in his power, the Lord's prayer, written on a thin board. The hospitality of his host and his family, at Kanialia, can never be sufficiently commended. Their afliduity, their attentions, and their folicitude, were unbounded; and their whole reward was to be the value of one llave. They mult have been agreeably surprised to find it doubled,
The heat, as may be supposed, is, in the neighbourhood of the desert, intense; but, on the south, it is tempered by refreshing breezes ; and, in the morning and evening, the weather is serene and pleasant. During the rainy season, the wind blows from the south-west, the region of the mountains. The mon.
foon usually changes after the latter end of June; and the wind blows from the south weit, until the insiddle or end of October. The commencement of this monsoon is the spring or feed time, and its termination is that of harvest.
Among the productions, we fhall only mention the lotus. It is a thorny fhrub, and abounded through the whole of Mr. Park's journey, though it prefers a sandy foil. It bears a small yellow farinaceous berry, of the size of an olive, which, when dried and pounded, is made into cakes, resembling the sweetest gingerbread. The negroes also, from some of their corn, prepare excellent beer. -- Mr. Park's particular adventures and misfortunes we inust follow in his own work.
The Hifiory of the County of Cumberland, and some Places
adjacent, from the earliest Accounts to the present Time : comprehending tile local History of t!e County; its Antiquities, the Origin, Genealogy, and present State of the principal Families, with biographical Notes; ils Mines, Minerals, and Plants, with other Curiosities, either of Nature or of Art. Particular Attention is paid 10, and a just Account given of, every Improvement in Agriculture, Manufailures, &c. By William Hutchinson, F. 4. S. Author of the History of Durham, &c. 2 Vols. 4to. 21. 25. Boards. Law and Son.
PROVINCIAL histories have been so multiplied in our times, that we may expect, at no very distant period, to be gratified with a copious history of every county in the kingdomn. Works of this kind are generally encouraged by the public; and indeed, when they are well executed, they are highly amusing and interesting:
The compiler of the preient work has exerted great diligence in the prosecution of his talk; but, though his former labours in the fame department may be considered as presumptions of his being in some measure qualified for his more recent undertaking, his skill and ability are less conspicuous than his industry.
In the introduction, he investigates the ancient history of thie Britons in general. It was not neceffary for him to dwell upon that subject, as most of his fubfcribers may be supposed to have in their poffeffion, or to have read, a history of England. He at length speaks of the ancient and present state of Cumberland. On the latter of these topics, he observes,
6 The local wealth of this county consists principally in its mines, of which the chief are of coal: copper, lead, black-lead, and flates, are also won here, and Camden fays veins of gold and filver were discovered in the reign of queen Elizabeth ; but since
that time they have not been fearched for. The falmon trade, hath, of late years, become considerable, and much is sent fresh to the London market ; but little or none pickled or cured.' A 'considerable number of black cattle and flieep are bred within this district, but not of fo large a fize as those in Northumberland : large quantities of bacon and butter have, of late years, been fent to the London market; and within these thirty years large calico printiields and check manufactories have been established in Carlifle and its vicinity ; such articles of trade as we have enumerated have arose to a degree of figaificance within a century ; in short, one may safely date the progress of that flourishing state in which this county now appears, to be of no greater antiquity than from the union. Population increases rapidly, cultivation is advancing on every hand: and the most flattering appearances, that this county will become of the greatest consequence to the state, and of import to the mercantile world, within the course of another century, may be deduced from the growing manufactories, the increase of tillage land, the sheep-walks and wool, the improved breed of cattle, the advance in shipping and number of mariners, and the flourishing state of the mines.' Vol. i. · 33:
Entering upon the body of the work, we are presented with an account of the baronial district of Gilleland. The priory of Lanercoft is then described; and a wretched plate, representing that ruin, is annexed. Horsley is too copiously quoted for a description of the antiqnities found near Burdoiwald. In the parish of Bewcastle is a curious monument, which has furnished grounds of dispute. It is an obelisk, with figures and inscriptions supposed to be Danish.
At Castle-Steads, various antiquities have been found, in clearing the area of the Roman station near that spot. They are, however, of little importance.
To the account of Naworth castle are annexed fome anecdotes of lord William Howard, formerly a proprietor of it.
• He was' (says Mr. Hutchinson) the terror of the moss troopers; and though he ruled the country with severe, or rather mie litary modes, yet he wrought many happy effects in the civilization of a race of inhabitants, as barbarous and uncultivated as ever poffeffed a settlement in this island. He kept here copilantly 140
arms, as his guard. The approach to his apartments was secured by plated doors, several in fuccefiion, faftened by immense locks and bolts of iron, defending a narrow winding ftaircase, where only one person could pass at a time.' Vol. i.
P. 136. i
" It is said,' [that] - lord William was very studious, and wrote much : that once when he was thus employed, a servant came to tell him a prisoner was just brought in, and desired to know what
should be done with him ? Lord William, vexed at being disturbed, answered peevilhly, hang him! When he had finished his Study, he called and ordered the man to be brought before him for examination, but found that his order had been instantly obeyed.' Vol. i. P. 137.
In the parith of Aldston are • the richest lead mines in the north of England. A great number of the inhabitants, therefore, are miners; and (says Mr. Housman, whose notes are subjoined throughout these volumes),
" By long continuance in the works, they fhew a fimplicity of manners, rarely found among other labouring people : they are ftrong of liinb, and when in liquor, a vice too frequent, they are quarrelsome, resolute, and ferocious : but when from home, are remarkably tractable, and steadfastly attached to their countrymen and fellow.labourers. Mining renders the people, later in manhood, unhealthy, and the strongest seldom exceed 60 years of age.' Vol. i. P. 215.
These mines are said to produce 16,000 pounds per annum, after the payment of all expenses. They chiefly belong to the hospital of Greenwich,
The remarkable stones called " Long Meg and her Daughters,' have given occafion for a long article ; but the quotations are unnecessarily multiplied. The conclufion is, that this afsemblage of stones formed a Druidical court of justice, as well as a temple of worship. The remarks which are here introduced, respecting the state of civilisation in the days of the Druids, are absurd. The compiler denies that those times were barbarous, and terms all perfons • servile and abject,' who speak of them as such upon the mere authority of Ro. man writers. None but a prejudiced antiquary would panegyrise the civilisation of the times which preceded the Roman invasion of this island.
The description of Penrith is accompanied with remarks on the ancient monument in the church-yard. It seems to be the tomb of a warrior or hero of rude times.
Though the parish of Graystock, or Greystoke, contains a feat of the duke of Norfolk, we do not see the necessity of inserting so long a detail respecting the family of the Howards as Mr. Hutchinson has given. A sketch would have been fufficient.
The beauties of Ulleswater and the neighbouring parts of Cumberland are described chiefly in quotations. Of the manners and customs of the inhabitants of this neighbourhood, a Thort account is added, which we will quote.
All the people of the dale attend at a funeral, which commonly
produces a great deal of feasting. At those times, and their clippings (or sheep-fhearings) ale circulates freely, and many an historical song and tale goes round. Public worship is attended with great regularity, though even at the distance of four or five miles; and the inhabitants, in general, are well acquainted with the fcriptures.
• The introduction of newspapers into these sequestered vales, we are persuaded, has not tended to increase the happiness of the peos ple; for, in general, they are debased by party influence, and rens dered abominable by pernicious fictions, so as to carry with them dangerous principles. And, much have those travellers to antwer for, whose casual intercourse with this innocent and simple people, tends to corrupt them; disseminating among them ideas of extravagance and diffipation; giving them a taste for visionary pleasures, and false gratifications, of which they had no ideas; infpiring them with discontent at home, and tainting their rough, industrious manners, with a love of idleness, and a thirst after vicious pursuits.' Vol.i. P. 446.
The inhabitants seldom drink spirits to excess; they are hospi. table to strangers, affectionate to their parents, and friendiy to each other; not at all given to contention, except when their sheep heaf is broken in upon, or their flocks molested.—There is a custom in the villages of Patterdale, Matterdale, and Legberthwaite, so unlike those perpetual jarrings and contentions, which so often disgrace and destroy the peace of villages, that we cannot forbear noting it. When sheep ftray, no search is made after any particular wanderer, but every person takes care of the sheep that he finds ftrayed. On St. Martin's day, the whole neighbourhood meets, to claim and to restore all the estrays; every person bringing all that he has, which do not belong to him. This general exchange has always been easily and happily settled, without ever having yet produced a fingle quarrel or law-suit. No other expence is ever thought of, but the general one of a hearty feaft.' Vol. i. P. 447.
We are afterwards led into various parishes of which the accounts are uninteresting; and the compiler even conducts us into Lancashire, that he may amuse us with a survey of the abbey and district of Furness.
From an ancient record relative to the town of Egremont, the following particulars are extracted by Mr. Hutchinson :
The people of Egremont were obliged to find armed men for the defence of the fortress, forty days at their own charge. The lord was entitled to forty days credit for goods, and no more ; and his burgesles might refuse to supply him, till the debt which had exceeded that date was paid. They were bound to aids for the redemption of the lord and his heir from captivity, for the