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çats, mice, squirrels, &c. but elevate their ribs in refpiration as well as depress the diaphragm for the purpose of enlarging the cavity of the chest. Hence an inflammation of the diaphragm is sudden death to those animals, as horses and dogs, which can only breathe by depressing the diaphragm ; and is I suppose the cause of the sudden death of horses that are over-worked; whereas, in the human animal, when the diaphragm is ioflamed, so as to render its motions impossible from the pain they occasion, respiration can be carried on, though in a less perfect manner, by the intercostal muscles in. the elevation of the ribs. In pleurify the ribs are kept motionless, and the respiration is performed by the diaphragm, as may be readily seen on inspecting the naked chest, and which is generally, a bad symptom; in the diaphragmitis the ribs are alternately elevated, and depressed, but the lower part of the belly is not seen to move.
• M. M. As in pleurify and peripneumony. When the patient becomes delirious, and smiles disagreeably by intervals, and is become so weak, that evacuations by the lancet could be used no further, and I have almost despaired of my patient, I have found in two or three instances, that about five or fix drops of tinct. thebaic. given an hour before the evening exacerbation, has had the happiest effect, and cured the patient in this case, as well as in common peripneumony; it must be repeated two or three evenings, as the exacerbation of the fever, and difficult respiration and delirium generally increase towards night.
"The stimulus of this small quantity of opium on a patient previously so much debilitated, acts by increasing the exertion of the absorbent vessels, in the same manner as a solution of opium, or any other stimulant, put on an inflamed eye after the vessels are previously emptied by evacuations, ftimulates the absorbent system, so as to cause the remaining new vessels to be immediately reabsorbed. Which same ftimulants would have increased the inflammation, if they had been applied before the evacuations. When the fanguiferous system is full of blood, the absorbents cannot act so powerfully, as the progress of their contents is opposed by the previous. fulness of the blood vessels; whence stimulants in that case increase the action of the secerning system more than of the absorbent one; but after copious evacuation this refistance to the progrets of the absorbed fluids is removed ; and when stimulants are then applied, they increase the action of the absorbent system more than that of the secerning one. Hence opium given in the commencement of inflammatory diseases destroys the patient; and cures them, if given in very small dofes at the end of inflammatory diseases. Vol. ii. P. 199.
The remarks on the other inflammations are correct ; but, on the whole, not sufficiently pointed and distinct to aflist the young practitioner, and too trilling for the moro experienced.
The third genus, compreliending diseases of sensation with
the produ&tion of new vefsels, by external membranes or glands, with fever, includes the exanthemata, and indeed all exterior inflammations, with those of the fauces, throat, and intestincs, as exposed to air. All these diseases are contagious, or rather produce contagious matter ; but our author's opinions on these subjects are confused. As the majority of complaints are, he thinks, attended with inirritative fever, this disease stands at their head. He is not, however, accurate in his arrangement; for, in the greater number, many of the varieties are attended with inflammatory fever; and it would have been more correct, had he said that a few of the varieties of many species, and some species generally, are accompanied with inirritative fever.
The observations on typhus are judicious ; and we would particularly recommend, to the young eager practitioner, those which relate to the use of Peruvian bark and wine. The distinction of erysipelas into irritative, inirritative, and fenfitive, is too minute to be always followed at the bed-fide, though well-founded. In the recommendation of early and active bleeding in the first kind, Dr. Darwin's advice is too general and strong, at least for crowded cities. We have jeen the most violent inflammatory erysipelas degenerate, in a day or two, into a low state, attended with mortification, nor seemingly, from excess of inflammation, but want of activity, in the constitution. In this metropolis, bark is often given carly, in almost every kind, and is often of essential importance ; but it is injurious iu the country.
The disease called cynanche, our author calls tonsillitis, with great impropriety, as the inflammation and ulcers are not confined to the tontils, but occur in the velum pendulum, in the fauces, and the back part of the throat. To make varieties from parts affected, io near to each other, while the treatment is the fame, is highly improper. Parotitis, as an external disease, could only have been arranged with propriety in this place, if the genus of cynanche had been establithed in its critical accuracy, according to the original meaning of the word. The difcase, however, is well described, and the mild delirium, the confequence of the swellings, properly noticed.
Catarrh is described with fome degree of accuracy; but inore might have been said of the contagious catarrh: the remarks are more referible to the disease in dogs and horses, than in the human subject. The resemblance of the pertuffis to gonorrhea is hypothetical and trifling: hydrophobia would comme nearer to the latter, and dysentery to the former ; but either resemblance would be of little importance. The observations on small-pox, measles, chicken-pox, aphtha, scarlet fever, &c. deserve our commendation. The superficial peria
preumonia, gastritis, and enteritis, we do not easily understand. from the description before us, unless they refer, as is hinted in the last fpecies, to erysipelas ; but the indications in these must be taken from the symptoms, not from the cause, which is always hypothetical, generally imaginary.
The fourth genus relates to the same changes in internal membranes or glands, without fever; but, in this part, the doctor offers nothing new or interetting.
The fifth genus contains diseases, with the production of new vessels by external membranes or glands, without fever.. They are chiefly the chronic eruptions, including gonorrhea and syphilis; but they offer no particular subject of remark.
The fixth genus comprehends the fymptomatic sensitive fevers, consequent on the production of new vessels or fluids ; or, as a plain practitioner would say, consequent on fuppuration. Some remarks on phthisis we shall transcribe : they are highly ingenious; but, perhaps, they will not bear the test of medical or chemical criticisin.
As the patients liable to consumption are of the inirritable temperament, as appears by the large pupils of their eyes; there is reason to believe, that the hæmoptoe is inimediately occasioned by the deficient absorption of the blood at the extremities of the bron. chial vein ; and that one difficulty of healing the ulcers is occa. fioned by the deficient abforption of the fluids effused into them.
• The difficulty of healing pulmonary ulcers may be owing, as its remote cause, to the incessant motion of all the parts of the lungs ; whence no fcab, or indurated mucus, can be formed fo as to adhere on them. Whence these naked ulcers are perpetually exposed to the action of the air on their surfaces, converting their mild purulent matter into a contagious ichor ; which not only prevents them from healing, but by its action on their circumferences, like the matter of itch or tinea, contributes to spread them wider.
• This acidifying principle is found in all the metallic calces, as in lapis calaminaris, which is a calciform ore of zinc ; and in ceruffa, which a calx of lead ; two materials which are powerful in healing excoriations, and ulcers, in a short time by their external application. How then does it happen, that the oxygen in the atmosphere should prevent pulmonary ulcers from healing, and even induce them to spread wider; and yet in its combination with metals, it should facilitate their healing? The healing of ulcers consists in promoting the absorption of the fluids effufed into them. Oxygen in combination with metals, when applied in certain quantity, produces this effect by its stimulus; and the metallic oxydes not being decomposed by their contact with animal matter, no new acid, or contagious material, is produced. So that the combined oxygen, when applied 1Q an ulcer, fimply I suppose promotes absorption in it, like the
application of other materials of the articles forbentia or incftantia, if applied externally; as opium, bark, alum. But in the pulmonary ulcers, which cannot protect themfelves from the air by forme ing a scab, the uncombined oxygen of the atmosphere unites with the purulent matter, converting it into a contagious ichor; which by infection, not by erosion, enlarges the ulcers, as in the itch or tinea ; which might hence, according to Dr. Beddoes's ingenious theory of consumption, be induced to heal, if exposed to an atmosphere deprived of a part of its oxygen. This I hope future experiments will confirm, and that the pneumatic medicine will alleviate the evils of mankind in many other, as well as in this most fatal malady.' Vol. ij. P. 287.
The other observations on phthisis relate chiefly to the re-fpiration of different airs, or of different substances in vapour or powder. On these we shall not enlarge, as they all proceed on the idea that phthisis is produced by ulcer, and probably benefited by what would heal ulcers, particularly of the Icrophulous kind, out of the body. But there is no doctrine mor firmly supported, than its being founded in a particular difease of the whole fyftem, a peculiar irritability and inflammatory ftate of the arterial system. The other species, which might have been rendered much more numerous, are not of importance. Puerperal fever is improperly arranged among these ; for the fever is not sensitive, and none of its symptoms arisc from fuppuration: the formation of purulent matter is the effect only of the complaint.
The last genus of this order is, with increased action of the organs of sense, including delirium, wanderings of the mind, &c.
The order of decreased fenfation,' is divided into those cases where the whole system is, or where particular organs are, affected. The species are very trifling diseases, and the obfervations are of little importance.
In the order of retrograde sensitive motions, the writer refers only to those of the excretory ducts ; and we meet 1106 with a single remark of sufficient novelty or utility to detain us,
(To be continued.)
ENEA NITEPOENTA. Or, the Diversions of Purley. By
John Horne Tooke, A. M. late of St. John's College, Came bxidge. Second Edition. Part I. 410. 21. 25. Boardse Johnson. 1798.
THE name of Mr. Horne Tooke muft be familiar not only to philological peaders, but to all wbo have attended to
the political history of this country within the last thirty years. In the character of a politician, the very zealous exertion of his acute, if not comprehensive talents, has been marked by a fatality of miscarriage, extremely, mortifying to his conceptions of the importance of the objects which he had in view. As a philosophical grammarian, however, the author of the Diversions of Purley has won, as it were by force, the fame which he could not secure in contests of another kind; and, as he discovers a temper not flow to enjoy a triumph, he must feel it a gratifying revenge, that those who detest his politics are constrained to adopt his etymological system.
To the originality and the merit of the work before us, we on its first appearance bore testimony *; and we now congraa tulate the literary world on the republication of these grammatical speculations, in a form suitable to the dignity of the subjeet; the more particularly, as we deem the present volume a pledge for the communication of the writer's thoughts on other important parts of grammar, which yet remain to be elucidated. Mr. Tooke has apparently withdrawn from the bufy and vexatious scenes of political lite ; and it is devoutly to be wished, that no personal infirmities may interrupt his opportunities of enlarging the liinits of the philological sci
Additional illustrations of Mr. Tooke's etymologies are given in this edition of the Emea Il TEPOEVTC ; and they are, in general, apposite and pointed; but we are forry to observe, that, in many instances, political spleen deforms the pages which fhould have been exclusively devoted to the investigation of an important science. It is said of some celebrated painterse that they made it a practice to revenge themselves on those who had offended them, by representing in their pieces the features of the obnoxious persons under evil characters. Mr. Tooke has availed himself of his vehicle, and, with marked acerbity of construction, has adopted the sentiment of the poet, through the medium of profe.
+ Who-e'er offends, at some unlucky time,
Slides into verse, and hitches into rhime.' If he has suffered by the negle&t or the persecution of the great, he has taken ample revenge by making them, in this new philological system, hewers of wood and drawers of water."
Both in the text and in the notes of this ingenious work, many public characters are rendered subservient to the purposes of grammatical illustration, with a farcastic feverity that
* See our LXHd volume, p. 47 Crit. Rev. VOL. XXIV. Nov. 1798.